Tutoring through Assessment: Practices and innovations
Commonwealth EducationalMedia Centre for AsiaTutoring throughAssessmentPractices and innovations Sanjaya Mishra
Assessment It is a process of obtaining information about learners progress and achievement in learning
Why Assessment? Selecting learners Certification Motivating learners Improve the practice of teachingPrimarily assessment serves two purposes To provide support and feedback to learners to improve their on-going learning To report on what they have already achieved, whether this be a grade or written comment
Trends in Assessment• Shift from • Towards – Assessing knowledge – Assessing skills and understanding – Assessing products – Assessing processes – End of course test – Continuous assessment – Written assessments – Use of variety of methods/evidence – Norm-referenced – Criterion-referenced – Pass/Fail summative – Formative identification of strengths and weaknesses and recording of positive achievements I addition to summative
Qualities of Good Assessment Aligning assessment with objectives Explicit/open criteria and standards Authentic and holistic tasks Facilitative degree of structure to promote self-direction Sufficient and timely formative feedback Balanced tension between workload and time
Assessment in ODL Non-assessable activities and feedback in study materials Self-assessment questions with feedback in the learning materials Assignments (TMAs and CMAs) Dialogue with tutors and peer groups Practicals and portfolio Project work, seminars, field work, etc. Formal examinations
Types of Tests Objective – Matching – Multiple Choice – True-False – Sequencing – Fill in the Blanks – Sentence completion Short Answer (50-150 words) Long Answer (600-1200 words)
Self Assessment One of the psycho-pedagogic basis of distance learning materials Promotes self-monitoring of progress by learners Develops independent and self-directed learning Important to apply for recognition of prior learning Promotes self knowledge and understanding
Self-Assessment Research shows that high achievers tend to under-estimate and low achievers tend to over-estimate (Falchikov and Boud, 1989; and Mishra, 2004). Tutor feedback is important Assessment criteria for self-assessment – What I have been doing? – How have I been doing? – What do I think of what I have been doing? – How could I improve my approach?
Portfolios Collection of evidence that learning has taken place Collection of what learners themselves judge to be most meaningful representation of their learning in a subject Both a learning as well as assessment tool Developmental growth of a learner over a period of time can be tracked Also useful to prospective employers Provides opportunity for self-reflection
PortfoliosReflects evidence of: Progress over time Understanding of key principles and/or processes Lack of understanding and hence future learning needs Originality and creativity Achievements in different context and application Key skills development
Reflective Journaling Reflection is important for learning Two types: Reflection-on-action and Reflection-in-action Reflection is a systematic meaning making process that requires attitude to value the personal and intellectual growth of oneself and others. It is not just writing diary
Reflective Journaling Use action verbs in the level beyond "Remember" in revised Blooms Taxonomy Cover critical reflection approach by using questions such as what, how and why Provide opportunity for contextualize, theorize, personalize, and generalize (Source: Mishra and Panda, 2007)
Assessment Tools Marking Scheme (Source: Morgan & OReilly, 1999)
Assessment Tools SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs, 1999) SOLO Level Description Example of verbs associatedPre-structural The task itself is not attacked in an Missed point appropriate way. The student has not understood the point.Uni-structural One relevant aspect of task is picked up Identify, Do simple and there is no relationship between procedure. facts or ideas. Understanding is nominal.Multi- Several (two or more) independent Enumerate, Describe, List,structural aspects are picked up or understood Combine, Do algorithms serially but are not interrelated.Relational Relevant aspects are integrated into an Compare, Contrast, overall coherent structure. Explain causes, Analyse, Relate, Apply.Extended The coherent whole is generalised or re- Theorize, Generalize,abstract conceptualised to a higher level of Hypothesize, Reflect. abstraction.
Assessment Tools Using Rubrics – Rating scales or scoring guides that consists of specific pre-defined performance criteria used in assessing student performances – Two types: Holistic rubrics and Analytic rubrics – Use online tools such as Rubistar to develop Rubrics at http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.php
Assignments at IGNOU TMAs and CMAs depending on the requirements and decision of the School Board and Academic Council Used as 2-way communication through tutor comments (academic and personal) and supplemental communication
Tutoring through Assignments Removes the isolation of students at ODL Supports them in their learning process to identify areas which they should further develop Creates a dialogue between teacher and learner Promotes reflective and self-evaluative thinking
Inside Tutor Comments Drawing attention to facts they have overlooked or misinterpreted Suggesting alternative approaches or interpretations Drawing attention to gaps in learning Suggesting how the learners might improve Identify relationships with student’s present response and previous learning Appreciate special efforts or improvements in competence Suggest new sources of information
Tutor comments should/may Always be Positive Always be Constructive Rarely be Negative Sometimes be Null Never be Hollow Never be Misleading Never be Harmful
Examples… Positive Comment: Your explanation with regard to ---- is very good. I appreciate the diagrammatic representation of the concepts. Constructive Comment: You could have discussed the following three parts: – (i)… – (ii)… – (iii)… Use of more examples and illustrations are welcome
Examples Negative Comment: The example given is not correct Null Comment: ?? ‗ ‗ ‗ X ( ) ~ ~ ~ Hollow Comment: Your answer is so so. You can improve your presentation. You may spend some more time in writing this answer. Misleading Comment: Where the student is right, but teacher indicates it as wrong. Harmful Comment: Really bad/ Horrible language/ This is nonsense/ Are you writing English for the first time?
Global Comments Specified Format of Global Comment Sheet Give Grade: – A = Excellent – B = Very Good – C= Good – D = Satisfactory – E = Unsatisfactory Provide an overview of the comments Explain grade The grade and comments should be matching