REPORTED SPEECHReported Speech is the exact meaningof what someone said but not the exactwords. We do not use quotation marksin Reported Speech.
REPORTED STATEMENTS To report statements we use a reporting verb (say, tell, advise, explain, promise, etc) followed by a that-clause. In spoken English that may be omitted. Pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to the meaning. Direct Speech: He said, “I can’t fix it myself.” Reported Sp.: He said he couldn’t fix it himself.
Direct Sp. Reported Sp. Here There This ThatCertain These Thosewords Now Thenchange Today That dayas Tonight That nightfollows: Tomorrow The next day/ the following day Yesterday The day before Next week The following week Last week The week before Ago Before
When the reporting verb is in the Past the verb tenses change as follow: Direct Speech Reported SpeechPresent Simple (he speaks) Past Simple (he spoke)Present Contin. (he is Past Contin. (he wasspeaking) speaking)Past Simple (he spoke) Past Perfect (he had spoken)Present Perfect (he has Past Perfect (he had spoken)spoken)Past Perfect (he had spoken) Past Perfect (he had spoken)Future (shall/will) Conditional (should/would)Imperative (speak) To-infinitive (to speak)
Direct Speech Reported Speech Am Was Is Was Has Had Have Had There is There was There are There were Doesn’t Didn’t Don’t Didn’t Was Had been Were Had been Had Had had Spoke Had spoken Didn’t speak Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken Hadn’t spoken “Go/Don’t go!” He told me to go/ not to go.
Modal verbs Direct Speech Reported SpeechCan CouldMay MightMight MightCould CouldWould WouldShould ShouldOught to Ought toDaren’t Daren’tMust Must/ Had toNeedn’t Needn’t/ didn’t have to
There are no changes in verb tenses when the reporting verb is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect or when the sentences expresses something which is always true. D. S.: She’ll say, “I can do it”. “The earth is round”, said the teacher. R.S.: She’ll say (that) she can do it. The teacher said (that) the earth is round.
The Past Continuous does not usually change. D. S.: “I was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA”, he said. R. S.: He said he was travelling to Brighton while she was flying to the USA.
REPORTED QUESTIONS In Reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark is omitted. To report a wh-question, we use ask by the question word (who, what,etc). When there is no question word in direct questions, if or whether is used in Reported questions. Pronouns, possessive adjectives, tenses, time expressions, etc. change as in statements. D. S.: He asked, “What time is it?” He asked me, “Do you know her?” R. S.: He asked what time it was. He asked me if/whether I knew her.
Reported Commands/ Requests/ Suggestions To report commands, requests, suggestions, etc we use a reporting verb (order, ask, tell, advise, offer, warn, beg, suggest, etc) followed by to-infinitive or not to- infinitive. D.S.: He said to me, “Stop talking!” He said to me, “Don’t touch it!” R.S.: He told me to stop talking. He told me not to touch it.