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Developing a sustainable charcoal sector in Africa, H. Neufeldt, P. Dobie, M. Iiyama, K. Sander

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H. Neufeldt (ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya), P. Dobie (ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya), M. Iiyama, (ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya), K. Sander, (World Bank, Washington DC, United States of America), at the Our Common Future Under Climate Change conference, July 7-10 in Paris, France.

More at http://www.commonfuture-paris2015.org/

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Developing a sustainable charcoal sector in Africa, H. Neufeldt, P. Dobie, M. Iiyama, K. Sander

  1. 1. DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE CHARCOAL SECTOR IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Our Common Future Under Climate Change 7-10 July – Paris 2218 – Land-based Mitigation: Agriculture, Forests, Bioenergy UNESCO Fontenoy – Room IX – 8 July 2015 – 16.30-18.00 Henry Neufeldt1, Phil Dobie1, Miyuki Iiyama1, Klas Sander2 1 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) 2 World Bank
  2. 2. Percent of population dependent on solid biofuels in Africa and Asia
  3. 3. FrancisHannaway WWF In Africa 80% of energy is derived from firewood and charcoal Wood fuels Charcoal Hofstad et al 2009 Hofstad et al 2009 Million tons Million m3
  4. 4. Sustainable charcoal
  5. 5. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 forestareasrequiredtomeet charcoaldemand(000ha/year) kiln @10% kiln @10% + improved stove kiln @10% + improved stove + AF kiln @10→@30% kiln @10→@30% + improved stove kiln @10→@30% + improved stove + AF
  6. 6.  US$8b revenue +7m employment in 2007; estimated US$12b+12m by 2030  complex and multi-layered “command and control”-type regulatory contexts, which result in an unclear framework for stakeholders operating in the sector Figure 17: Marketing channels for charcoal in Kenya Production Site (wood and Charcoal) Middlemen Households Road Side Wholesalers Retailers KFS Police Local Authorities www.businessdailyafrica.com erinmurraytravels.blogspot.com KFS (2013) www.businessdailyafrica.com 0-3% ~16% 20~22% ~3% ~20% ~2% 20-30% Nairobi, Kenya Yatta, Kenya Mutomo, Kenya Kerio, Kenya G Ndegwa Somalia Export to Gulf www.trust.org Charcoal is among the most commercialized resources in SSA; many stakeholders are competing for profit margins at different stages of the value chain from rural supply centres to urban demand centres
  7. 7. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems A major recommendation of the workshop is to recognize that improving the cooking of food using wood-based fuels in Africa requires an in-depth understanding of the full production-to-use system, and investments in improvement should be based on this principle.
  8. 8. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems • Developing advocacy tools and publicity materials that accurately portray the role of firewood and charcoal in Africa today • Presenting available knowledge evidence to show that poor people should not be blamed for deforestation when they collect firewood, • and that charcoal can be produced, sold and used sustainably • Providing objective comparisons of advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems in national and regional contexts A fundamental challenge for biomass cooking systems is to rehabilitate the reputation of firewood and charcoal as appropriate fuels for Africa at this time. This should be done by:
  9. 9. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems • Reviewing the knowledge of fuel wood production chains • Assessing the current status of availability of firewood from different sources within reasonable reach of households and developing plans to increase supply where it is lacking • Reviewing the knowledge of charcoal value chains and developing proposals to introduce improvements • Carrying out sustainability research to better model and understand the dynamics of wood extraction, processing, trade and use in order to provide data to advise policy decisions While elements of the cooking system have been extensively studied, and very good information is available, much of the existing evidence has not been collated and there has been a lack of evidence-based decision-making relating to tree-based bioenergy. Further research is needed along with the development of better decision tools. This should be done in specific countries by:
  10. 10. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems • Carrying out policy research to ensure that policies can be improved and harmonized • Preparing knowledge-based materials for policy makers and engage in debates with them • Integrating firewood and charcoal into national energy policy processes in order to develop appropriate policies and legislation • Integrating firewood and charcoal into land use planning processes at national and local (landscape) levels • Promoting charcoal to policy-makers as a multi-million dollar business that countries and districts can derive income from • Reforming policies and setting standards There is a challenge to include firewood and charcoal into national energy policy processes. This should be addressed by:
  11. 11. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems • Developing participatory national and local plans to ensure a sustainable supply of wood through agroforestry, woodlots or natural regeneration • Ensuring that the most suitable tree species are made available based on knowledge of their physical properties, lack of toxicity and local preferences • Establishing systems to grow and disseminate excellent planting materials • Carrying out local participatory trials of improved charcoal production methods • Ensuring that improvements are equitable • Introducing enhanced cooking techniques, including clean cook stoves, in a manner that integrates their use into a full cooking system including fuel quality, kitchen management and cooking space ventilation There is a need to improve technology throughout the cooking system. This should be done in a manner that fully respects social issues by:
  12. 12. Workshop recommendations for Cooking Systems • Applying participatory processes throughout the cooking systems development process to identify challenges and solutions • Reviewing energy taxation policies to ensure that woody biomass is not unfairly treated • Encouraging the involvement of the private sector by removing obstacles to their participation (e.g. the distortions of current charcoal value chains) There is a need for incentives to reform the use of firewood and charcoal. This should include:
  13. 13. Overall Workshop Conclusions Tree-based bioenergy systems, ranging from fuelwood and charcoal to liquid biofuels and power generation: • offer great opportunities for sustainable green growth pathways in sub-Saharan Africa, • with sustainable forest management and forest and landscape restoration. • What is needed to effectively promote them is a shift in perception to rehabilitate their negative image, • a holistic approach that considers the full production to end- user cycle, • collaboration of relevant stakeholders to overcome investment barriers and • political coordination at subnational, national and regional levels.
  14. 14. Thanks for a future

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