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भारत में जलविद्युत विकास को बड़े पैमाने पर बढ़ावा

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इस सेक्टर में निजी क्षत्रे को आकर्षित करने के लिए सरकार ने 2016 में इस पर चर्चा शुरू की कि नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा के क्षत्रे को और विस्तृत किया जाए ताकि 25 मेगावाट क्षमता से अधिक के जलविद्युत स्टेशन भी उसमें शामिल किए जा सके। इससे सरकार को 2022 तक 175 मेगावाट नवीकरणीय ऊर्जा उत्पादित करने के लक्ष्य को हासिल करने में मदद मिलेगी।

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भारत में जलविद्युत विकास को बड़े पैमाने पर बढ़ावा

  1. 1. R-21, Ground Floor, South Extension II, New Delhi – 110049 | info@cenfa.org | www.cenfa.org czhÇQ+x isij eà 2018 Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr fodkl dks cM+s iSekus ij c<+kok o"kZ 2016 esa 31-5 esxkokV dh uohu laLFkkfir {kerk ¼Installed Capacity½ ds lkFk gh iwjh nqfu;k esa tyfo|qr ds fodkl dks c<+kok feyk gSA blesa 6-4 fxxkokV dk iafir HkaMkj ¼Pumped Storage½ 'kkfey gSA ;s mlds fiNys lky ls yxHkx nksxquk gS] tcfd oSfÜod Lrj ij 20 fxxkokV dk iafir HkaMkj fuekZ.kkèkhu gSA ;g fodkl fn[kkrk gS fd tSls&tSls nqfu;k Hkj ds ns'k isfjl le>kSrs ds dkcZu dVkSrh y{;ksa dks gkfly djus ds fy, dne mBk jgs gSa] oSls&oSls uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ ç.kkfy;ksa dks ,d yphyk leFkZu nsus ds fy, ty fo|qr ij ncko cu jgk gSA 49]769 esxkokV laLFkkfir {kerk ds lkFk Hkkjr nqfu;k esa tyfo|qr mRiknu esa lkrosa uacj ij vkrk gSA blesa 45]293 MW dh cM+s tyfo|qr ifj;kstuk,a 'kkfey gSa tks Hkkjr dh dqy mi;ksx&;ksX; fctyh mRiknu dk 13-6 izfr”kr gSA blds vykok] 4476 esxkokV {kerk dh NksVh ty fo|qr ifj;kstuk,a Hkh uoh—r ÅtkZ ds rgr laLFkkfir dh xà gSaA 29]858 esxkokV vkSj 12]041 esxkokV dh laLFkkfir {kerk ds lkFk tyfo|qr lsDVj esa Øe'k% dsaæ vkSj jkT;ksa dk ncnck gSA futh {ks= egt+ 3384 esxkokV ty fo|qr gh mRikfnr djrk gSA lkoZtfud {ks= dk bu lsDVj ds 92-5 izfr”kr fgLls ij dCtk gSA jk"Vªh; tyfo|qr ÅtkZ fuxe ¼NHPC½] u‚FkZ ÃLV bysfDVªd i‚oj daiuh ¼NEEPCO½ lryt ty fo|qr fuxe ¼SJVNL½] fVgjh gkbMªks MsoyiesaV d‚jiksjs'ku fy- ¼THDC½] vkSj ,uVhihlh&gkbMªks lkoZtfud {ks= dh dqN daifu;k¡ gSa tks Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr fodkl ds {ks= esa dk;Zjr gSaA futh {ks= dqy mRiknu ds yxHkx 7-5 izfr”kr ij LokfeRo j[krk gSA ysfdu vkus okys lkyksa esa blds fgLls esa c<+ksrjh dh laHkkouk gSA Hkkjrh; daifu;k¡ HkwVku] usiky] vQ+xkfuLrku vkSj nwljs ns'kksa esa Hkh tyfo|qr ds fodkl esa lfØ; gSaA bl lsDVj esa futh {ks= dks vkdÆ"kr djus ds fy, ljdkj us 2016 esa bl ij ppkZ 'kq: dh fd uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ ds {ks= dks vkSj foLr`r fd;k tk, rkfd 25 esxkokV {kerk ls vfèkd ds tyfo|qr LVs'ku Hkh mlesa 'kkfey fd, tk ldsaA blls ljdkj dks 2022 rd 175 esxkokV uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ mRikfnr djus ds y{; dks gkfly djus esa enn feysxhA gky gh esa 13 ekpZ 2018 dks ÅtkZ ij laln dh LFkk;h lfefr us bl lacaèk esa dqN eqíksa dk gy fudkyus ds fy, laln esa viuh jiV is'k dh ftlesa nh?kZdkfyd lLrs dtZ] tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa ds fy, leFkZd cqfu;knh <kaps cukus vkSj lHkh tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks uohdj.kh; dh Js.kh esa j[kus tSls çLrko 'kkfey FksA
  2. 2. 2 isfjl le>kSrs ds rgr Hkkjr Hkh 2022 rd LoPN ÅtkZ lzksrksa ds fodkl ij è;ku nsus ds fy, çfrc) gSA eksnh ljdkj us 2015 esa ?kks"k.kk dh fd 2022 rd Hkkjr 175 fxxkokV ds LoPN ÅtkZ ds y{; dks gkfly dj ysxk ftlesa 100 fxxkokV lkSj ÅtkZ] 60 fxxkokV iou ÅtkZ] vkSj 15 fxxkokV vU; uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ lzksr 'kkfey gSaA blls Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr {ks= dks c<+kok fey ldrk gSA tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa ds dsaæ esa eq[;r% fgeky;h jkT; tSls v#.kkpy çns'k] vklke] fgekpy çns'k] tEew&d'ehj] fet+ksje] ef.kiqj] uxkySaM] es?kky;] mÙkjk[kaM] flfôe vkSj f=iqjk 'kkfey gSaA dsaæh; fo|qr çkfèkdj.k ds vuqlkj] Hkkjr dh dqy tyfo|qr {kerk 1]48]704 esxkokV gS ftldk 84 izfr”kr fgeky; ds {ks= esa ladsafær gSA blds vykok] ckaXykns'k] HkwVku vkSj Hkkjr us HkwVku esa 1125 esxkokV ds nqÆtyax la;a= ds fuekZ.k ds ,d le>kSrk i= ij gLrk{kj fd, gSaA ;g è;ku nsus ;ksX; gS fd orZeku esa dks;yk&vkèkkfjr ÅtkZ ifj;kstukvksa ij dks;yk laidks± vkSj ÅtkZ [kjhn le>kSrksa ds vHkko esa ladV ds ckny eaMjk jgs gSaA blls dà LFkkfir ÅtkZ ifj;kstuk,a BIi iM+ xà gSa vkSj u, dks;yk&vkèkkfjr ifj;kstukvksa ds foLrkj ds fy, Hkh daifu;k¡ grksRlkfgr gh gqà gSaA blls dà {ks=ksa esa] [kklrkSj ls fgeky; ds bykdksa esa tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks c<+kok feysxkA futh {ks= bl ckr ij t+ksj nsrk jgk gS fd dqy ÅtkZ mRiknu dk de ls de 40 izfr”kr tyfo|qr ls vkuk pkfg,A fiNys lky ljdkj dks fy[ks ,d i= esa Hkkjr dh futh ÅtkZ daifu;ksa ds ,d eap ,lksfl,'ku v‚Q+ i‚oj çksMîqllZ ¼,ihih½ us tyfo|qr dks uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ dk ntkZ nsus dh ek¡x mBkà FkhA ml i= esa ,ihih ds eq[; funs'kd v'kksd [kqjkuk us fy[kk Fkk] Þmi;qä yksM çcaèku ds fy, tyfo|qr dks ÅtkZ ds lHkh lzksrksa esa veweu 40 izfr”kr gksuk pkfg,A fiNys rhu n'kdksa esa tyfo|qr mRiknu esa [kklh deh vkà gSA tyfo|qr [kjhn ckè;rk dh 'kq#vkr ls bls fQj larqfyr djus esa enn feysxhßA lHkh tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks uohdj.kh; dh Js.kh esa Mkyuk flQZ ljdkj dk gh ,tsaMk ugÈ gS cfYd blds fy, futh {ks=] varjkZ"Vªh; foÙkh; laLFkkvksa vkSj nwljs lzksrksa }kjk Hkh ncko cuk;k tkrk jgk gSA foÜo cSad us viuh osclkbV ij fy[kk gS] Þ LFkkuh; fodkl vkSj tyok;q ds dkjdksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, foÜo cSad lewg Hkyh&Hkkafr fuÆer vkSj ykxw dh xà gj vkdkj dh tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks leFkZu nsuk tkjh j[ksxkAß isfjl le>kSrs ds ckn ls gh jk"Vªh; vkSj varjkZ"Vªh; nksuksa lzksrksa ls tyfo|qr ds fgLls dks c<+kus dk ncko c<+ jgk gSA tSlk fd Åij crk;k x;k gS] ÅtkZ ij LFkk;h lalnh; lfefr us viuh jiV laln esa is'k dj nh gS ftlesa lHkh vkdkj dh tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ dh Js.kh esa ykus dh flQkfj'k dh xà gSA blls fgeky; fLFkr jkT;ksa esa tyfo|qr dks c<+kok feysxk vkSj flQZ futh {ks= dk fuos'k c<+sxkA bl dne ls bl lsDVj esa lkoZtfud futh Hkkxhnkjh ¼ihihih½ dks vkxs c<+kus dk foÜo cSad vkSj ,Mhch dk ,tsaMk Hkh iwjk gksxkA ;g cM+s vk'p;Z dh ckr gS fd Hkkjr ljdkj us eè; çns'k esa ueZnk ?kkVh ds ljnkj ljksoj vkSj egsÜoj ckaèk] ;k fgekpy esa lryqt ?kkVh ds Hkkdjk ukaxy ckaèk tSlh cM+h tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa ds fiNys vuqHkoksa ls dksà lcd ugÈ lh[kk gSA bu ifj;kstukvksa us gt+kjksa yksxksa dks muds iSr`d txgksa ls csn[ky fd;k gS] vkthfodk ds lkèkuksa dks u"V fd;k gS vkSj ekuokfèkdkjksa dk guu fd;k gSA dà lkyksa ds la?k"kZ ds ckotwn bu ifj;kstukvksa ls foLFkkfir gq, yksx vkt Hkh U;k; dk bart+kj dj jgs gSaA
  3. 3. 3 Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr foÙk iks"k.k dh ço`fr;k¡ tSls&tSls nqfu;k Hkj ds ns'k isfjl le>kSrs ds dkcZu dh dVkSrh ds y{;ksa dks gkfly djus ds fy, dne mBk jgs gSa] mlh ds lkFk&lkFk gks jgs tyfo|qr lsDVj dk fodkl bl ckr dk |ksrd gS fd uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ O;oLFkkvksa ds leFkZu ds fy, bl lsDVj ij fdruk ncko gSA isfjl le>kSrk u flQZ bl lsDVj dks vkxs c<+kus ij t+ksj nsrk gS cfYd lkFk gh bl lsDVj dh foÙkh; t+:jrksa dks iwjk djus ij Hkh t+ksj Mkyrk gSA eè; vk; okys ns'k] tSls fd czkt+hy] phu] :l] Hkkjr] vkSj nf{k.k vÝhdk ¼fczDl ns'k½] c<+rs Øe esa tyfo|qr dks foÙk eqgS;k djk jgs gSa vkSj ;s ns'k bl lsDVj esa cqfu;knh <kaps ds fodkl dks ysdj T;knk –<+ Hkh gks x, gSaA Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr dk foÙk iks"k.k ,u,pihlh ljdkjh laLFkku gS ftldk fuos'k #- 38]718 djksM+ dk gSA bl feuh jRu Js.kh – 1 ds Hkkjr ljdkj ds m|e dk vfèk—r 'ks;j yxHkx #- 15]000 djksM+ gS tks iwjh rjg ls ljdkj ds gkFk esa gSA dsaæ ljdkj ds foÙkh; enksa ds vykok] ,u,pihlh O;kikfjd dt+Z vkSj c‚UMksa ls Hkh foÙk tqVkrk gSA ekpZ 2017 dh okÆ"kd jiV ds vuqlkj] ,u,pihlh dk nh?kZdkfyd _.k #- 17]246 djksM+ dk gS ftlesa c‚.M] lqjf{kr vofèk _.k ¼lsD;ksMZ VeZ yksu½ vkSj vlqjf{kr fons'kh eqæk _.k ¼vulsD;ksMZ Q+‚jsu djalh yksu½ Øe'k% 8493 djksM+] 4479 djksM+ vkSj 4274 djksM+ gSaA lsD;ksMZ _.k esa ?kjsyw cSadksa o foÙkh; laLFkkuksa ls fy, x, dtZ 'kkfey gSa] tSls fd] LVsV cSad v‚Q+ bafM;k] bafM;u vksojlht+ cSad] vkblhvkblhvkb cSad fy-] tEew ,aM d'ehj cSad fy-] ,fDll cSad] LVsV cSad v‚Q+ ifV;kyk] LVsV cSad v‚Q+ chdkusj ,aM t;iqj] ,pMh,Q+lh cSad] baMlySaM cSad] cSad v‚Q+ cM+ksnk] lsaVªy cSad v‚Q+ bafM;k] dksVd eÇgæk cSad] vkjch,y cSad] ,yvkblh] i‚oj Q+kbusal dkjiksjs'ku] vkSj :jy bysfDVªfQ+ds'ku d‚jiksjs'kuA tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa ds foÙk iks"k.k ds fy, QaÇMx ds uohu lzksr mHkj jgs gSaA gky ds nkSj esa xzhu c‚UM tSls c‚UMksa dk rsth ls fodkl ,d mHkjrk gqvk pyu gSA ;s fuf'pr vk; ds dtZ gSa tks [kklrkSj ls mu ifj;kstukvksa ds foÙk iks"k.k ds fy, cus gSa ftuls i;kZoj.k@tyok;q [krjksa ls fuiVus esa enn feysxhA 2016 esa 80 fcfy;u vejhdh Mkyj ls Hkh T;knk ewY; ds xzhu c‚UM iwjh nqfu;k esa tkjh fd, x, tks blds fiNys lky ls nksxqus FksA ysfdu bldk ckt+kj vHkh Hkh 'kq#vkrh voLFkk esa gh gSA isfjl le>kSrs ds vuqdwy gksus ds fy, xzhu c‚UM ds bl ckt+kj dk y{; gS 2020 rd lkykuk ,d fVªfy;u vejhdh Mkyj ds Lrj rd igqapuk gSA eYVhysVjy MsoyiesaV cSadksa ¼cgqi{kh; fodkl cSad@,eMhch½ vkSj dkjiksjsV lsDVj ds usr`Ro esa 2016 ds var esa iksySaM xzhu lksoju c‚UM tkjh djus okyk igyk ns'k cu x;k vkSj blus blls 750 fefy;u vejhdh Mkyj dh iwath tqVkÃA blds ckn Ýkal us tuojh 2017 esa ;gh dne mBk;k vkSj 7-5 fcfy;u Mkyj iwath bdëk fd;kA nwljs ns'kksa esa LohMu] ukbthfj;k vkSj dsU;k ls Hkh blh fn'kk esa dne mBkus dh vis{kk dh tkrh gSA Hkkjr esa 2017 ds var esa fQôh vkSj DykbesV ckaM bfuf'k,fVo ¼lhchvkbZ½ dh la;qä ifj;kstuk ds rkSj ij LFkkfir bafM;u xzhu c‚UM dkmafly us Hkh viuk 2017 dk dk;ZØe 'kq: dj fn;k gSA Hkkjr us vçSy 2017 esa 3-2 fcfy;u vejhdh Mkyj ds Xykscy xzhu c‚UM tkjh fd, vkSj nqfu;k ds 'kh"kZ 10 ns'kksa esa 'kkfey gks x;kA tyfo|qr esa varjkZ"Vªh; foÙk fuos”k ,u,pihlh flQZ ?kjsyw foÙkh; laLFkkuksa ls iwath ugÈ bdëk djrk gS cfYd fofHkUu varjkZ"Vªh; foÙkh; laLFkkuksa ls Hkh djrk gS ftlesa ,DliksVZ ØsfMV ,tsafl;k¡ 'kkfey gSaA cgqi{kh; fodkl cSad ¼,eMhch½] tSls fd foÜo cSad] ,f'k;u MsoyiesaV cSad vkSj ,f'k;u bUÝkLVªDpj bUosLVesaV cSad ¼,vkbvkbch½ lhèks&lhèks
  4. 4. 4 ,u,pihlh dks _.k ugÈ ns ldrsA ,u,pihlh flQZ fu;kZr _.k ;k ,fDt+e cSad ls gh dt+Z ys ldrk gSA ,eMhch ds vykok] ,slh dà f}i{kh; ,tsafl;ka gSa tks ,DliksVZ ØsfMV ,tsafl;ksa ds ekè;e ls tyfo|qr esa fuos'k dj jgh gSaA ,u,pihlh dh 2017 dh okÆ"kd jiV ds vuqlkj] ,slh f}i{kh; ,tsafl;ksa ls orZeku nh?kZdkyhu _.k #- 4274 djksM+ dk gSA buesa Mîw'k cSad] tkiku baVjus'kuy dksv‚ijs'ku ,tsalh ¼tsvkblh,½] vkSj ,DliksVZ MsosyiesaV dukMk ¼ÃMhlh½ 'kkfey gSaA fiNys le; esa dà nwljh f}i{kh; ,tsafl;ka Hkh blesa 'kkfey Fkh] tSls fd] teZuh dh ds,Q+M~CY;w ¼KfW½] LohfM'k baVjus'kuy MsoyiesaV dksv‚ijs'ku ,tsalh ¼,lvkbMh,½ vkSj LohfM'k ,DliksVZ ØsfMV ,tsalhA 1990 esa] ljnkj ljksoj ckaèk ds fuekZ.k ds f[kykQ+ ueZnk cpkvks vkanksyu ds çfrjksèk ds ckn foÜo cSad vkSj nwljh f}i{kh; ,tsafl;ksa us Hkkjr esa tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dh QaÇMx can dj nhA ysfdu tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa ls i;kZoj.k vkSj ekuokfèkdkjksa ij iM+us okys udkjkRed vlj ds c<+rs lcwrksa ds ckotwn foÜo cSad us LoPN vkSj uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ ds uke ij budks dtZ nsuk 'kq: dj fn;k gSA cfYd cM+h vkSj NksVh tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dh QaÇMx esa ;s dkQh lfØ; Hkh gks x;k gSA ty lalkèku j.kuhfr ¼okVj fjlkslsZt+ LVªSVsth½ 2003 esa foÜo cSad ds tyh; cqfu;knh <kapksa esa fQj lfØ; gksus dk çLrko FkkA blds vkus ds ckn ls tyfo|qr lacafèkr yxHkx 150 ifj;kstukvksa dks eatwjh fey pqdh gS ftlesa iquLFkkZiu] rduhdh lgk;rk vkSj xzhuQ+hYM ifj;kstuk,a 'kkfey gSaA ;g dqy 13-6 fcfy;u vejhdh Mkyj dk fuos'k gS ¼ftlesa tyfo|qr lacaèkh fgLlk 7-8 vejhdh Mkyj ds cjkcj gS½ vkSj blesa vkbchvkjMh@vkbMh,] thÃ,Q+ vkSj jslhfi,aV ,fDt+D;wVsM ,fDVfoVht+ 'kkfey gSaA ikbiykbu dh dqy 15 ifj;kstukvksa esa ls yxHkx vkèkh vÝhdk esa gSaA foÜo cSad egt+ dtZ ugÈ ns jgk gS cfYd rduhdh o foÙkh; lgk;rk vkSj Ãt+ v‚Q+ Mwbax fct+usl baMsDl ¼O;kij lqxerk baMsDl½ ds tfj, ÅtkZ {ks= esa dà uhfrxr cnyko Hkh ykus dh dksf'k'k dj jgk gSA blls futh {ks= ds fy, t+ehu rS;kj gksrh gSA foÜo cSad dk ^Ãt+ v‚Q+ Mwbax fct+usl* baMsDl nl ekinaMksa ds vkèkkj ij ns'kksa dh jSaÇdx djrk gSA ^xsÇVx bysfDVªflVh* ¼fctyh miktZu½] ds fy, foÜo cSad pkj ekinaMksa ij çn'kZu dh tkap djrk gS% ¼1½ çfØ;kvksa dh la[;k] ¼2½ O;kikfjd fctyh dusD'ku ysus esa yxus okyk le;] ¼3½ 140 ds oh , rd dk fctyh dusD'ku ysus dk [kpZ] vkSj ¼4½ fctyh lIykà dh foÜoluh;rkA ÅtkZ ea=ky; dh osclkbV ds vuqlkj] Hkkjr us dà lqèkkj fd, gSa ftlls bldh jSaÇdx 2015 esa 99 ls csgrj gksdj 2017 esa 26 ij igqap xà gSA bu lqèkkjksa esa fu;a=.k vkSj ç'kklfud nksuksa ekeyksa esa lqxerk ykus ds mik; 'kkfey gSaA foÜo cSad ds vykok] ,f'k;u MsoyiesaV cSad ¼,Mhch½ ÅtkZ {ks= dk ,d egRoiw.kZ foÙkh; laLFkku gS vkSj Hkkjr o nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa ;s dà tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dh QaÇMx dj jgk gSA ,Mhch us fgekpy çns'k esa ,u,l,y fjU;q,cy i‚oj çkbosV fy- ¼NRPPL½ ds 100 esxkokV ds frMkax tyfo|qr ifj;kstuk ds fodkl esa enn ds fy, 2013 esa 30 fefy;u vejhdh Mkyj ds bfDoVh fuos'k dk ok;nk fd;kA Hkkjr ds tyfo|qr {ks= esa ;g bldk igyk bfDoVh fuos'k FkkA fgekpy çns'k us çns'k esa fctyh lIykà ds foLrkj ds fy, 2008 esa fgekpy çns'k Dyhu ,utÊ MsosyiesaV bUosLVesaV çksxzke uke dk dk;ZØe 'kq: fd;k ftldk ,Mhch us vuqeksnu Hkh fd;kA bl Ldhe esa ,Mhch vkSj teZu MsoyiesaV cSad ds ds,Q+M~CY;q¼KfW½ us fgekpy çns'k fuxe fy- dh 450 esxkokV dh 'k‚UxV‚Ux dpZe tyfo|qr ifj;kstuk vkSj rhu vU; ju&v‚Q+&n&fjoj tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dks foÙk eqgS;k djk;kA ,Mhch u flQZ tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dk foÙk iks"k.k dj jgk gS cfYd ;s fctyh {ks= esa uhfr fuekZ.k esa Hkh cM+s iSekus ij n[ky ns jgk gSA bldh ,d eq[; flQkfj'k ftls ykxw Hkh fd;k tk jgk gS] og gS
  5. 5. 5 fctyh {ks= ds rhu eq[; fgLlksa fctyh mRiknu] çs"k.k vkSj forj.k dks vyx djuk rkfd T;knk ls T;knk futh daifu;ka blesa 'kkfey gks ldsaA ,Mhch ds vuqlkj] nf{k.k ,f'k;k ds ns'kksa dks ,d ijLij lac) ÅtkZ ckt+kj ls cgqr T;knk Qk;nk gksxk vkSj blls Hkkjr dks Hkh ;g ekSdk feysxk fd og vius thok'e Ãèku vkèkkfjr ÅtkZ dh ctk; HkwVku vkSj usiky tSls ns'kksa ls LoPN tyfo|qr [kjhn ldsA blh okLrs ,Mhch us eè; HkwVku esa ifCyd&çkbosV ikVZujf'ki ds rgr ju&v‚Q+&n&fjoj tyfo|qr la;a= ds fuekZ.k ds fy, 120-5 vejhdh Mkyj dk ok;nk fd;k gS tks dtZ vkSj vuqnku ds :i esa eqgS;k djk;k tk,xkA bl la;a= ls cuh LoPN ÅtkZ dks Hkkjr dks cspk tk,xk ftlls mls vius dkcZu mRltZu dks de djus esa enn feysxhA lzksr & ,Mhch gky gh esa] ,f'k;k esa cqfu;knh <kapk {ks= esa fuos'k dh vuqekfur t+:jrksa ij ,Mhch }kjk çdkf'kr ,d jiV esa dgk x;k fd o"kZ 2016 – 2030 ds chp 45 fodkl'khy ,f'k;kà eqYdksa dks 26 fVªfy;u vejhdh Mkyj ds tyok;q&lek;ksftr fuos'k dh t+:jr gksxh ftlesa ls 14-7 fVªfy;u ÅtkZ esa fuos'k ds fy, gksxkA vxj ge nf{k.k ,f'k;k dh t+:jrksa ij ut+j Mkysa rks 8-8 izfr”kr ds thMhih fodkl nj ij bldh dqy t+:jr 6-247 fVªfy;u vejhdh Mkyj dh gS ftlesa tyok;q lek;kstu ds fy, 870 fcfy;u Mkyj Hkh 'kkfey gSaA blesa ls ,d cM+k fgLlk ÅtkZ {ks= ds fy, pkfg, gksxkA ,Mhch us Hkkjr ds fgeky;h {ks=ksa esa] [kkldj fgekpy çns'k vkSj mÙkjk[kaM esa dà fookfnr ifj;kstukvksa esa fuos'k fd;k gSA Åij fn, x, vkadM+s crkrs gSa fd fudV Hkfo"; esa tyfo|qr {ks= esa ,Mhch dk fuos'k c<+sxkA
  6. 6. 6 tyfo|qr foÙk&iks"k.k esa mHkjrs u, fdjnkj foÜo cSad vkSj ,Mhch ds vykok] tyfo|qr foÙk&iks"k.k ds {ks= esa dà vU; fdjnkj Hkh mHkj jgs gSaA ;s u, fdjnkj foÜo cSad vkSj ,Mhch ls Hkh T;knk [krjukd gks ldrs gSa D;ksafd mUgksaus lhek ikj dà fookfnr ifj;kstukvksa dh QaÇMx dh gSA mudk dke gh gS cqfu;knh <kapk {ks= fuos'k djuk] [kklrkSj ls ÅtkZ {ks= esaA foÜo cSad vkSj ,Mhch us rks 1990 ds n'kd esa iwjh nqfu;k esa tyfo|qr {ks= ls vius dne ihNs [kÈp fy, Fks] exj phuh cSadksa us budh txg ys yh gSA foÜo cSad lewg dk ,d lnL; baVjus'kuy Q+kbusaf'k;y d‚jiksjs'ku ¼vkb,Q+lh½ ikfdLrku esa 720 esxkokV ds djksV ju&v‚Q+&n&fjoj tyfo|qr ifj;kstuk esa 100 fefy;u vejhdh Mkyj dk fuos'k dj jgk gSA ;s tyfo|qr {ks= esa vkb,Q+lh dk vc rd dk lcls cM+k fuos'k gS vkSj lkFk gh ;s igyh ckj gS fd vkb,Q+lh phu ds fu;kZr&vk;kr cSad] pkbuk MsoyiusaV cSad] vkSj flYd jksM QaM ds lkFk ,d cM+h ifj;kstuk ij feydj dke dj jgk gSA phu ds vusd cSad oSfÜod Lrj ij tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa dk foÙk iks"k.k dj jgs gSaA phuh cSad vkSj nwljh daifu;ka 74 eqYdksa ds 330 ckaèkksa esa dke dj jgs gSaA o"kZ 2000&2016 ds chp phuh cSad o daifu;ka lewps nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa 39 tyfo|qr ifj;kstukvksa esa 'kkfey FkÈ ftudh dqy {kerk yxHkx 19]000 esxkokV gS vkSj ftudk dtZ yxHkx 30 fcfy;u vejhdh Mkyj gSA bu 39 ifj;kstukvksa esa ls 21 ikfdLrku esa] 15 usiky esa] vkSj 4 Jhyadk esa gSaA gkykafd Hkkjr vkSj phu ds jktuhfrd lacaèk vPNs ugÈ gSa] exj phuh cSadksa o daifu;ksa dk Hkkjr esa n[ky c<+ jgk gSA phuh cSad dqN 'krks± ds lkFk gh vkrs gSa] tSls fd] Q+kbusalj] e'khujh vkiwÆrdrkZ vkSj fcYMj ds Hkh phuh gksus dh 'krZA bu 'krks± ls ysunkj ns'k ij vius et+nwjksa ds vfèkdkjksa ls le>kSrk djus dk ncko curk gSA U;w MsoyiesaV cSad ¼,uMhch½ vkSj ,f'k;u bUÝkLVªDpj bUosLVesaV cSad ¼,vkbvkbch½ bu nks u, mnh;eku cSadksa dk usr`Ro phu djrk gS vkSj buds eq[;ky; Hkh phu esa gh gSaA nksuksa gh cSad fodkl'khy ns'kksa esa cqfu;knh <kapk {ks=] [kklrkSj ls ÅtkZ {ks= esa dtZ nsus dk y{; j[krs gSaA LoPN vkSj uohdj.kh; ÅtkZ ds uke ij ;s laLFkk,a tyfo|qr dks gh c<+kok ns jgh gSaA U;w MsoyiesaV cSad us ;qjsf'k;u MsoyiesaV cSad ¼ÃMhch½ vkSj baVjus'kuy bUosLVesaV cSad ¼vkbvkbch½ tSls eè;LFkksa ds tfj, :l esa tyfo|qr la;a=ksa dks foÙk eqgS;k djk;k gSA buesa ls dqN ifj;kstukvksa esa eè;LFk ds rkSj ij igys czkt+hfy;u cSad dks 'kkfey djus dh ;kstuk FkhA bl cSad us dà fookfnr ifj;kstukvksa dh QaÇMx dh gS] felky ds fy,] csyks e‚UV ckaèk ifj;kstuk ftlesa cM+s iSekus ij Hkz"Vkpkj vkSj ekuokfèkdkj o i;kZoj.k vfèkdkj guu gqvk FkkA blh rjg] ,vkbvkbch Hkh tyfo|qr _.k {ks= esa vkxs vkus dh gksM+ esa gSA chÇtx esa blds le>kSrk Kkiu lekjksg ds le; blds ikl 50 fcfy;u vejhdh Mkyj dk QaM FkkA bldh ;kstuk bl iwath dks ,f'k;kà ns'kksa esa cqfu;knh <kaps ds fodkl dks c<+kok nsus ds fy, bLrseky djus dh Fkh ftlesa tyfo|qr Hkh 'kkfey gSA ikfdLrku ds rjcyk tyfo|qr la;a= ds foÙk iks"k.k ds fy, 2016 esa ,vkbvkbch ds vè;{k ftu fyDOu vkSj foÜo cSd lewg ds vè;{k fte ;‚Ux fde us bu nksuksa laLFkkvksa ds igys lg&foÙk iks"k.k [kkdk le>kSrs ¼dks&Qkbusal ÝseodZ ,xzhesaV½ ij gLrk{kj fd,A bu nksuksa us bl la;a= ds ikapos foLrkj ds fy, 720 fefy;u vejhdh Mkyj dh ?kks"k.kk dh ftlls bldh {kerk esa 1140 esxkokV dk btkQk gks tk,xkA bl ckr ij è;ku nsus dh t+:jr gS fd 'kq:&'kq: esa ,vkbvkbch vkSj ,uMhch dks fodkl'khy ns'kksa ds fy, czsVsu oqM~l laLFkkvksa ds fodYi ds :i esa lkeus j[kk x;k Fkk] exj ;s nksuksa Hkh mu laLFkkvksa ls dqN
  7. 7. 7 [kkl vyx ugÈ gSaA bldk lcwr flQZ budh feyrh&tqyrh uhfr;ka gh ugÈ cfYd ;g Hkh gS fd ,f'k;k] vkSj [kklrkSj ls nf{k.k ,f'k;k esa ;s feytqydj cM+h ifj;kstukvksa dk foÙk iks"k.k dj jgs gSaA isfjl le>kSrk nqfu;k ds ns'kksa ds Åij tyfo|qr dks u flQZ uohdj.kh; lzksr ekuus dk t+ksj Mkyrk gS cfYd blds foÙk iks"k.k dk ncko Hkh cukrk gSA Bhd blh nkSjku] foÙkh; laLFkk,a fofHkUu foÙkh; e‚Myksa dh dà ijrksa dk fuekZ.k dj jgh gSa rkfd os fdlh rjg dh tokcnsgh vkSj ikjnÆ'krk dh ft+Eesnkjh ls cp ldsaA ,sls esa mnh;eku foÙkh; laLFkkvksa vkSj foÙk iks"k.k ds muds rkSj&rjhdksa ij ut+j j[kus dh t+:jr gS D;ksafd muls çk—frd lalkèkuksa vkSj vke tu ds vkthfodk lzksrksa dks uqdlku gksus dh laHkkouk gSA bfrgkl bl ckr dk xokg gS fd fdl rjg bu ifj;kstukvksa us yk[kksa yksxksa dks foLFkkfir fd;k gS] vkthfodk ds muds lzksrksa dks u"V fd;k gS vkSj ekuokfèkdkjksa dk cM+s iSeku ij guu fd;k gSA ys[kd – jkts'k dqekj lsaVj Q+‚j Q+kbusaf'k;y ,dkmaVsfcfyVh References: 1. IHA (2017) Hydropower Status Report, England: IHA. 2. CEA (2018) ALL INDIA INSTALLED CAPACITY (IN MW) OF POWER STATIONS, Delhi: CEA. 3. (https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Hydroelectric_po wer_in_India.html) Hydroelectric Power in India, Available at: https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco/wiki/Hydroelectric_ power_in_India.html (Accessed: May 2018). 4. PTI (2018) 'Par panel for formulation of new hydro policy', Business Standard, 13 March, p. https://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/par-panel-for-formulation-of-new-hydro-policy- 118031301264_1.html. 5. ANJALI JAISWAL (2017) India Leads on Climate Action as Trump Exits Paris Agreement, Available at: https://www.nrdc.org/experts/india-leads-climate-action-trump-withdraws-paris (Accessed: 2018). 6. Power Consulting Group (2012) HYDRO POWER POTENTIAL OF INDIA, http://www.powercons.org: Power Consulting Group. 7. Asian Power (2017) 'Bhutan, Bangladesh and India to jointly develop hydropower project', Asian power, 12 July, p. Projects. 8. PTI (2017) 'Coal India’s 89 ongoing projects facing delays', India Today, 6 September, p. Story. 9. Sarita Singh (2016) 'Government mulling to bring large hydropower units under renewable energy ambit', ET, 18 Jan, p. Energy. 10. World Bank (2017) Hydro power Overview, Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/hydropower/overview (Accessed: May 2018). 11. Sean Kidney (2016) Global Launch of 2016 Bonds and Climate Change Report, Available at: https://www.climatebonds.net/2016/07/just-released-state-market-2016-report-694bn-climate- aligned-bonds-94bn-2015 (Accessed: May 2018). 12. Climate Bond Initiative (2017) BONDS AND CLIMATE CHANGE, https://www.climatebonds.net/files/files/CB-HSBC-2017-India.pdf: Climate Bond Initiative. 13. Ministry of Power (May 2018) Ease of Doing Business Initiative Getting Electricity, Available at: http://powermin.nic.in/sites/default/files/webform/notices/EODB_Initiatives_Getting_Electricity_Mate rial_for_Website.docx (Accessed: May 2018).
  8. 8. 8 14. Hydro World (Feb 2013) India's 100-MW Tidong hydroelectric project gets ADB backing, Available at: https://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2013/05/india-s-100-mw-tidong-hydroelectric-project-gets-adb- backing.html (Accessed: May 2018). 15. ADB (2018) India: Himachal Pradesh Clean Energy Development Investment Program - Tranche 4, Available at: https://www.adb.org/projects/41627-053/main#project-pds (Accessed: May 2018). 16. PTI (2017) 'Interconnected power market is India's chance to use cleaner hydropower: DB', Business Standard, 10 December, p. Current Affairs. 17. ADB (2014) ADB to Finance Second Hydropower Plant PPP in Bhutan, Available at: https://www.adb.org/news/adb-finance-second-hydropower-plant-ppp-bhutan (Accessed: May 2018). 18. ADB (February 2017) Meeting Asia's Infrastructure Needs, Available at: https://www.adb.org/publications/asia-infrastructure-needs (Accessed: May 2018). 19. IFC (March 2017) print IFC Supports Groundbreaking New Hydropower Project in Pakistan to Address Power Deficits, Available at: https://ifcextapps.ifc.org/ifcext/pressroom/ifcpressroom.nsf/0/87E27D3F35AC5B2A852580E30033D 03D (Accessed: May 2018). 20. International Rivers (2016) China's Global Role in Dam Building, Available at: https://www.internationalrivers.org/campaigns/china-s-global-role-in-dam-building (Accessed: May 2018). 21. New Development Bank (July 2016) TWO LOANS TO EDB AND IIB FOR NORD-HYDRO, Available at: https://www.ndb.int/edbiib-russia/ (Accessed: May 2018). 22. Hydro World (July 2015) AIIB will use its US$50 billion to help spur hydroelectric development in Asia, Available at: https://www.hydroworld.com/articles/2015/04/aiib-will-use-its-us-50-billion-to-help- spur-hydroelectric-development-in-asia.html (Accessed: May 2018). 23. AIIB (April 2016) AIIB and World Bank sign first Co-Financing Framework Agreement, Available at: https://www.aiib.org/en/news-events/news/2016/20160414_002.html(Accessed: May 2018). 24. IHA (May 2017) 'Pakistan Hydro Profile', Profile, May, p. Country Profile.

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