Creating environment for sharing educational and research resources
CREATING ENVIRONMENT FORSHARING EDUCATIONAL ANDRESEARCH RESOURCES PROF. V.VENKAIAH VICE-CHANCELLOR KRISHNA UNIVERSITY email@example.com
Presentation Focus Changing university’s research and teaching roles Emerging trends in OERs and OA Role of International Development Agencies Addressing the issue of creating an enabling environment and policies for development and sharing of quality educational and research resources.
Components of Scholarliness Discovery (Research in specific discipline) Integration (Making connections across disciplines) Application (Service activities) Teaching (Highest level of scholarly activity) Boyer : 1990
Why policies are important? Policies are important as they serve as guide, and assist the senior management to adopt fair and logical procedures to administer and distribute funds. Policies define general perspective - when the policy is applicable, who are covered by the policy, what actions are encouraged within the policy, how the policy is administered, etc.
Why policies are important? Policies are predetermined course of action established to guide the organizational actions towards achievement of its short-term and long-term objectives They have a direct link to the vision and mission of the organization
OER and OA Open Educational Resources (OER) and Open Access (OA) to scientific information. OER and OA are two sides of the same higher education ecosystem, and are essential to improve the quality of teaching and research.
OER - OpenCourseWare“The term Open Educational Resources (OER) refer tothe open provision of educational resources, enabled byinformation and communication technologies, forconsultation, use and adaptation by a community ofusers for non-commercial purposes”. UNESCO meeting in 2002“The Open Courseware concept is based on thephilosophical view of knowledge as a collective socialproduct and so it is also desirable to make it a socialproperty” V. S. Prasad (2002)
OERs – Some Views OERs are teaching, learning and research resources that reside in public domain that permits their free use or customization by others (Bissell, A: 2007). OERs are sharable assets. (Smith and Casserly: 2006) They represent the efforts of a worldwide community, empowered by the internet, to help equalize the access to knowledge and educational opportunities.
OpenCourseWare MovementWorldwide MIT OCW UNESCO’s Other Initiative Institutional Initiatives OER Users COL’s UKOU Initiatives Experience of OER
UNESCO Recommendations to Govts. Promote awareness and use of OER Bridge digital divide by developing infrastructure Develop national policy for OER Promote use of Open licensing frameworks Support capacity building initiatives on OER Encourage and support research on OER Adopt open standards and technologies for interoperability Encourage open licence for materials produced using public funds
UNESCO Recommendations to Institutions Promote awareness and use of OER Improve media and information literacy Develop institutional policies for OER Educate stakeholders on open licenses and copyright Promote quality assurance and peer review of OER Develop strategic partnerships to avoid duplication of work as well as technologies Encourage and support research on OER Develop tools to facilitate access to OER
UNESCO Recommendations to Teachers Promote awareness and use of OER Develop and use OER Engage in peer review of OER Promote quality of OER Develop OER in local languages Contextualize OER Conduct research on OER Share learning materials prepared
OER Africa recommends institutional policyfor OER Does institutional policy provide clarity on IPR and copyright on works created during the course of employment? Does HR policy provide guidance regarding whether or not the creation of certain kinds of work – e. g. learning resources – constitutes part of the job description of staff?
OER Africa recommends institutional policyfor OER Does the institution have ICT policy regarding access to and use of appropriate software, hardware, the internet and technical support? Does the institution have materials development and Quality Assurance (QA) policy guidelines to ensure appropriate selection, development, QA and copyright clearance of works that may be shared?
Research Publications ISSN registered a total of 15,55,307 titles till 2010, and the corresponding number for 2002 was 10,72,023 Price (1963) estimated the growth rate as 4.7% with a doubling time of 15 years. Larsen and von Ins (2010) after analysing the growth of scientific publications from 1907 to 2007 concluded that the growth rate of science is lower than 4.7% in established disciplines
Research Publications There are about 24,000 peer-reviewed journals. There are 1,14,866 journals recorded in Ulrich’s International Periodical Directory (UIPD - 2012), of which 27,432 are peer- reviewed, scholarly, active and primary journals. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) reports over 7459 open access journals in January 2012 About 13,50,000 articles were published in peer-reviewed journals in 2006; Jinha (2010) estimated that nearly 50 million articles were published by 2008. Björk et al (2008)
Open Access MovementOA as a movement started at a meeting in2001 organized by the Open SocietyInstitute in Budapest, which later came tobe known as Budapest Open AccessInitiative (BOAI).
Open Access“free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited” (BOAI, 2002).
Freedoms of Educational Resources Freedom to use for any purpose Freedom to use and expand Freedom to build on and extend Freedom to educators to use and modify learning materials to ensure personalized and effective use.
Benefits of OA Increased access to current scientific research for researchers and scientists Global dissemination of research and scholarship of individual researchers and Institutions Improvement in the impact of research Institutions and scholars to be cited more Higher Return on Investment (ROI) of research grants as research results are publicly and freely accessible
Considerations for OA Policies Policies should mandate deposit of research papers by scholars in institutional repositories All types of research content should be considered such as published paper, conference proceedings, project reports, theses and dissertations While free access is necessary, institutions also promote open license (as in OER)
Considerations for OA Policies While the policy may recommend publication in OA journals, immediate deposit in institutional and/or subject repository of online access be mandated; Institutions may consider Article Processing Charged (APC) in OA journals as legitimate research cost, and may also create central fund as part of the policy; The policy should also cover compliance issue as deposit is the responsibility of the researchers. Swan (2012)
Need for and Viability of Educational ResourceSharing Increasing social demands on quality educational resources Inadequate available educators and conventional libraries. Advances in information technology Creation and conversion of many learning materials and academic journals into digital objects
Need for and Viability of Educational ResourceSharing Rapid growth of Internet infrastructure Transformation of conventional libraries and learning to the digital libraries and e-learning Accessing information and learning from anywhere at any time. Emergence of educational resource sharing as a viable means to improve the quality of and access to education.
Benefits of Educational Resources Reduced costs Personalized learning Interoperability Customization Localization Creation of a vibrant forum similar to the Internet as a means of sharing and accessing the resources of other educators.
Why should we share our educationalResources? An alternative approach is necessary since the current environment is moving to tighter copyright restriction Digital resource sharing doesnt add costs An alternative to copyrighted, for-profit education. Need to preserve and promote public education
Why should we share our educationalResources? ….. Promoting the digital resource economy One person/institution cannot do alone; Team approach required Communities of practice (communities can foster improved excellence and quality)
What can we do? Organize awareness programs regarding the potential and utility of Open Educational Resources Join the movement of creating and sharing the educational resources Involve in work groups, post news, discuss and exchange Form a community of practice based on open content creation and sharing.
What can we do? Release our educational resources under a creative commons license Encourage our institutions to adopt the creative commons license Advocate for formation of a Consortium for Open Educational Resources at National level and become active members.
To Conclude ….“you can dream, create,design and make the mostwonderful thingsin the world.But you need peopleto makeyour dream a reality” Walt Disney