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Meta-analysis of the gender outcomes in Pakistan's agricultural evaluations

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This presentation was given by Sidra Minhas (DevTrio) on February 28, 2019, as part of the webinar 'Changing gender norms in agriculture projects - What works in Pakistan and Ethiopia'. The webinar was co-organized by the CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research and the CGIAR Research Program on WHEAT.

Read more about this webinar at: https://gender.cgiar.org/webinar-norms-pakistan-ethiopia/

Find out about other webinars hosted by the CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research: http://gender.cgiar.org/gender_events/webinars/

Published in: Environment
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Meta-analysis of the gender outcomes in Pakistan's agricultural evaluations

  1. 1. Meta-analysis of the gender outcomes in Pakistan’s agricultural evaluations What can we learn about changing social norms in agriculture from evaluations? Dr. Kristie Drucza - k.drucza@cgiar.org Sidra Minhas – sidra.minhas@devtrio.co CGIAR GENDER 2/28/2019
  2. 2. Results – N = 3 (2 are USAID)
  3. 3. Balochistan Agriculture Project (BAP) 10- years. USAID Impact Assessment of Skills Development Programmes of Gender Equality for Decent Employment (GE4DE) 6 yrs. CIDA Economic Growth and Agriculture Portfolio Impact Assessment - Assessing the Theory of Change and Impact of USAID/Pakistan’s Economic and Growth and Agriculture (EGA) Project Goal: Reduced Poverty for men and women and increase peace and stability in the border areas of Balochistan Project Objective ‘Working women in Pakistan have better incomes, working environment and increased participation in household decisions and specifically expenditures.’ EGA: Improved Economic Status of Target Populations Dairy Project: Increase the productivity and incomes of small dairy farmers in Punjab. Agribusiness Project: Support improved conditions for broad –based economic growth, create employment opportunities and contribute to poverty alleviation through increase in competitiveness of horticulture and livestock value chains in partnership with all stakeholders Entrepreneurs Project: Increase the incomes of 75,000 micro-entrepreneurs and small enterprise owners, the majority of whom were women. Firms: Develop dynamic, internationally competitive SMEs in Pakistan's most vulnerable areas to increase employment and incomes.
  4. 4. There isn’t just one right way to deliver social norm changes But multi intervention design with gender specific interventions/components casts a wide net. Yet different and more nuanced strategies are needed in conservative areas.
  5. 5. There isn’t just one right way to deliver social norm changes BAP started by gaining the trust of men – the decision-makers in households and gate-keepers of communities – and raised their awareness before beginning work with the women. This was effective in opening channels of communication for women. The EGA projects did not engage with men beforehand, but still managed to work with women and deliver social change. "Social change is much more strongly influenced by program participation, economic opportunity and economic and social empowerment for women than for men."
  6. 6. Examples of What Worked Social mobilization (work with women in groups) Participatory processes (engage men and communities on women-specific activities) Multi-stakeholder discussions & market/governance literacy (social accountability) Capacity-building and empowerment (ILO’s tree methodology) Asset transfers (seed distribution) Use of media (electronic and social)
  7. 7. Pathways for change Increase awareness for gender and build community/male support Build capacity of women while 1. Offering economic opportunities 2. Providing raw materials and resources Then focus on empowering women and helping them to understand the project’s enabling environment 1. Build confidence & conscientization 2. Develop women’s understanding of governance, leadership and information flows
  8. 8. Other Learning: What more can we do? Policy/ strategy/ market Community/ workplace Household Self Levels for Project Intervention
  9. 9. Evaluation ToRs Balochistan Agriculture Project (BAP) 10-years. USAID Impact Assessment of Skills Development Programmes of Gender Equality for Decent Employment (GE4DE) 6 yrs. CIDA Economic Growth and Agriculture Portfolio Impact Assessment - Assessing the Theory of Change and Impact of USAID/Pakistan’s Economic and Growth and Agriculture (EGA) To what degree, if at all, has women's ability to make decisions about the household’s productive assets (e.g. livestock, inheritance; dowry; household savings) changed due to the project? Examine empowerment by identifying gender-specific patterns caused by persistent gender specific economic differentials; Identify external socio-economic and cultural factors which were enabling and/or constraining women‘s economic participation. What is the current level of economic and social empowerment (e.g. measure of control over their livelihoods and participation in decision making at the household and community level) of the beneficiaries of EGA projects.
  10. 10. Something to Think About • When it comes to scaling interventions versus ensuring they are contextualized, how does work on social norms in these two places (which are large and varied in their own right) contribute to work done else where?
  11. 11. Thank you for your interest! Photo Credits (top left to bottom right): Julia Cumes/CIMMYT, Awais Yaqub/CIMMYT, CIMMYT archives, Marcelo Ortiz/CIMMYT, David Hansen/University of Minnesota, CIMMYT archives, CIMMYT archives (maize), Ranak Martin/CIMMYT, CIMMYT archives.

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