Air Quality Basics

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  • Anything: particulate, aerosol, biological Criteria pollutants: ozone, PM, CO, Nitrogen dioxide, Sulfur dioxide and lead
  • Some air districts are a single county, some are multi-counties. Some counties are split into multiple air districts (, and some county
  • (e.g., exhaust emissions from offsite haul truck & worker commute trips) (e.g., offsite haul truck & overall generation of trips and vehicle miles traveled) (e.g., onsite landscape maintenance & natural gas usage)
  • Each air district assesses these impacts differently. The impacts are also interrelated. Qualitative v. quantitative assessment
  • Facilities that emit 25,000 metric tons or more per year of GHGs are required to submit annual reports to EPA
  • AB 32 covers major sources of GHG emissions in the State such as refineries, power plants, industrial facilities, and transportation fuels.  The regulation includes an enforceable GHG cap that will decline over time.  ARB will distribute allowances, which are tradable permits, equal to the emission allowed under the cap.
  • These are outside of the local air district guidance Public workshop to discuss CEQA Thresholds of Significance for GHGs (December 2008) Industrial Projects: Quantitative standard of 7,000 metric tons CO2e/yr for operational emissions Performance standard for construction Residential and Commercial Projects: Performance standards for construction, energy, water, waste and transportation Upper limit on project emissions
  • Air Quality Basics

    1. 1. Air Quality and GHG Basics What the CEQA are you talking about? Chryss MeierNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    2. 2. Outline Air Quality  Regulatory framework  Impact analyses (construction, operational) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)  Regulatory framework  Impact analyses (construction, operational)North America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    3. 3. Air QualityNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    4. 4. Regulatory Framework  Definition  Criteria Pollutant: An air pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure have been determined and documented (in a criteria document), and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set.  Other Pollutants: Anything introduced into the air that can cause nuisance, damage, disease or death to living creatures, or damage to crops or the environment  Federal  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) (1970, Amendments 1990)  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (see handout)  Ozone, PM (10 and 2.5), CO, NO , SO , lead, 2 2  Attainment Designation and Classification  State Implementation Plans (SIPs) North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com4
    5. 5. Californias regulatory forays predate the federal/EPARegulatory Framework regulation, thats why we get special clearance to regulate (with permission) tailpipe State emissions.  California Air Resources Board (ARB)  California Clean Air Act (CCAA) (1988)  California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS)  Local air district oversight, approving air quality attainment plans, submitting SIPs to EPA, monitoring, area designations,  Regulatory Authority  On-road/Off-Road Emissions Limits, “In Use” Rules, Permits, ATCMs, Consumer Products, AgriculturalNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    6. 6. Regulatory Framework Local  35 air districts for 15 air basins  Attain and maintain air quality conditions  Air Quality Attainment Plans  Adoption and enforcement of rules and regulations  Permitting  Inspections  CEQA guide  Thresholds of significance  Screening tools  Analysis methodology  Mitigation strategiesNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    7. 7. Impact Assessments Construction-Related  Operation-Related Activities Activities  Off-Road Mobile  Off-Road Mobile Sources Sources  On-Road Mobile Sources  On-Road Mobile Sources Area Sources  ROG/VOC from paints and curing asphalt.  Area Sources  Stationary SourcesNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    8. 8. Tools of the Trade…. Models  Urban Emissions Model (URBEMIS)  California Emissions Estimator Model (CalEEMod)  California Emissions Factor Models (EMFAC, OFFROAD)North America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    9. 9. Answer me this…CEQA Appendix G  A) Conflict with or obstruct implementation of the applicable air quality plan  B) Violate any air quality standard or contribute substantially to an existing or projected air quality violation  C) Result in a cumulatively considerable net increase of any Criteria Air Pollutants for which the project region is non-attainment under an CAAQS or NAAQS  D) Expose sensitive receptors to substantial pollutant concentrations  E) Create objectionable odors affecting a substantial number of peopleNorth America | Europe | Australia | Asiawww.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    10. 10. Now you have an impact…..  Thresholds of significance  Mitigation (on- and off-site)  Fees  Construction (e.g., watering, new equipment fleet)  Operational (e.g., trip reduction)  Modified Activity  Buffer Zones  Proving Reduction effectiveness North America | Europe | Australia | Asia0 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    11. 11. Greenhouse Gases North America | Europe | Australia | Asia1 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    12. 12. GHG, GWP, CO….WTF???  Definition  Any gas or particulate that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere : CO2, CH4, N2O  Global Warming Potential (GWP)  Used to normalize GHGs to units of CO2 equivalent (CO2e)  Example: 1 ton CH4 * 21 GWP = 21 tons CO2e North America | Europe | Australia | Asia2 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    13. 13. Regulatory Framework for GHG  Federal  Mandatory GHG reporting rule  National program to cut GHG emissions and improve fuel economy for cars and trucks  Endangerment and cause or contribute findings (2009)  States EPA should regulate and develop standards for emissions of any pollution from any class(es) of new motor vehicles (or engines), which in judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution, which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare  Climate change adaptation North America | Europe | Australia | Asia3 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    14. 14. Regulatory Framework for GHG  State and Local  Executive Order S-03-05  Established GHG emissions targets for California:  By 2010, Reduce to 2000 Levels  By 2020, Reduce to 1990 Levels  By 2050, Reduce to 80% below 1990  Oversight by Secretary of CalEPA with other state departments, Climate Action Team  Biennial report on progress, impacts of global warming on California, and mitigation and adaptation plans to combat impacts  No action for implementation to date North America | Europe | Australia | Asia4 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    15. 15. Health and Safety Code 38501. The Legislature finds and declares all of the Global Climate Solutions Act following: (a) Global warming poses a serious threat to the economic well-being, public health, natural resources, and the environment of California.  Required that GHG emissions be reduced to 1990 levels by 2020  Statewide cap on certain emissions to be phased in, starting in 2012  ARB to develop regulations and reporting system to track and monitor emission levels North America | Europe | Australia | Asia5 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    16. 16. So what does this all mean?  Small incremental emissions can be cumulatively considerable….e.g. SJVAPCD  Can’t dance around it you have to assess significance and recommend feasible, enforceable mitigation/alternatives  Absence of State thresholds is not an excuse to avoid determining significance  Highest priority is securing feasible mitigation and/or alternatives to reduce carbon emissions, including use of offsets North America | Europe | Australia | Asia6 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    17. 17. Sources of Information and Guidance CAPCOA Guidance 08’ & 10’ OPR Guidance 08’ ARB Scoping Plan 08’ Attorney Generals Mit. List 10’ North America | Europe | Australia | Asia7 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    18. 18. ARB’s Scoping Plan  Strategies to achieve reduction includes ARB- recommended GHG reductions for each emissions sector of the state’s GHG inventory  Improved emission standards for light-duty vehicles  Low-Carbon Fuel Standard  Energy efficiency measures in buildings and appliances and the widespread development of combined heat and power systems  Renewable portfolio standard for electricity production  Reapproved in August 2011 North America | Europe | Australia | Asia8 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    19. 19. Climate Change, GHG, CEQA….Oh My!  CEQA Guidelines were revised effective March 10, 2010  Key contents:  Determining significance  Use of existing streamlining tools  Appendix F – Energy Conservation  Appendix G – Checklist  Not there: quantified GHG threshold, vulnerability provisions North America | Europe | Australia | Asia9 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    20. 20. Take it District by District  SCAQMD  SJVAPCD  GHG CEQA Significance Threshold  Basis: Performance based Working Group  All projects that would result in an  Draft Guidance document - Interim increase in GHG emissions would be CEQA GHG Significance Threshold subject to San Joaquin Valley APCD’s (October 2008) Best Performance Standards (BPS)  Significance Threshold (5-Tier  Projects implementing BPS would Approach) be determined to have a less than  Tier 1: Applicable exemptions significant individual and cumulative  Tier 2: GHG emissions within GHG impact on climate change budgets in approved  ? Where are the BPSs regional plans  Tier 3: GHG emissions incremental increase below, or mitigated to less than the significance screening level  Tier 4: Performance standards  Tier 5: Offsets North America | Europe | Australia | Asia0 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    21. 21. Best Performance Standards  BPS Stationary Source Projects  Most stringent GHG emission reductions technology  Achieved-in-Practice  Pre-quantified GHG emission reductions  BPS Development Projects  Any combination of approved measures  Achieved-In-Practice  Reducing GHG emissions by at least a 29% North America | Europe | Australia | Asia1 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    22. 22. Analytical Tools  Urban Emissions Model (URBEMIS) (http://www.urbemis.com/) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area)  BAAQMD’s GHG Model Add-on (BGM) (All) (http://www.urbemis.com/) (All)  SCAQMD’s CalEEMod (http://www.aqmd.gov/caleemod/download.htm) (All)  ARB On-Road Emission Factors Model (EMFAC 2011) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/modeling.htm)  ARB Off-Road Emission Factors Model (OFFROAD 2007) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/offroad/offroad.htm)  EPA Climate Leaders GHG Inventory Guidance (http://www.epa.gov/climateleaders/resources/inventory- guidance.html) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  California Climate Action Registry (CCAR) General Reporting Protocol (http://www.climateregistry.org/tools/protocols/general-reporting-protocol.html) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  World Resources Institute (WRI) GHG Protocol (http://pdf.wri.org/ghg_protocol_2004.pdf) (On- and Off- Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  ARB Regulation Order (http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/2007/ghg2007/isor.pdf) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  ARB/CCAR/ICLEI/TCR Local Government Operations Protocol (http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/protocols/localgov/pubs/final_lgo_protocol_2008-09-25.pdf) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect North America | Europe | Australia | Asia2 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com
    23. 23. Sample Projects  Bell Village Project- City of Santa Rosa  Chik-Fa-La Project- City of Santa Rosa  Shore Power Project- Port of Oakland  SunPower Solar Project-County of Kings  Elk Grove SOI Expansion- Sacramento LAFCO North America | Europe | Australia | Asia3 www.firstcarbonsolutions.com

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