Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Can environmentally-friendly farming also
be productive?
James Bullock
NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
jmbul@ceh.ac.uk
Agri-environment schemes
• Implemented in the EU through the CAP (but also
elsewhere in the World)
• Targeted primarily at...
Agri-environment schemes do work
Arable plant survey (20-km)
Bumblebee survey (10-km)
Bird - assemblage studies
#
# #
#
#
...
But are AES simply a cost to productive farming?
• Encouraging wild bees as crop pollinators?
y = -1.8621x+ 558.56
R² = 0....
Worldwide – wild pollinators enhance crop fruit set
• Wild insects more important for crops than honeybees
Changeinfruitse...
But are AES simply a cost to productive farming?
• Encouraging natural pest control?
Numberofadultaphids
Might AES enhance crop yields?
• Studies of blueberries in the US & of mangoes in S.
Africa show wildflower patches increa...
The Hillesden Project
• Quantify effects of agri-environmental measures on
biodiversity, beneficial species & crop yield
•...
Block 1
Block 2
Block 3
Block 4
Block 5
Design
Hillesden: monitoring
• 10 years of monitoring
• Crop yield & inputs
• Beneficial species associated with
crop production ...
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
Cross
Compliance
ELS ELS Extra
YieldasRatioofRegionalaverage
Croppedarea
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05...
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
1.10
Cross
Compliance
ELS ELS Extra
Yielddeficitasratioofnational
average
Beans - cropp...
a) Cropped area
b) Whole field
Effects on yield: Wheat
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Yielddeficitasratioof
Regional/Nationalaverage
Whole field
CrossCompliance...
Using AES more broadly for sustainable farming?
BLOCK2
11a
10
9
7
6
5
4
3a
3
2
1
11b
11c
13
14
A41 Grass
Corral
Cranwell
S...
Farmers have a very important role
• Farmers with longer and more intense experience in
AES produce better quality margins...
Can environmentally-friendly farming also be productive?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Can environmentally-friendly farming also be productive?

1,262 views

Published on

Professor James Bullock of the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology was one of the speakers at the 2015 Oxford Farming Conference, held at the Oxford University Examination Schools from 6-8 January.

Published in: Environment
  • Be the first to comment

Can environmentally-friendly farming also be productive?

  1. 1. Can environmentally-friendly farming also be productive? James Bullock NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology jmbul@ceh.ac.uk
  2. 2. Agri-environment schemes • Implemented in the EU through the CAP (but also elsewhere in the World) • Targeted primarily at wildlife, but also other environmental benefits – reducing pollution, storing carbon, increasing soil health, etc • Budget in the EU ca €2.5bn per year • Payments compensate farmers for “profit foregone”
  3. 3. Agri-environment schemes do work Arable plant survey (20-km) Bumblebee survey (10-km) Bird - assemblage studies # # # # # # # # ## ## ## 0 100 20050 Kilometers 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Control General Evidence Control General Evidence Control vs. General Evidence vs. General Evidence vs. Control a) Plants b) Bumblebees c) Birds Common species Rare species -1.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 No.commonspecies No.rarespecies No.commonspecies No.rarespecies Hedges’d • Although they need to be well designed
  4. 4. But are AES simply a cost to productive farming? • Encouraging wild bees as crop pollinators? y = -1.8621x+ 558.56 R² = 0.202 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 50 100 150 200 250 Pollinatordensity(indi.ha-1) Distance fromfieldboundary (m) Wild_bees
  5. 5. Worldwide – wild pollinators enhance crop fruit set • Wild insects more important for crops than honeybees Changeinfruitsetcompared tonoinsectpollinators
  6. 6. But are AES simply a cost to productive farming? • Encouraging natural pest control? Numberofadultaphids
  7. 7. Might AES enhance crop yields? • Studies of blueberries in the US & of mangoes in S. Africa show wildflower patches increase pollination and fruit yield
  8. 8. The Hillesden Project • Quantify effects of agri-environmental measures on biodiversity, beneficial species & crop yield • 1000ha commercial arable farm • Three treatments applied to 50-60ha patches: - Cross Compliance (0% land removed) - Typical Entry Level AES (1% land removed for two wildlife habitats) - Entry Level Extra AES (6% land removed for six habitats) • Habitat location in awkward/low yielding margins /corners
  9. 9. Block 1 Block 2 Block 3 Block 4 Block 5 Design
  10. 10. Hillesden: monitoring • 10 years of monitoring • Crop yield & inputs • Beneficial species associated with crop production (pollinators, pest control) • Declining farmland species (e.g. birds, butterflies)
  11. 11. 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 Cross Compliance ELS ELS Extra YieldasRatioofRegionalaverage Croppedarea 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 Cross Compliance ELS ELS Extra YieldasRatioofRegionalaverage Whole field a) Cropped area b) Whole field Effects on yield (6yrs): all crops (wheat, OSR, beans)
  12. 12. 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 Cross Compliance ELS ELS Extra Yielddeficitasratioofnational average Beans - cropped areaEffects on yield: Beans a) Cropped area 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 Cross Compliance ELS ELS Extra Yielddeficitasratioofnational average Beans - whole field b) Whole field
  13. 13. a) Cropped area b) Whole field Effects on yield: Wheat
  14. 14. 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Yielddeficitasratioof Regional/Nationalaverage Whole field CrossCompliance ELS ELS Extra Yield trend with time 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 YieldasRatioofRegional/National average Croppedarea CrossCompliance ELS ELS Extra a) Cropped area b) Whole field
  15. 15. Using AES more broadly for sustainable farming? BLOCK2 11a 10 9 7 6 5 4 3a 3 2 1 11b 11c 13 14 A41 Grass Corral Cranwell Speeds Great Speeds Cow House Browns 0 130 26065 Meters Waddesdon Estate Expermintal Layout ENHANCEMENTS Treatments Control Enhanced Enhanced Options OptDesc Ditch EF2/HF2 Bird EF22 EF4/HF4 EJ9 EK2/3 Early Annuals Fences HF1/HK8 HF10 Sandwich HF10 Shop Window HF10 Wildflower Hedge Leave Existing Other PC Racehorse Paddock BLOCK 2 Disc Feed Slot Wildflower strips for crop pollinators & pest control Legumes into grassland/ arable reversion for carbon capture and decreased flooding/erosion Cover crop, buffer strips & sediment ponds for water quality Wildflowers, rare plants, birds for cultural value
  16. 16. Farmers have a very important role • Farmers with longer and more intense experience in AES produce better quality margins • And so they have more birds, bees & butterflies Improving agri-environment schemes The FarmCat project

×