Shujah Jamshaid Butt
Syed Ahmad Ghaznavi
Muhammad Asim Jutt
Ayesha Afzal Jutt
Iqra Jawaid Malik
Aqeel Abbas Ranjha
What is a presentation?
• It is the process of presenting the content
of a topic to an audience consisting of one
or more persons.
• It utilizes some visual aid.
• It is generally a PowerPoint file containing
all the slides for a given speech.
3. 4 basic steps in making effective
■ Strategy – formulate a strategy for the
■ Structure – develop a flexible and
■ Presentation style – how you present is as
important as what you present
■ Handling questions – confident and
informed responses to questions and
Step 1: Formulating a strategy
■ It is critical to know the purpose of
communication. Knowing the audience and
expectations of the audience is very important
to decide what to present and how to present.
Tailor your presentation to the audience
w.r.t to their needs, desires, knowledge
level and attitude towards the topic. Be
concrete, specific, practical, and relevant.
Be clear about your objective – is it to
motivate, inform, persuade, teach? Research
your topic thoroughly.
Step 2: Developing a flexible and flowing
■ Once you know what you want to say,
you need to organize all the information in a
■ Do not assume that the information will
speak for itself.
■ The audience might interpret the information
in different ways based on your organization
The audience needs to have the following basic
■ Why should I pay attention to you when I
can think about more interesting things?
■ Now that I am listening, why should I care
about this issue?
■ I agree with the significance of the topic,
but how are you justifying your ideas?
■ So, now that I am convinced, what do you
want from me?
Step 3: Presentation style
Presentation style and personal confidence are as
important as the actual content of the presentation itself.
■ Effective presenters recognize that communication is
both intellectual and emotional. Organizing your ideas is
one important task. The other most important task is to
gain and maintain the attention of the audience.
Techniques to gain and maintain attention: ■ Convey
‘controlled enthusiasm’ for your subject
– the audience will forgive a lot if the speaker
■ Pay attention to posture and tone.
■ Your audience will mirror your attitude –
radiate confidence without preaching.
■ Don’t confuse enthusiasm with loudness; try
to convey a range of emotions from concern,
anticipation, excitement, dismay.
■ Once audience interest is gained, you
must help them to retain it. Members of the
audience may drift in and out without
paying attention at all times. You need to
help the audience refocus periodically –
Step 4: Handling Objections / questions
■ ask "friendly" questions - don't use
questions to embarrass or badger; avoid
known "sore spots"
■ avoid asking risky questions - that is,
questions that may imply lack of knowledge
■ make the interchange a mutually satisfying
experience; give respondents time to think and
phrase their answer; help people save face by
summarizing what they have said so far and
asking if anyone else has something to add
■ don't let respondents wander or attempt to
take control of the presentation; a polite "thank
you, that's what I was looking for" can get you
back on track
■ if extensive audience discussion is desired, avoid
isolated one-on-one dialogues with specific
■ when challenged, be candid and firm but avoid
■ maintain control of the session
■ be firm and assertive without being aggressive or
■ don't let interruptions disrupt your composure
■ avoid circumstances that require an
■ anticipate questions and prepare
responses; rehearse answers to difficult
■ ask some open ended question with no
right or wrong answers - encourage sharing
experiences, feelings, opinions
■ put "you" elements into questions - make
them relevant to the audience's personal
■ prepare key questions prior to the
presentation; it is difficult to think of good
questions on your feet
Conclusion: Checklist for an effective
■ Start preparing early; don't wait until the last
few days to prepare. Think about Your
Audience. Be clear about your purpose. Use an
effective introduction. Organize your
presentation clearly and simply. Use
supporting material to support your point.
Create an effective conclusion. Sound
conversational and enthusiastic. Use body
language effectively. Use visual aids to
enhance the message. Check the physical
environment in advance. Finally, cope with
stage fright by remembering that it is
normal and everyone feels it.