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Socio-governance considerations and
the impact of climate change on oceans and fisheries
Yoshitaka Ota, Richard Caddell, A...
Socio-governance considerations:
Consideration of social factors that affect governance, including the
form of social orga...
3
Human Security will be progressively threatened
as the climate changes(robust evidence, high agreement)
4
The impacts of climate change on elements of human security
Adger, W.N., J.M. Pulhin, J. Barnett, G.D. Dabelko, G.K. Hov...
5
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
There are 400 million indigenous people around the world (5% of global po...
6
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
7
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
A total of 1,742 individual communities and 586 groups are represented in...
8
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
Catch and consumption data has been compiled for 71 groups (and counting)...
9
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
Group consumption (kg per capita per year) is an average of 3.3 times hig...
10
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
Total global fish consumption by about 29 million coastal indigenous peo...
11
Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
12
The impacts of climate change on elements of human security
Adger, W.N., J.M. Pulhin, J. Barnett, G.D. Dabelko, G.K. Ho...
Climate change and oceans law
Marine jurisdiction
Legal framework for fisheries
LOSC prescribes broad rights and duties of states
UN Fish Stocks Agreement 1995 addresses tr...
Complexities
• General provisions address marine fisheries – no discussion of internal waters or aquaculture
matters
• Tra...
Emerging challenges for marine regulation
• New entrants into existing fisheries
• New and exploratory fishing effort
• Di...
New entrants
• Obligation of fair access to resources in FSA 1995
• Often difficult to “gatecrash” existing frameworks
• S...
New and exploratory fisheries
• Practice pioneered in Antarctic region by CCAMLR
• Article 6(6) FSA 1995 – cautious conser...
Illegal fishing
• “Free rider” problem – no obligation to adhere to regional
standards
• Difficulties of enforcement in re...
Climate agenda and marine governance
• Little consideration of climate change in UNCLOS negotiations
• Marginalised role o...
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Socio-governance considerations and the impact of climate change on oceans and fisheries, Yoshitaka Ota, Richard Caddell, Andres Cisneros, Rashid Sumaila

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Y. Ota (University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada), at the Our Common Future Under Climate Change conference, July 7-10 in Paris, France.

More at http://www.commonfuture-paris2015.org/

Published in: Science
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Socio-governance considerations and the impact of climate change on oceans and fisheries, Yoshitaka Ota, Richard Caddell, Andres Cisneros, Rashid Sumaila

  1. 1. Socio-governance considerations and the impact of climate change on oceans and fisheries Yoshitaka Ota, Richard Caddell, Andres Cisneros, Rashid Sumaila 1
  2. 2. Socio-governance considerations: Consideration of social factors that affect governance, including the form of social organizations, cultural identity and socio-political instability
  3. 3. 3 Human Security will be progressively threatened as the climate changes(robust evidence, high agreement)
  4. 4. 4 The impacts of climate change on elements of human security Adger, W.N., J.M. Pulhin, J. Barnett, G.D. Dabelko, G.K. Hovelsrud, M. Levy, Ú. Oswald Spring, and C.H. Vogel, 2014: Human security. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 755-791.
  5. 5. 5 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples There are 400 million indigenous people around the world (5% of global population), spanning almost every country. There is high agreement that, historically, indigenous peoples have had a high capacity to adapt to variable environmental conditions. There is high agreement among researchers that involvement of local people and their local, traditional, or indigenous forms of knowledge in decision making is critical for ensuring their security. local or traditional knowledge may not be sufficient to provide the proper response to unexpected or infrequent risks or events Adger, W.N., J.M. Pulhin, J. Barnett, G.D. Dabelko, G.K. Hovelsrud, M. Levy, Ú. Oswald Spring, and C.H. Vogel, 2014: Human security. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 755-791.
  6. 6. 6 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
  7. 7. 7 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples A total of 1,742 individual communities and 586 groups are represented in the database; These span all 5 global regions, 18/21 subregions, and 76/140ish maritime states.
  8. 8. 8 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples Catch and consumption data has been compiled for 71 groups (and counting), including 42 SIDS, about 12% of the total.
  9. 9. 9 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples Group consumption (kg per capita per year) is an average of 3.3 times higher than the corresponding country.
  10. 10. 10 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples Total global fish consumption by about 29 million coastal indigenous people is estimated at 1.6 million tonnes per year; This ≈2% of global reported catch, highest in Africa and Southeastern Asia.
  11. 11. 11 Coastal marine fisheries of Indigenous peoples
  12. 12. 12 The impacts of climate change on elements of human security Adger, W.N., J.M. Pulhin, J. Barnett, G.D. Dabelko, G.K. Hovelsrud, M. Levy, Ú. Oswald Spring, and C.H. Vogel, 2014: Human security. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 755-791.
  13. 13. Climate change and oceans law
  14. 14. Marine jurisdiction
  15. 15. Legal framework for fisheries LOSC prescribes broad rights and duties of states UN Fish Stocks Agreement 1995 addresses transboundary issues FAO – Guidelines, Compliance Agreement, IPOAs UN General Assembly Role of Regional Fisheries Management Oragnisations/Arrangements
  16. 16. Complexities • General provisions address marine fisheries – no discussion of internal waters or aquaculture matters • Transboundary stocks– straddling stocks (encompass one or more EEZs and high seas), shared stocks (2 or more EEZs), highly migratory species (listed in Annex I), anadromous and catadromous species • Separate regime for marine mammals • Rights and responsibilities of coastal and flag states • Coastal states: right to fish in zones of jurisdiction; obligations of responsible stock husbandry • Flag states: rights to fish on high seas, can seek surplus TAC within EEZs; duty to cooperate on transboundary stocks and control vessels: ITLOS AO – due diligence
  17. 17. Emerging challenges for marine regulation • New entrants into existing fisheries • New and exploratory fishing effort • Distortion of current fishing resources in individual jurisdictions • “Free riders” and IUU fishing • Relevance to climate negotiations and policies • Pre-existing structures precede climate concerns
  18. 18. New entrants • Obligation of fair access to resources in FSA 1995 • Often difficult to “gatecrash” existing frameworks • Self-interest of states in ensuring quotas remain intact • Need to avoid the “tragedy of the commons” • Mixed practice within RFMOs – some more open to new entrants; others closed in reality • Implications for food security and access to TAC by vulnerable communities
  19. 19. New and exploratory fisheries • Practice pioneered in Antarctic region by CCAMLR • Article 6(6) FSA 1995 – cautious conservation and management measures until sufficient data to facilitate the gradual development of the fishery • Considerable experience in krill and toothfish in CCAMLR Area – precautionary management undertaken; management measures refined over time • Scope to develop this practice further in relation to vulnerable marine ecosystems and emerging deep-sea fisheries • Uncertain legal status of lapsed fisheries
  20. 20. Illegal fishing • “Free rider” problem – no obligation to adhere to regional standards • Difficulties of enforcement in remote areas of the ocean • Novel policies – bilateral arrangements permitting arrest in national waters; role of Purple Listing by Interpol, good behaviour required for fisheries access • Codified obligations for flag states to effectively police national vessels
  21. 21. Climate agenda and marine governance • Little consideration of climate change in UNCLOS negotiations • Marginalised role of RFMOs in wider international processes • Little consideration to date of how fisheries and marine bodies may participate in future issues – potential revision of treaty or implementation agreement

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