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Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER)


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Introduction to Open Educational Resources

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Introduction to Open Educational Resources (OER)

  1. 1. Introduction to OERs
  2. 2. What are…
  3. 3. Open Things… • Open Access • Open Content • Open Course ware • Open Source Software • Open Education / e-Learning • Open Educational Resources • …and many more things
  4. 4. 4 Change in philosophy towards an “Open Movement” Open Source Software Open Access Open Licences Open Society Open Science Open Educational Resources Open Data
  5. 5. 5 Affordances of the Internet Title : File:Internet map 1024.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Source : license : Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported
  6. 6. 6 Available to other faculties, students and institutions. Other educators can now discover and reuse. …sharing beyond the classroom Traditional sharing of teaching materials Learning activity or resource Creates Designated as OER on web Adapted from Conole, G., McAndrew, P. & Dimitriadis, Y., 2010 Shares with students and other faculty Sharing educational resources as OER Additional considerations: • Clearing of copyright issues • Formatting for web and accessibility for reuse • Addition of descriptive metadata • Publishing in repository, referatory or on the web Educator
  7. 7. 7 What has enabled OER? • Alternative copyright Licensing • A range of financial models • Affordances of the Internet • Change in philosophy Social Technical Financial Legal
  8. 8. Beginning… The term was first used at a UNESCO conference in 2002, although OERs were being produced and used before that time. For instance, the MIT OpenCourseWare project, which began in 2001, was one of the first major initiatives of the OER movement.
  9. 9. Lets see how it all started… • In 1994 Wayne Hodgins coined the term “learning object,” and this term quickly entered the vernacular of educators and instructional designers. • One role of learning objects in the history of OER is its popularization of the idea that digital materials can be designed and produced in such a manner as to be reused easily in a variety of pedagogical situations. • Along with its emphasis on reuse, the learning object movement spawned several standards efforts aimed at detailing metadata, content exchange, and other standards necessary for users to find and reuse digital educational content (ARIADNE, IMS, IEEE LTSC / LOM, SCORM, &c.).
  10. 10. Open Content • In 1998 David Wiley coined the term “open content,” and while targeted at the educational community (and learning object creators specifically), the term quickly entered the vernacular of internet users.
  11. 11. Open Source…FOSS… • One role of open content in the history of OER is its popularization of the idea that the principles of the open source / free software movements can be productively applied to content, and the creation of the first widely adopted open license for content (the Open Publication License).
  12. 12. Creative Commons… • In 2001 Larry Lessig and others founded the Creative Commons and released a flexible set of licenses that were both a vast improvement on the Open Publication Licenses™ confusing license option structure and significantly stronger legal documents. • One role of Creative Commons in the history of OER is the increase in credibility and confidence their legally superior, much easier to use licenses brought to the open content community.
  13. 13. 2001 MIT announced its OpenCourseWare initiative • to publish nearly every university course for free public access for noncommercial use. MIT OpenCourseWare has played many roles in the history of OER, including being an example of commitment at an institutional level, working actively to encourage similar projects, and lending the MIT brand to the movement.
  14. 14. 2002: UNESCO • As the number of institutions offering free or open courseware increased, UNESCO organized the 1st Global OER Forum in 2002 where the term Open Educational Resources (OER) was adopted.
  15. 15. 2005: OER Community wiki • With the support of the Hewlett Foundation, UNESCO created a global OER Community wiki in 2005 to share information and work collaboratively on issues surrounding the production and use of Open Educational Resources.
  16. 16. Feb 2006: WikiEducator domain name registered
  17. 17. 2006 October: OpenLearn of UKOU
  18. 18. 2006 November • FLOSS4Edu launches for African OER • 2008: OER Africa launched
  19. 19. What is an OER? Image source:
  20. 20. Open Educational Resources (OER) are ‘materials offered freely and openly to use and adapt for teaching, learning, development and research’. - The Commonwealth of Learning (COL)
  21. 21. Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials that are freely available online for everyone to use, whether you are an instructor, student or self-learner. Examples of OER include: full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many more resources contained in digital media collections from around the world. - OER Commons
  22. 22. OER are teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others. Open educational resources include full courses, course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming videos, tests, software, and any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support access to knowledge. - The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
  23. 23. Open Educational Resources free and openly licensed educational materials that can be used for • teaching, • learning, • research, and • other purposes.
  24. 24. “Open” in Open Content 5Rs Framework • Reuse • Revise • Remix • Redistribute • Retain "A door can be wide open, mostly open, cracked slightly open, or completely closed. So can your eyes, so can a window, etc.“ – David Wiley[ Image Source:
  25. 25. Types of Open Educational Resources • Courses • Course materials • Content modules • Learning objects • Collections, and • Journals
  26. 26. 26 Open Educational Resources Open Content / Open educational resources (OER) / Open Courseware are educational materials which are discoverable online and openly licensed that can be: Shared Shared freely and openly to be… Used Improved Redistribute d … used by … redistribute and share … adapt / repurpose/ anyone to … improve under some type of license in order to … again.
  27. 27. 27 Alternative copyright Licensing
  28. 28. 28 A range of financial models • Donor funding – e.g. Hewlett Foundation • Marketing budget – e.g. Open University • Commission – e.g. MIT and Amazon • Endowment – e.g. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • Membership – e.g. Sakai Consortium, OCWC • Government – e.g. NROER – Govt of India funding
  29. 29. 29 Recap: What makes an OER? • Educational curriculum, materials or mixed media • Discoverable online as they are shared freely and openly • Openly licensed (usually Creative Commons) • Can be legally used by anyone to repurpose/ improve and redistribute
  30. 30. Strategies…
  31. 31. Open Educational Practice (OEP) A characteristic of Open Educational Practice, compared with conventional forms of professional practice, is that it changes the nature of relationships… - Allison Littlejohn, Lou McGill, Isobel Falconer, Jay Dempster
  32. 32. What this change is? • Between academics and support staff (as people work in multi-disciplinary teams, sharing areas of expertise); • Amongst academics (as teaching practice shifts from individual practice to cross-institutional and inter-institutional collaboration); • Between academics and students (as teachers and learners (who may not be registered with a university) interact in new ways); • Between academics and organisations {including the university where they are employed} (as university activities open up).
  33. 33. What further we can do?
  34. 34. Explore… find… search… Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
  35. 35. Collaborate for content creation… Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education
  36. 36. Collaborate for content creation…
  37. 37. Author: Document, remix, license, and share OER
  38. 38. Curate… Create a specific collection of OER for easy access and sharing
  39. 39. Share…
  40. 40. Join OER Foundation…
  41. 41. Beome a proud member of WikiEducator
  42. 42.
  43. 43. WikiEducator - India
  44. 44. Free professional development opportunity from the OER Foundation
  45. 45. OER Project: Guide for newly enrolled distance learners
  46. 46. Thank You !