Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Open, Distance and eLearning in India: Status and Trends


Published on

Presentation on 22 September 2013 at the National Conference on Higher Education: Emerging trends organised by Raj Bhawan, Bihar. (uses some slides from other other sources)

Published in: Education

Open, Distance and eLearning in India: Status and Trends

  1. 1. Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia Open, Distance and eLearning in India: Status and Trends Sanjaya Mishra Director, Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia September 22, 2013
  2. 2. Structure of the Presentation  Historical Perspective and Current Situation  Problems and Issues  Strategies and Approaches
  3. 3. Historical Perspectives  1962: University of Delhi  1964: Kothari Commission  1975: Parthasarathy Committee  1978: CBSE project Open School  1982: Dr. BRAOU  1985: IGNOU  1989: NOS (Now NIOS)
  4. 4. Structure of ODL  National Open University  15 State Open Universities (including 2 private: Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh)  Over 200 Dual mode universities and specialized institutions offering ODL  Chartered Accountancy, Company secretary, Cost Accountancy, etc. also offered programmes in distance mode
  5. 5. Structure of ODL  Programmes offered at all level (Open Basic Education to Doctoral Degrees)  Number of students (over 2 million at School level; 4.2 million at higher education level)  Technical courses through AICTE-UGC-DEC Committee  Some areas still not allowed (e.g. Medicine and Law)
  6. 6. PROBLEMS AND ISSUES  Quality  Access  Equity  Technology  Interaction
  7. 7. Quality  IGNOU Act (dual role: offered programme and also monitored quality of ODL in the country)  Distance Education Council established in 1991 under IGNOU Act (first quality agency in the country) – now, part of UGC  Dual standards of quality learning  Poor monitoring of quality  Poor perception of ODL
  8. 8. Access  Lack of National Human Resource Planning  Planned to have additional capacity of 1 million in ODL in 12th Plan (about 15% in ODL)  Additional 2.5 million in School in 12th Plan; 5.2 million at HE  Reduction in attrition rates in ODL
  9. 9. Equity  Who is the ODL student?  Rural-Urban gap  Enrolment of Women (about 27%) and people with disabilities
  10. 10. Interaction  Interaction is the hallmark of quality (this is at least in F2F)  Interaction in ODL through materials, assignments, technology, contact session, different formats of tutorial support (including, f2f contact, telephone, online, mobile SMS)
  11. 11. Technology  Started with supplementary approach to use of Audio and Video  Added teleconference (audio and video) at designated centres  Used Satellite based interaction (again from designated centres)  Learning materials available through eGyanKosh, NPTEL  eLearning is yet to follow pace
  12. 12. ODL Human Resources  Not enough teachers with ODL capacities  IGNOU has MA in Distance Education and Post Graduate Diploma in eLearning  Short term courses organised for in-service training  Large numbers of Academic Counsellors, who are backbone of the support system are untrained
  13. 13. STRATEGIES AND APPROACHES  Understanding ODL  Ensuring Quality  Improving Access and Equity  Using Appropriate Technology  Strengthening Institutional Capacities  Improving perception of ODL
  14. 14. Understanding ODL The classical definition of Distance Education says, it is a system:  Where teaching and learning is mediated by technology (print, audio, video, computers, etc)  Where didactic conversation takes place through learning materials and assignments  Where learning is primarily asynchronous (taking place at a time, place and pace decided by the learner)  Where the student and teacher are not permanently separated  Where the student is quasi-permanently separated from peer group.
  15. 15. Understanding ODL Open is all about:  No requirement for entry qualification  No physical boundary of the institution  Flexibility of choice of courses  Use of technology to teach
  16. 16. Understanding ODL Use of eLearning is changing teaching-learning practices:  Both face-to-face and distance education  It can be used effectively to increase quality of student interaction in both the systems  Make teachers and institutions more accountable  It is the new age distance education
  17. 17. Why ODL?  NKC recommendation: 1500 universities by 2015  Do we have the resources?  ODL provides Economies of Scale  Optimally utilizes the existing infrastructure and expertise  Cost of Open Schooling per child is about 1/10 of cost in conventional system (NIOS)  Cost of graduate distance education is about 35% of F2F
  18. 18. Costs in ODL  Korea (KNOU): annual cost/student $186 as compared to $2880 in a campus university  Thailand (STOU): studies show cost/learner is $226 compared to $876 for conventional learning Open and Distance learning in the developing world – Perraton (2000)
  19. 19. Dual-mode provision  University of Nairobi: cost/learner of a residential B.Ed was 3 times that of an ODL programme For dual mode systems: cost in CCIs were 15% of conventional departments Perraton (2000)
  20. 20. Open and distance education in mega universities COUNTRY INSTITUTION ENROLMENT % of Campus Cost* Pakistan AIOU 456.126 22 China CCRTVU 2,300,000 40 India IGNOU 1,187,100 35 UK OU 203,744 50 *Unit cost per student as a percentage of the average for other universities in the country, NKC, 2004.
  21. 21. Ensuring Quality  How?  Recognition Vs. Accreditation  Common quality framework for Learning irrespective of mode (e.g. QAA of UK )  Internal quality assurance system  Development of quality standards
  22. 22. Improving Access and Equity  Existing number of colleges (over 31,000) in the country: Use unutilized space and time  All universities offer need based programmes through ODeL; especially use eLearning for existing courses and programmes  Release all materials produced through public funding as Open Educational Resources under suitable license  Provide special incentives for women, persons with disabilities and economically weaker sections of the society to pursue ODL programmes
  23. 23. Technology and Interaction  Content is King: Make all learning resources digital and Open Educational Resoruce  Content is King, but not ENOUGH: Create e- environment for increasing student- teacher, student and teacher to content and student-student interaction  Support asynchronous learning by accessing learning resources on the Web, Mobile and through on-demand DTH services
  24. 24. Technology Innovation: COL Tablet server A tablet used as a server can host an LMS or CMS such as Moodle or Wordpress pre-loaded with learning materials. A portable wireless router can broadcast a network that students can connect to An external battery can power the wireless router off-grid for up to 12 hours.
  25. 25. Improving ODL Practitioners  Trained human resources for ODeL (in-service vs pre-service training)  Policies aligned with national mandates  ODeL as a lifelong learning strategy rather than second chance to education
  26. 26. Trends in eLearning and OER  eLearning initiated in late 1990s, but now it has become more pervasive  Over 80 programmes are available online in Commonwealth Asia  eLearning is used in different ways by both distance teaching and F2F universities  Use of Open Educational Resources increasing  Shift from content development approach to learning facilitation  More of a convergence of distance and F2F teaching
  27. 27. eLearning Models  Use of in-house technology (IGNOU’s PG Certificate on Management of Resettlement and Rehabilitation)  Use of Open Source/ Proprietary LMS (currently several programmes, including the PGDEL)  Use of Wiki platform for training (2008 conducted online training and delivered online certificate)  Delivery of video lessons online and web courses (NPTEL Courses)  Emergence of MOOC (IIT, Kanpur and COL on Mobiles for Development) eLearning can bridge the gap between face-to-face and distance education.
  28. 28. Open Educational Resources and MOOC  Making available textbooks in open licences to create an ecosystem for re-use and re- mixing of knowledge resources  Make textbooks accessible to all  Teachers will have more time to teach, explain, mentor students (including in Distance education)  MOOCs can address up-gradation of skills and knowledge of large numbers
  29. 29. Possible Steps  Policy on Open Distance and Technology Enabled Learning as a strategy for lifelong learning  Adoption of an Open license framework for sharing educational resources  Adopting more online learning practices in Indian universities  Adopt consortium approach to delivery of education through ODL
  30. 30. Thank YOU