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Class #7: Monday,
September 13, 2010
Hurricanes
Chapter 15
1Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Review for test #1
• Chapter 2, pp. 30-49
• Chapter 3, pp. 58-64; 73-75
• Chapter 7, p. 174
• Chapter 9, pp. 224-5; 232-4,...
Fig. 15-CO, p. 410
3Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Tropical Weather
• Noon sun is always high, seasonal
temperature changes small
• Daily heating and humidity = cumulus clou...
5Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Anatomy of a Hurricane
• Intense storm of tropical origin with winds
greater than 64kts; typhoon (N. Western Pacific),
cyc...
Fig. 15-2, p. 413
7Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-3, p. 414
8Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-3, p. 414
9Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-4, p. 415
10Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-5, p. 415
11Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-6, p. 415
12Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
 The Right Environment
Tropical waters with light wind, high humidity
26.5°C sea su...
14Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
15Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
16Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
• The Storm Dies Out
– Cold water, land
• Hurricane Stages of Development
– Tropical D...
18Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 1, p. 419
19Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Hurricane Formation and Dissipation
 Topic: Hurricanes and Mid-latitude Storms
Hurricane warm core low
Mid-latitude col...
21Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
22Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-12, p. 421
23Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
24Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-14, p. 422
25Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Naming Hurricane and Tropical Storms
• Process has changed over the years:
– Latitude and longitude
– Letters of the alpha...
Devastating Wind, Storm Surge, and
Flooding
• Highest winds on the eastern side of storm
(wind + speed of storm)
• Swell
•...
28Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Table 15-1a, p. 423
29Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Table 15-1b, p. 423
30Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
31Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-3, p. 414
32Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
33Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 2, p. 425
34Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 3, p. 425
35Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
36Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Some Notable Storms
• Camille 1969
• Hugo 1989
• Andrew 1992
• Ivan 2004
• Katrina 2005
37Class #7, Monday. September 13, ...
Some Notable Storms
 Observation: Atlantic Hurricanes 2004-2005
Abnormally warm ocean water and weak vertical
sheer allo...
Table 15-2, p. 426
39Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Table 15-3, p. 427
40Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-18, p. 428
41Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-19, p. 428
42Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-20, p. 429
43Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-21, p. 429
44Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-22, p. 430
45Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-22, p. 430
46Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-22, p. 430
47Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-23, p. 430
48Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 4, p. 431
49Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Stepped Art
Fig. 4, p. 431
50Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-24, p. 432
51Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-25, p. 432
52Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-26, p. 433
53Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 15-27, p. 433
54Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 5, p. 434
55Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Hurricane Watches, Warnings, and
Forecasts
• Watch issued 24-48 hours before hurricane
expected to make landfall
• Warning...
57Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Stepped Art
Fig. 15-27, p. 433
58Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Fig. 6, p. 434
59Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
Modifying Hurricanes
• Operation STORMFURY: seed clouds to create
rain, weaken hurricane, and reduce winds; no
conclusive ...
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wind,storms and hurricanes

  1. 1. Class #7: Monday, September 13, 2010 Hurricanes Chapter 15 1Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  2. 2. Review for test #1 • Chapter 2, pp. 30-49 • Chapter 3, pp. 58-64; 73-75 • Chapter 7, p. 174 • Chapter 9, pp. 224-5; 232-4, 238-44 • Chapter 10, pp. 260-266; 268 • Chapter 15, pp. 412-436 • Chapter 17, pp. 470-483 Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010 2
  3. 3. Fig. 15-CO, p. 410 3Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  4. 4. Tropical Weather • Noon sun is always high, seasonal temperature changes small • Daily heating and humidity = cumulus clouds and afternoon thunderstorms • Non-squall clusters, tropical squall line, tropical wave • Seasons defined by precipitation (higher sun season/ITCZ) as opposed to temperature 4Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  5. 5. 5Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  6. 6. Anatomy of a Hurricane • Intense storm of tropical origin with winds greater than 64kts; typhoon (N. Western Pacific), cyclone (Indian Ocean), tropical cyclone (Aust.) • Eye, center, break in clouds, sinking air, lowest p • Eye wall, intense thunderstorms, upward motion • Spiral rain bands, principal rain band to northeast • Anticyclonic divergence aloft over the storm • Latent heat comes from ocean surface evaporation in strong winds, warm Temperatures 6Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  7. 7. Fig. 15-2, p. 413 7Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  8. 8. Fig. 15-3, p. 414 8Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  9. 9. Stepped Art Fig. 15-3, p. 414 9Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  10. 10. Fig. 15-4, p. 415 10Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  11. 11. Fig. 15-5, p. 415 11Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  12. 12. Fig. 15-6, p. 415 12Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  13. 13. Hurricane Formation and Dissipation  The Right Environment Tropical waters with light wind, high humidity 26.5°C sea surface temperatures (June-November) Surface convergence trigger (tropical wave) Coriolis effect: 5-20º latitude Weak vertical wind shear, weak winds aloft  The Developing Storm Cluster of thunderstorms around a rotating low pressure center Release of latent heat, divergence aloft 13Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  14. 14. 14Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  15. 15. 15Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  16. 16. 16Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  17. 17. Hurricane Formation and Dissipation • The Storm Dies Out – Cold water, land • Hurricane Stages of Development – Tropical Disturbance – Tropical Depression (22-34kts) – Tropical Storm (35-64kts) – Hurricane (> 65kts) 17Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  18. 18. 18Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  19. 19. Fig. 1, p. 419 19Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  20. 20. Hurricane Formation and Dissipation  Topic: Hurricanes and Mid-latitude Storms Hurricane warm core low Mid-latitude cold-core low Arctic hurricanes Hurricane + upper level trough = mid-latitude cyclone  Hurricane movement General track: west, northwest, northeast Much variation 20Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  21. 21. 21Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  22. 22. 22Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  23. 23. Stepped Art Fig. 15-12, p. 421 23Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  24. 24. 24Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  25. 25. Fig. 15-14, p. 422 25Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  26. 26. Naming Hurricane and Tropical Storms • Process has changed over the years: – Latitude and longitude – Letters of the alphabet – Alphabetical female names – Alphabetical, alternating female and male names – Retirement (Katrina, Camille) 26Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  27. 27. Devastating Wind, Storm Surge, and Flooding • Highest winds on the eastern side of storm (wind + speed of storm) • Swell • Storm surge on north side of storm (tide) • Coastal flooding • River flooding • Hurricane spawned tornadoes • Saffir-Simpson scale – 1 weakest, 5 strongest 27Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  28. 28. 28Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  29. 29. Table 15-1a, p. 423 29Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  30. 30. Table 15-1b, p. 423 30Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  31. 31. 31Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  32. 32. Fig. 15-3, p. 414 32Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  33. 33. 33Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  34. 34. Fig. 2, p. 425 34Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  35. 35. Fig. 3, p. 425 35Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  36. 36. 36Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  37. 37. Some Notable Storms • Camille 1969 • Hugo 1989 • Andrew 1992 • Ivan 2004 • Katrina 2005 37Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  38. 38. Some Notable Storms  Observation: Atlantic Hurricanes 2004-2005 Abnormally warm ocean water and weak vertical sheer allowed for high frequency of hurricanes  Environmental Issue: Hurricanes in a Warmer World No clear answer, need more data Intensity and frequency most likely to be impacted. 38Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  39. 39. Table 15-2, p. 426 39Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  40. 40. Table 15-3, p. 427 40Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  41. 41. Fig. 15-18, p. 428 41Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  42. 42. Fig. 15-19, p. 428 42Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  43. 43. Fig. 15-20, p. 429 43Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  44. 44. Fig. 15-21, p. 429 44Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  45. 45. Fig. 15-22, p. 430 45Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  46. 46. Fig. 15-22, p. 430 46Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  47. 47. Fig. 15-22, p. 430 47Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  48. 48. Fig. 15-23, p. 430 48Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  49. 49. Fig. 4, p. 431 49Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  50. 50. Stepped Art Fig. 4, p. 431 50Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  51. 51. Fig. 15-24, p. 432 51Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  52. 52. Fig. 15-25, p. 432 52Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  53. 53. Fig. 15-26, p. 433 53Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  54. 54. Fig. 15-27, p. 433 54Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  55. 55. Fig. 5, p. 434 55Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  56. 56. Hurricane Watches, Warnings, and Forecasts • Watch issued 24-48 hours before hurricane expected to make landfall • Warning issued when storm expected to strike coast within 24 hours and probability of strike in a given location provided. 56Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  57. 57. 57Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  58. 58. Stepped Art Fig. 15-27, p. 433 58Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  59. 59. Fig. 6, p. 434 59Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010
  60. 60. Modifying Hurricanes • Operation STORMFURY: seed clouds to create rain, weaken hurricane, and reduce winds; no conclusive evidence it was effective • Oil or film on water to reduce evaporation and latent heat available to storms 60Class #7, Monday. September 13, 2010

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