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GENNOVATE: Enabling gender equality in agricultural and environmental innovation

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GENNOVATE: Enabling gender equality in agricultural and environmental innovation

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This presentation was given by Marlene Elias (Bioversity International) and Lone Badstue (CIMMYT), as part of the Capacity Development Workshop hosted by the CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research. The event took place on 7-8 December 2017 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where the Platform is hosted (by KIT Royal Tropical Institute).

Read more: http://gender.cgiar.org/gender_events/annual-scientific-conference-capacity-development-workshop-cgiar-collaborative-platform-gender-research/

This presentation was given by Marlene Elias (Bioversity International) and Lone Badstue (CIMMYT), as part of the Capacity Development Workshop hosted by the CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research. The event took place on 7-8 December 2017 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, where the Platform is hosted (by KIT Royal Tropical Institute).

Read more: http://gender.cgiar.org/gender_events/annual-scientific-conference-capacity-development-workshop-cgiar-collaborative-platform-gender-research/

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GENNOVATE: Enabling gender equality in agricultural and environmental innovation

  1. 1. GENNOVATE: Enabling gender equality in agricultural and environmental innovation 8 December 2017
  2. 2. Outline • Study background • Core concepts • Tools • Effecting change
  3. 3. Study background
  4. 4. Quick facts about the study • Gender norms x agency x ag/NRM innovation • Explores many different types of ag./NRM innovations: • How gender norms and agency influence the ability of women, men and youth to learn about, try out, take up and adopt / adapt new things in agriculture and NRM • Covers many geographies, cultures • Qualitative x scale (medium-n): offers comparative potential • Largest collaborative study on gender undertaken in CGIAR – 11 CRPs, over 20 PIs
  5. 5. Overarching Questions 1. How do gender norms and agency advance or impede ag./NRM innovation? 2. How do ag./NRM innovations affect gender norms and agency? 3. How are gender norms and men’s and women’s agency changing? And under what conditions do these changes catalyze innovation and lead to desired development outcomes?
  6. 6. 137 case-studies - 26 countries
  7. 7. Methodology • Standardized qualitative methods at scale for comparative analyses • 1 case study = 1 community • Data collection instruments: • Semi-structured key informant interviews • Structured single-sex FGDs • Separated by age and socio-economic status • Tools: vignettes, private voting, rankings, … • Semi-structured interviews on innovation pathways • Life histories
  8. 8. - Small-n participatory methods + + Contextual sensitivity Comparative potential Quantitative surveys GENNOVATE Ethnographic studiesPositioned to address context while allowing comparative analyses -
  9. 9. Core Concepts
  10. 10. Core Concepts 1) Gender norms Socially constituted rules that prescribe men’s and women’s everyday behavior (Knight & Ensminger 1998) “The do’s and don’t’s of individual everyday conduct” (Portes 2006) (‘normal’)
  11. 11. Perceptions of gender norms and institutions affecting women’s participation in maize production and trade, Uganda Gendered use of herbicides Maize cultivation and sale Women stay at home Weeding is women’s work Women provide labor to spouse’s plot Women don’t have money to purchase improved seeds SaleLaborAgri. InputsTenure Men own land Men can allocate plot to spouse(s) Women’s plots often small and poor fertility Women with money are hard to control Women don’t need money Maize is a ‘man’s crop’ Men don’t like their wives attending trainings Women need permission to plant new crop For inputs you go to town Income Some men are not committed to their responsibilities Women can’t move on top of a lorry Men know the traders and the prices Men cannot allow women to sell Some men will share revenues with wife Poor men & women work as casual laborers to earn cash to invest in farm Capacities
  12. 12. But norms are dynamic: Drivers of change in gender norms Institutions include: households and families; educational institutions; other public and private services, eg health services; markets; the media; religious organisations; and governance bodies Source: ODI 2015, p4
  13. 13. Core Concepts 2) Agency - The ability to make strategic life decisions and to act upon them (Kabeer 1999) - Empowerment as an increase in agency: - ↑ options, - ↑ ability to decide - ↑ resources to act 3) Innovation - New ways of doing things - ‘hardware’ and ‘software’ - Endogenous or exogenous
  14. 14. Conceptual Framework
  15. 15. Tools
  16. 16. Tool Purpose Respondents Activity A. Literature review  To situate the case in a wider context by providing general background information about the case study area and relevant findings from recent studies, particularly about the innovations of interest and their gender dimensions. Principal investigator Activity B. Community profile  To provide social, economic, agricultural, and political background information about the community  1 or 2 male key informants  1 or 2 female key informants Activity C. Focus group: Ladder of Life (with poor adults)  Gender norms and household and agricultural roles  Labor market trends and gender dimensions  Enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  The culture of inequality in the village, factors shaping socio-economic mobility, poverty trends—and their gender dimensions  Intimate partner violence  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult females, ages 30 to 55  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult males, ages 30 to 55 Activity D. Focus group: Capacities for innovation (with middle class adults)  Agency  Community trends  Enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  Gender norms surrounding household bargaining over livelihoods and assets  The local climate for agriculture and entrepreneurship, and their gender dimensions  Social cohesion and social capital  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult females, ages 25 to 55  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult males, ages 25 to 55 Activity E. Focus group: Aspirations of youth (with older adolescents and young adults )  Gender norms, practices, and aspirations surrounding education  enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  Women’s physical mobility and gender norms shaping access to economic opportunities and household bargaining  Family formation norms and practices  1 FGD of 8 to 12 female youth, ages 16 to 24  1 FGD of 8 to 12 male youth, ages 16 to 24 Activity F. Semi-structured interview: Innovation pathways  To explore in-depth the trajectory of individual experiences with new agricultural and NRM practices, and the role of gender norms and capacities for innovation in these processes.  2 male innovators  2 female innovators Activity G. Semi-structured interview: Individual Life Stories  To understand the life stories of different men and women in the community who have moved out of poverty, fallen into deeper poverty, or remained trapped in poverty, and how gender norms, assets and capacities for innovation in agriculture/NRM, and other assets and capacities shaped these different poverty dynamics.  2 males  2 females Overview of Data Collection Instruments
  17. 17. Exploring local perceptions of agency: Ladder of Power and Freedom – Contextual and comparative evidence about women’s and men’s perceptions of their capacity to make major decisions in their lives – Narratives about dimensions that help and hinder local people’s capacities to exercise and make major decisions about their lives.
  18. 18. Exploring local perceptions of agency: Ladder of Power and Freedom Please imagine a 5-step ladder (show figure of ladder), where at the bottom, on the first step, stand the individual [sex of FGD] of this community with little capacity to make their own decisions about important affairs in their lives. These [sex of FGD] have little say about if or where they will work, or about starting or ending a relationship with a [opposite sex]. On the highest step, the fifth, stand those who have great capacity to make important decisions for themselves, including about their working life and whether to start or end a relationship in their personal life. Step 5: Power & freedom to make most all major life decisions Step 4: Power & freedom to make many major life decisions Step 3: Power & freedom to make some major life decisions Step 2: Small amount of power & freedom Step 1: Almost no power or freedom to make decisions
  19. 19. Ladder of Power and Freedom: Guiding questions • On which step of this ladder would you position the majority of the [sex of FGD] in the village today? [The ratings should be done individually in private by the FGD members.] • Why? Would any of you like to volunteer the reasons for your rating? • Now please imagine the community ten years ago, when (reference an important event from this period) happened. On which step of this ladder would you position the majority of the [sex of FGD] in the village ten years ago? • Why? What has (or has not) changed for the [sex of FGD] in this community?
  20. 20. Ladder of Power and Freedom: Reflections - In what ways and situations can this tool be useful?
  21. 21. Ladder of Power and Freedom: Variations • Can be done with young women and men without going back 10 years (only for the present) • Can be done in interviews rather than focus groups, to understand an individual’s own sense of power and freedom: – On which step of this ladder would you position yourself today? – And ten years ago? – What do you think are the main reasons why your rating (increased/stayed the same/decreased)? 5 4 3 2 1
  22. 22. Exploring gender norms: Vignettes • Fictional scenarios that offer a less personal, and thus less threatening, way to elicit perceptions on sensitive topics (Finch 1987; Hill 1997). • Set up the scenario with appropriate level of detail to make it feel realistic, then ask questions about perceptions.
  23. 23. Vignettes: Setting the scene Ex.: Now I’m going to talk about three different couples who live in this village. Let’s call the first couple Ana and Adam. Ana and Adam [adapt names and activities]. They are a typical couple that is busy with agricultural activities in this village. Ana helps her husband with his crops, and she also has her own home garden. • How would David and Diana make decisions about how much of Diana’s home garden to sell and how much to keep to feed the family? Would Diana decide how much to sell and how much to keep? Would David decide? Or would they decide together? • How would their discussion about this go? (What might the couple say to one another?) • Who would be more likely to sell the vegetables? Ana? Adam? Why?
  24. 24. Vignettes: Exercise I’m going to talk about a couple that lives in this village. We will call them Mary and Mark. Mary helps on her husband’s farm, and also has her own home garden. Mary has been working for a long time in the market selling her produce. And Mark contributes to the housework and caring for their children. Mary and Mark, then, share some of the provider and housework responsibilities in their household. • What kind of reputation do you think that Mary has in the village because she is a seller in the market? • And Mark, what kind of reputation does he have in the village and among his friends? • If Mary is very successful with her small enterprise, how do you imagine that Mark will react?
  25. 25. Vignettes: Reflections • Which normative factors arise as participants respond to the vignette? • What benefits do you see with the vignette method? • What do you think are some of the method’s limitations?
  26. 26. Effecting Change
  27. 27. Effecting change in study communities • Discussions about gender norms within same-sex focus groups trigger collective reflection (social learning) • Discussions with individuals stimulate self-reflection • Going further: • Bringing men’s and women’s groups together to discuss norms and perceptions • Bringing results back to communities for further validation and dialogue • Different institutional levels
  28. 28. Tool Purpose Respondents Activity A. Literature review  To situate the case in a wider context by providing general background information about the case study area and relevant findings from recent studies, particularly about the innovations of interest and their gender dimensions. Principal investigator Activity B. Community profile  To provide social, economic, agricultural, and political background information about the community  1 or 2 male key informants  1 or 2 female key informants Activity C. Focus group: Ladder of Life (with poor adults)  Gender norms and household and agricultural roles  Labor market trends and gender dimensions  Enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  The culture of inequality in the village, factors shaping socio-economic mobility, poverty trends—and their gender dimensions  Intimate partner violence  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult females, ages 30 to 55  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult males, ages 30 to 55 Activity D. Focus group: Capacities for innovation (with middle class adults)  Agency  Community trends  Enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  Gender norms surrounding household bargaining over livelihoods and assets  The local climate for agriculture and entrepreneurship, and their gender dimensions  Social cohesion and social capital  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult females, ages 25 to 55  1 FGD of 8 to 10 adult males, ages 25 to 55 Activity E. Focus group: Aspirations of youth (with older adolescents and young adults )  Gender norms, practices, and aspirations surrounding education  enabling and constraining factors for innovation, and their gender dimensions  Women’s physical mobility and gender norms shaping access to economic opportunities and household bargaining  Family formation norms and practices  1 FGD of 8 to 12 female youth, ages 16 to 24  1 FGD of 8 to 12 male youth, ages 16 to 24 Activity F. Semi-structured interview: Innovation pathways  To explore in-depth the trajectory of individual experiences with new agricultural and NRM practices, and the role of gender norms and capacities for innovation in these processes.  2 male innovators  2 female innovators Activity G. Semi-structured interview: Individual Life Stories  To understand the life stories of different men and women in the community who have moved out of poverty, fallen into deeper poverty, or remained trapped in poverty, and how gender norms, assets and capacities for innovation in agriculture/NRM, and other assets and capacities shaped these different poverty dynamics.  2 males  2 females Overview of Data Collection Instruments
  29. 29. Additional resources GENNOVATE website: https://gender.cgiar.org/themes/gennovate/ GENNOVATE methodology: https://gender.cgiar.org/themes/gennovate/methodology/ GENNOVATE flyer: http://gender.cgiar.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/GENNOVATE-Flyer-August-2017.pdf

Editor's Notes

  • COVER SLIDE
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    If you need a specific CRP logo, replace the general CGIAR logo at the upper right.
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • DIVIDER SLIDE
    You can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • In total GENNOVATE field teams conducted 137 case-studies in 26 countries.

    PAUSE a moment to let audience take in the map/countries.


    I would now like to turn the three key concept we use in GENNOVATE.
  • a reasonably well-defined single locality that the inhabitants call their village or hamlet.
  • This slide is meant to position GENNOVATE approach in relation to other social science approaches. While the exact positioning of specific bubbles can be discussed at length, our point is to show the methodological contribution of the GENNOVATE.

    As an alternative, “middle way” between the significant investment and small samples associated with ethnography and the limitations of ordinary survey research. As applied research, we move towards the “diagnostic approach” advanced by Ostrom (Basurto and Ostrom 2009: 7; Ostrom 2009) in her groundbreaking work on common property resources which combines attention to relevant causal processes and a large comparative case study methodology to “identify key variables present or absent in particular settings so as to understand successes and failures.”

    While most participatory research has not been done for comparative purposes, Chambers has done some great writing on how it certainly has been. Also, in some participatory models leadership and substance are truly supposed to be community-driven, with outsiders providing enabling spaces and resources for this local collective action… In any case, there are, of course, gray areas around all of the bubbles. RCTs are survey based, and would argue they are contextually informed, for instance…
  • DIVIDER SLIDE
    You can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • TITLE AND TEXT
  • DIVIDER SLIDE
    You can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • a reasonably well-defined single locality that the inhabitants call their village or hamlet.
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • Use of herbicides has been identified by both men and women as most important; many different aspects mentioned. Show nuanced story about when to whom what is beneficial and how gender norms are constraining use
    The same innovation can affect different groups of people differently
    It’s often possibly to identify clear-cut gender related constraints to adoption of innovations
  • DIVIDER SLIDE
    You can use it to introduce a section of your presentation.
  • a reasonably well-defined single locality that the inhabitants call their village or hamlet.
  • a reasonably well-defined single locality that the inhabitants call their village or hamlet.
  • a reasonably well-defined single locality that the inhabitants call their village or hamlet.

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