Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Assessing livestock husbandry, gendered decision-making and dietary quality among smallholder households in rural Timor-Leste

49 views

Published on

This presentation was given by Gianna Bonis-Profumo (Charles Darwin University), as part of the Annual Scientific Conference hosted by the University of Canberra and co-sponsored by the University of Canberra, the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research. The event took place on April 2-4, 2019 in Canberra, Australia.

Read more: https://www.canberra.edu.au/research/faculty-research-centres/aisc/seeds-of-change and https://gender.cgiar.org/annual-conference-2019/

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Assessing livestock husbandry, gendered decision-making and dietary quality among smallholder households in rural Timor-Leste

  1. 1. Gianna Bonis-Profumo - PhD Candidate Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods – RIEL Charles Darwin University Supervisors: Assoc. Prof. Natasha Stacey – RIEL, Charles Darwin University Assoc. Prof. Julie Brimblecombe – Dept. of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food, Monash University Honor. Prof. Robyn Alders, AO – University of Sydney and Director of Kyeema Foundation Funding: Australian Postgraduate Awards, Charles Darwin University, Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN) Seeds of Change Conference – Canberra 3rd April 2019 Assessing livestock husbandry, gendered decision-making and dietary quality among smallholder households in rural Timor-Leste
  2. 2. CONTEXT – TIMOR-LESTE - Independent since 2002 - Post-conflict country - One of the poorest in Southeast Asia - Agriculture-based livelihoods - High child undernutrition 1.2 million-population (GSD and UNFPA 2016) 41% living below the poverty line (MOF and WB 2016)
  3. 3. STUDY Setting • 4 rural, least developed and agrarian-based suku in Easter Timor-Leste • CDNIP participants: a nutrition sensitive-agriculture program (NSA) focused on nutrition education and agriculture diversification Aim • Examine gender relations, particularly women’s agency, related to livestock husbandry and sale, and animal-source food (ASF) consumption among semi-subsistence smallholders in Timor-Leste
  4. 4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
  5. 5. RESEARCH SITES
  6. 6. RESEARCH METHODS Longitudinal mixed-methods study  September 2017 to September 2018 Tools and data  Seasonal livestock production  Adapted A-WEAI in dual-headed households (n=282)  Semi-Structured Interviews (n=30)  Seasonal child <5 and maternal dietary diversity and animal source foods (ASF) intake Fieldwork components 2017 2018 Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep I. Dietary & production diversity S1 S2 S3 S4 II. A-WEAI III. Semi-Structured Interviews
  7. 7. RESEARCH METHODS Why choosing the A-WEAI • 5 domains of empowerment • 6 indicators vs 10 (WEAI) • Shorter administration time • Internationally validated tool DOMAIN INDICATORS WEIGHT 1 Productio n Input in productive decisions 1/5 2 Resources Ownership of assets 2/15 Access to and decisions on credit 1/15 3 Income Control over use of income 1/5 4 Leadershi p Group membership 1/5 5 Time Workload 1/5 TOTAL 100% Abbreviated Women´s Empowerment in Agriculture Source: Malapit et al 2015
  8. 8. PRODUCTION PROFILE …yet low protein intake 33% 34% 46% 92% 94% 0% 50% 100% Buffalo Cow Goat Pig Chickens Ownership of animals (n=169) 0% 50% 100% Chicken Pig Buffalo / cow Goat Uses of livestock (n=174) Income Food Culture Across the seasons, at least 88% of households owned pigs and chickens, with half owning a herd size of 1-10 chickens and 1-2 pigs.
  9. 9. LIVESTOCK OWNERSHIP Joint ownership and decision-making on livestock, reported similarly by men and women • Animals, irrespective of size, were generally considered household’s assets and not owned individually • Most reported making decisions on livestock jointly with their partner and/or family
  10. 10. LIVESTOCK DECISION-MAKING However, decision-making is nuanced… 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Farmforfood Farmforcash Livestockraising Farmforfood Farmforcash Livestockraising Women Men Extent felt can make own decisions Often Sometimes …power differentials 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Farmfor food Farmfor cash Livestock raising Farmfor food Farmfor cash Livestock raising Women Men Level of input into decisions Always Sometimes Don't
  11. 11. DECISION-MAKING ON SALE Men Women Women were more autonomous to sell eggs and chickens than pigs. Final decision-making on selling livestock
  12. 12. DECISION-MAKING ON INCOME • Control over income from livestock sales was shared, with more men often deciding on its use. Men Women “My husband brings the money home so I need to ask if he agrees to using it. Having enough rice is the priority” Woman, Samalari • Despite women frequently reported as the sole deciders for small ASF purchases…
  13. 13. ASF AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION • Around half interviewees described eating meat only during ceremonies, from hunting or when animals die • Differences in ASF allocation according to gender were not commonly portrayed • Eggs were often prioritised to children, corroborated by longitudinal dietary data
  14. 14. DIETARY QUALITY Mothers and children 6 to 23 months old presented very poor diets with a maximum of 15% and 25% achieving the minimum dietary diversity respective thresholds 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% ASF consumption yesterday Child Mother 0 1 2 3 4 Late dry (n=196) Early rainy (n=142) Early dry (n=165) Late dry (n=164) Seasonal mean food groups eaten yesterday by children 6-59 months old 6-11 m.o. 12-23 m.o. 24-59 m.o.
  15. 15. CONCLUSIONS • Ownership and decision-making among rural smallholders in Timor-Leste is shared • Decision-making is nuanced and requires unpacking through qualitative enquiry • Women display stronger agency in small livestock management despite unequal bargaining power informed by traditional notions of gender norms • ASF intake and dietary diversity are low, vary with the seasons, and eggs are prioritised to children • Findings suggest that programs focusing on poultry embed large potential to support women’s empowerment, poverty alleviation and dietary quality outcomes
  16. 16. OBRIGADA BARAK! GIANNA.BONIS- PROFUMO@CDU.EDU.AUPhotos credit: Author 2017-18
  17. 17. REFERENCES General Directorate of Statistics (GDS) and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), 2016. Timor-Leste National Census 2015. Government of Timor-Leste National Statistics Directorate and United Nations Population Fund. Herforth, A., and Harris, J., 2014. Understanding and Applying Primary Pathways and Principles. Brief #1. Improving Nutrition through Agriculture Technical Brief Series. Arlington, VA: USAID/Strengthening Partnerships, Results, and Innovations in Nutrition Globally (SPRING) Project. Malapit, H., Kovarik, C., Sproule, K., Meinzen-Dick, R. and Quisumbing, A.R., 2015. Instructional Guide on the Abbreviated Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (A-WEAI). Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. Ministry of Finance (MOF) and World Bank (WB), 2016. Poverty in Timor-Leste 2014. Government of Timor-Leste Ministry of Finance and World Bank. Ruel, M.T., Alderman, H. and Maternal and Child Nutrition Study Group, 2013. Nutrition-sensitive interventions and programmes: how can they help to accelerate progress in improving maternal and child nutrition?. The Lancet, 382(9891), pp.536-551.

×