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This ppt contains brief introduction, construction, working, advantages & disadvantages of cryocar.

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  1. 1. Technical Seminar presentation on CRYOCARCRYOCAR Presented by Chethan S A 4BB13ME015 Under the Guidance of Mr.Theju H.S. B.E.,, Assistant Professor DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Bahubali College of Engineering Shravanabelgola-573 135 2016-17 1
  2. 2. CONTENTSCONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. History 3. LN2000’s Liquid Nitrogen Propulsion System 4. Parts of a Liquid Nitrogen Propulsion System 5. Power Cycle 6. Advantages 7. Disadvantages 8. LN2000 Vehicle 9. Conclusion 10. References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 3 The importance of cars in the present world is increasing day by day. There are various factors that influence the choice of the car. These include performance, fuel consumption, pollution etc. As the prices for fuels are increasing and the availability is decreasing we have to go for alternative choice. Here an automotive propulsion concept is presented which utilizes liquid nitrogen as the working fluid.
  4. 4. HISTORYHISTORY Researchers at the University of Washington are developing a new zero-emission automobile propulsion concept. That uses liquid nitrogen as the fuel. The principle of operation is like that of a steam engine(open Rankine cycle). In this liquid nitrogen at –320° F (–196° C) is pressurized and then vaporized in a heat exchanger. This heat exchanger is like the radiator of a car. 4
  5. 5. LN2000’S LIQUID NITROGEN PROPULSIONLN2000’S LIQUID NITROGEN PROPULSION SYSTEMSYSTEM 5 Fig. No. 1: LN2000’s Liquid Nitrogen Propulsion System
  6. 6. PARTS OF A LIQUID NITROGEN PROPULSIONPARTS OF A LIQUID NITROGEN PROPULSION SYSTEMSYSTEM 6 The main parts of a liquid nitrogen propulsion system are: 1. Cryogen Storage Vessel. 2. Pump. 3. Economizer. 4. Expander Engine. 5. Heat exchanger.
  7. 7. 1. CRYOGEN STORAGE VESSEL1. CRYOGEN STORAGE VESSEL 7  It is a storage tank which is used to store and insulate the liquid nitrogen at -196°c. It should have Resistance to deceleration forces, low boil-off rate, minimum size and mass, reasonable cost etc. It is generally made up of titanium or aluminum alloys for the inner and outer vessels. Moderately high vacuum with super insulation type vessel is used prevent boil-off rates.
  8. 8. 2. PUMP2. PUMP 8 The pump is used to pump the liquid nitrogen into the engine. The pump which are used for this purpose have an operating pressure ranging between 500 – 600 Psi (35-42 bars). As the pump, pumps liquid instead of gas, it is noticed that the efficiency is high.
  9. 9. 3. ECONOMIZER3. ECONOMIZER A pre heater, called an economizer, uses leftover heat in the engine's exhaust to preheat the liquid nitrogen. Hence the economizer acts as a heat exchanger between the incoming liquid nitrogen and the exhaust gas which is left out. This is similar to the regenerative process which is done in steam power plant. Hence with the use of the economizer, the efficiency can be improved. 9
  10. 10. 10 LN2 at -320°F(-196°C) is pressurized and then vaporized in a heat exchanger by ambient temperature of atmosphere. The heat exchanger used is similar to radiator of car but instead of using air to cool water, it uses air to heat and boil LN2. Liquid LN2 passing through the primary heat exchanger quickly reaches its boiling point. Heat exchanger is made up of aluminum tubes with outside diameter of 10mm and wall thickness of 1mm. 4. HEAT EXCHANGER4. HEAT EXCHANGER
  11. 11. 11 The maximum work output of the LN2 engine results from an isothermal expansion stroke. Thus, engines having expansion chambers with high surface- to-volume ratios are favored for this application. Rotary expanders such as the Wankel may also be well suited.  A secondary fluid could be circulated through the engine block to help keep the cylinder walls as warm as possible. 5. EXPANDER5. EXPANDER
  12. 12. POWER CYCLEPOWER CYCLE 12 Fig. No. 2: Temperature Entropy Diagram For Open Rankine Cycle
  13. 13. Cont...Cont... There are many thermodynamic cycles available for utilizing the thermal potential of liquid nitrogen. These range from the Brayton cycle, to using two and even three fluid topping cycles. The easiest to implement, however, and the one chosen for this study, is shown in figure 2.(Rankine cycle). State 1 is the cryogenic liquid in storage at 0.1 MPa and 77 K. 13
  14. 14. Cont...Cont... The liquid is pumped up to system pressure of 4 MPa (supercritical) at state 2 and then enters the economizer. State 3 indicates N2 properties after it is being preheated by the exhaust gas. Further heat exchange with ambient air brings to N2 300k at state 4 Isothermal expansion to 0.11 MPa at state 5 would result in the N2 exhaust having enough enthalpy to heat the LN2 14
  15. 15. ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES  The process to manufacture liquid nitrogen in large quantities can be environmentally very friendly (Liquification).  Produces no or less air pollution and pollutants to atmosphere results in greater environmental benefits.  The operating cost is very less as compared to cost of fossil fuels.  LN2 powered car offer many safety advantages over commercial cars. 15
  16. 16. DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES The N2 passing through the tubes of the heat exchanger obstruct the air flow (Icing problem). The nitrogen car be kept in a poorly ventilated space and, if the Nitrogen leaks off, it could prove fatal. Turning N2 gas into a liquid requires a lot of energy. The principal disadvantage is the inefficient use of primary energy. 16
  17. 17. LN2000 VEHICLELN2000 VEHICLE 17 Fig. No. 3: Inner Components of LN2000 Fig. No. 4: LN2000 Vehicle
  18. 18. CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION The potential for utilizing the available energy of liquid nitrogen for automotive propulsion looks very promising. Time to recharge (refuel), infrastructure investment, and environmental impact are among the issues to consider. The convenience of pumping a fluid into the storage tank is very attractive. Manufacturing LN2 from ambient air inherently removes small quantities of atmospheric pollutants 18
  19. 19. REFERENCESREFERENCES 19 JOURNALS [1] Abilash Vijayrao Nishane, (2016) “Cryogenic Liquid Nitrogen as a Fuel for Zero Emission Vehicles (Z.E.V)”, International Journal and Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research. [2] Rahul Singh Choudhary, (2015) “Hydrogen as a Non-Polluting Fuel”, International Journal of Advance Research, [3] Akil Garg, Kartik Jakhu, Kishan Singh, (2015) “Cryogenic Technology and Rocket Engines” International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. [4] Pankaj Soni, Gopal Sahu, Prakash Kumar Sen, Ritesh Sharma, (2014ss) “A Review on Cryogenic Engine” International Journal for Research in Science and Engineering Technology (IJRASET).
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