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The tools for distinguish between
true and false. ( AVERROES )
LOGIC
Definitions
The sceinse as well as art of
reasoning. ...
The history of logic is the study of
the development of the science of
valid inference (logic). logic was
developed in anc...
In philosophy, term logic, also known
as traditional
logic or Aristotelian logic.
Aristotelian
Aristotle's logic was further developed
by Islamic and Christian philosophers in
the Middle Ages, reaching a high point in...
Progress in mathematical logic in
the first few decades of the twentieth
century, particularly arising from the
work ofGöd...
The other great school of Greek logic is
that of the Stoics. Stoic logic traces its
roots back to the late 5th century BC ...
None of the surviving works of the great fourth-century
philosopher Plato (347–428 BC) include any formal
logic but they i...
In China, a
contemporary
of Confucius, Mozi
, "Master Mo", is
credited with
founding
the Mohist school.
LOGIC IN ASIA
InCh...
Logic began independently inIndia and
continued to develop through to early
modern times, without any known
influence from...
The works of Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, ibn
sina, Al-Ghazali, and other Muslim
were important in communicating
the ideas of the ...
Ibn al-Nafis(1213–1288)
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037)
Fakhr al-Din al-Razi(b. 1149)
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi(1201–1274)
A tex...
Traditional
logic generally means
the textbook tradition
that begins
with Annual and Pierre
Nicole's Logic, or the Art
of ...
10 GREAT PHILOSOPHER IN THE HISTORY
1-Aristotle
2-Plato
3-Paul of Tarsus
4-Rene Descartes
5-Confucius
6-Thomas Aquinas
7-A...
2-PLATO
Plato lived from 348 to 428 BC, and
founded the Western world’s first school of
higher education, the Academy of l...
5-Confucius
Master Kong Qiu, as his name translates
from Chinese, lived from 479 to 551 BC,
and remains the most important...
7-Avicenna
His full name is Abu ʿAli al-
Husayn ibn ʿAbd Allah ibn
Sina, He lived in the Persian
Empire from. 980 to 1037 ...
Locke is referred to as the
“Father of Liberalism,”
because of his development
of the principles of humanism
and individua...
Rise of modren logic
The period between the fourteenth century and
the beginning of the nineteenth century had been
largel...
Three Basic Functions are generally
noted: there is perhaps nothing more
subtitle than language is and nothing
has as many...
1-Informative language function:
essentially, the communication of
information.
a. The informative function affirms or
den...
b. This function is used to
describe the world or reason
about it (e.g… whether a state
of affairs is true or false).
c. T...
2-Expressive language
function: reports feelings or
attitudes of the writer (or speaker),
or of the subject, or evokes fee...
b. Two main aspects are generally
noted : (1) to evoke certain
feelings and (2) to express
feelings. c.
Expressive discour...
3.Directive language function:
language used for the purpose of
Causing (or preventing) overt actions.
a. The directive fu...
Many of the most common
words and phrases of any
language have both a literal or
descriptive meaning that refers
to the wa...
FACTORS OF COMMUNICATION
AND FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE
According to Jakobson any act of
verbal communication is composed
of si...
(2) an addresser (a sender, or
enunciator ).
(3) an addressee (a receiver, or
enunciatee).
(4) a contact between an
addres...
History of logic
History of logic
History of logic
History of logic
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History of logic

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History of logic

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History of logic

  1. 1. The tools for distinguish between true and false. ( AVERROES ) LOGIC Definitions The sceinse as well as art of reasoning. ( J.R WATSON )
  2. 2. The history of logic is the study of the development of the science of valid inference (logic). logic was developed in ancient times in China, India, and Greece. Greek logic, particularly Aristotelian logic, found wide application and acceptance in science and HISTORY OF LOGIC
  3. 3. In philosophy, term logic, also known as traditional logic or Aristotelian logic. Aristotelian
  4. 4. Aristotle's logic was further developed by Islamic and Christian philosophers in the Middle Ages, reaching a high point in the mid-fourteenth century. The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century was largely one of decline and neglect, and is regarded as barren by at least one historian of logic. HISTORY CONT…
  5. 5. Progress in mathematical logic in the first few decades of the twentieth century, particularly arising from the work ofGödel and Tarski, had a significant impact on analytic philosophy and philosophical logic, particularly from the 1950s to onwards. PROGRESS IN LOGIC
  6. 6. The other great school of Greek logic is that of the Stoics. Stoic logic traces its roots back to the late 5th century BC The most important member of the school was Chrysippus. (206– 278 BC) who was its third head. SCHOOL OF LOGIC Chrysippus
  7. 7. None of the surviving works of the great fourth-century philosopher Plato (347–428 BC) include any formal logic but they include important contributions to the field of philosophical logic. Plato raises three questions: 1-What is it that can properly be called true or false? 2-What is the nature of the connection between the assumptions of a valid argument and its conclusion? 3-What is the nature of definition? Plato academy Plato
  8. 8. In China, a contemporary of Confucius, Mozi , "Master Mo", is credited with founding the Mohist school. LOGIC IN ASIA InChina Mohist school
  9. 9. Logic began independently inIndia and continued to develop through to early modern times, without any known influence from Greek logic.Gautama (6th century BC) founded the tarka school of logic.The Mahabharata around the 5th century BC, refers to tarkaschools of logic. Panini (5th century BC) IN INDIA
  10. 10. The works of Al-Kindi, Al-Farabi, ibn sina, Al-Ghazali, and other Muslim were important in communicating the ideas of the ancient world to the middle West.Al-Farabi (Alfarabi) (873–950) was an logician who discussed the topics between logic and grammar. Logic in the Middle East
  11. 11. Ibn al-Nafis(1213–1288) Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037) Fakhr al-Din al-Razi(b. 1149) Nasir al-Din al-Tusi(1201–1274) A text by ibn sina MIDDLE EAST PHILOSOPHERS
  12. 12. Traditional logic generally means the textbook tradition that begins with Annual and Pierre Nicole's Logic, or the Art of Thinking, better known as the Port-Royal Traditional logic The Textbook Tradition
  13. 13. 10 GREAT PHILOSOPHER IN THE HISTORY 1-Aristotle 2-Plato 3-Paul of Tarsus 4-Rene Descartes 5-Confucius 6-Thomas Aquinas 7-Avicenna 8-Zeno of Citium 9-Epicurus 10-John Locke 1-ARISTOTLE
  14. 14. 2-PLATO Plato lived from 348 to 428 BC, and founded the Western world’s first school of higher education, the Academy of logic. 3-Paul of Tarsus 4-Rene Descartes Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650, and today he is referred to as “the Father of Modern Philosophy .
  15. 15. 5-Confucius Master Kong Qiu, as his name translates from Chinese, lived from 479 to 551 BC, and remains the most important single philosopher in Eastern history. Thomas proved the existence of God by arguing that the Universe had to have been created by something, since everything in existence has a beginning and an end. He made five famous arguments for the existence of God. 6-Thomas Aquinas
  16. 16. 7-Avicenna His full name is Abu ʿAli al- Husayn ibn ʿAbd Allah ibn Sina, He lived in the Persian Empire from. 980 to 1037 BC. 8-Zeno of Citium
  17. 17. Locke is referred to as the “Father of Liberalism,” because of his development of the principles of humanism and individual freedom. 9-Epicurus 10-John Locke
  18. 18. Rise of modren logic The period between the fourteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century had been largely one of decline and neglect, and is generally regarded as barren by historians of logic.The revival of logic occurred in the mid- nineteenth century, at the beginning of a revolutionary period where the subject developed into a formalistic discipline whose exemplar was the exact method of proof used in mathematics. The development of the modern so-called "symbolic" or "mathematical" logic
  19. 19. Three Basic Functions are generally noted: there is perhaps nothing more subtitle than language is and nothing has as many different uses. Without a doubt, identifying just these Three basic functions is an over simplification, but an awareness of these functions is a good introduction to the complexity of language .
  20. 20. 1-Informative language function: essentially, the communication of information. a. The informative function affirms or denies propositions, as in science. The Functions of Language 1-Informative language 2-Expressive language 3-Directive language
  21. 21. b. This function is used to describe the world or reason about it (e.g… whether a state of affairs is true or false). c. These sentences have a truth value; hence, they are important for logic.
  22. 22. 2-Expressive language function: reports feelings or attitudes of the writer (or speaker), or of the subject, or evokes feelings in the reader (or listener). a. Poetry is one of the best examples, but much of, perhaps most of, ordinary language discourse is the expression of emotions, feelings or attitudes.
  23. 23. b. Two main aspects are generally noted : (1) to evoke certain feelings and (2) to express feelings. c. Expressive discourse, qua expressive discourse, is best regarded as neither true or false. E.g., Shakespeare's King Lear's lament, "Ripeness is all!" Even so, the nature of "fictional statements"
  24. 24. 3.Directive language function: language used for the purpose of Causing (or preventing) overt actions. a. The directive function is most commonly found in commands and requests. b. Directive language is not normally considered true or false (although a logi of commands have been developed). c. Example: "Close the windows."
  25. 25. Many of the most common words and phrases of any language have both a literal or descriptive meaning that refers to the way things are and an emotive meaning that expresses some (positive or negative) feeling about them. emotive meaning
  26. 26. FACTORS OF COMMUNICATION AND FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE According to Jakobson any act of verbal communication is composed of six elements, or factors (the terms of the model):1) a context (the co-text, that is, the other verbal signs in the same message, and the world
  27. 27. (2) an addresser (a sender, or enunciator ). (3) an addressee (a receiver, or enunciatee). (4) a contact between an addresser and addressee. (5) a common code and (6) a message.

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