Energy and Trade:Understanding the impact 20 yearsof NAFTA has had on North America’senergy and environmental sectors     ...
Expectations of NAFTA in the 1990s• Increased trade – economic growth• Promote direct foreign investment  in Mexico• Mexic...
NAFTA Controversy•   Economic benefit          •   Democracy•   Winners                   •   Jobs•   Losers              ...
Environmental Issues• Led to the creation of the North American  Agreement on Environmental Cooperation• Border Environmen...
20th Anniversary Reunion of Activists• Yes, we support the environmental accords  but wish they were stronger• Institution...
Observations• Blecker and Esquivel: “…NAFTA failed to fulfill the  promise of closing the development gap in  Mexico”• Huf...
Nature of Relationship between  Canada, Mexico and United States• Interdependent• Dependent• Intermestic -  International ...
Challenges• Policy Processes• Policy Content• Optimal Outcomes - Best Practices - Models• Low-Hanging Fruit – Lowest Commo...
North American Agenda         • Who’s at the top?         • Who’s at the           bottom?         • Who’s in the middle? ...
North American Agenda• How do the three countries see each other?• How do they understand the world order?• What importanc...
Future Deepening of NAFTA• More Regional Integration• Revisiting NAFTA to include:  ENERGY• Migration, infrastructure,  su...
Mumme and Sanchez• Many Challenges• Environmental Protection• Natural Resource Management• Climate Change• Energy• Positiv...
Mumme and Sanchez• More needs to be done• Current institutions were not designed to  address the multiscaled complexity an...
Mumme and Sanchez• Address rivalry among  local, state, provincial, federal institutions• Parks Canada, Environment  Canad...
Positive Outcomes• “ The automobile industry is almost  seamlessly integrated between the three  countries….” ( Selee and ...
RecommendationsHandshake – Embrace - KissGreet the neighbor but we have not invitedthem over for dinnerHistorical Distrust...
Environmental Institutions• The three countries should not rest on their  laurels….• Continue working on:  – Energy  – Wat...
CEC• Work within the three priorities• Clusters – cross-cutting  priorities• Working Groups• Cooperation• The art of the p...
CEC • Energy • E-Waste • Environmental   Degradation • Emissions • Environmental   Protection • Environmental   Health
For your consideration•   Keystone Pipeline?•   Pemex?•   Fracking?•   Meeting with trade representatives from the    thre...
Be realistic, demand the impossible!• Questions• Comments• Thank you, Merci Beaucoup, Muchas gracias
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Irasema Coronado: Energy and Trade: Understanding the impact 20 years of NAFTA has had on North America’s energy and environmental sectors

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CEC Executive Director Irasema Coronado talks about energy in the context of NAFTA after 20 years at the JPAC public forum on Greening North America's Energy Economy in Calgary on April 24, 2013. More at http://cec.org/jpacenergy

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Irasema Coronado: Energy and Trade: Understanding the impact 20 years of NAFTA has had on North America’s energy and environmental sectors

  1. 1. Energy and Trade:Understanding the impact 20 yearsof NAFTA has had on North America’senergy and environmental sectors Los Tres Amigos/as Are we there yet? Where are we going?Irasema Coronado, Ph.D.CEC Executive Director24 April 2013 – JPAC – Calgary
  2. 2. Expectations of NAFTA in the 1990s• Increased trade – economic growth• Promote direct foreign investment in Mexico• Mexico would export goods not people (Carlos Salinas)• Continental integration• Propel economic growth in North America• Lead to economic convergence• Labor and environmental issues were a concern
  3. 3. NAFTA Controversy• Economic benefit • Democracy• Winners • Jobs• Losers • Rights of workers• Sovereignty • Alignment in foreign• Cultural policy• History • Security• Bilateral relationships • Cooperation• Freer trade – freer • Migration politics • ENVIRONMENT
  4. 4. Environmental Issues• Led to the creation of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation• Border Environmental Cooperation Commission• North American Development Bank• Commission for Environmental Cooperation
  5. 5. 20th Anniversary Reunion of Activists• Yes, we support the environmental accords but wish they were stronger• Institutions with flaws, no real teeth• We see the limitations and the constraints• NAAEC – way to pass NAFTA through the U.S. Congress
  6. 6. Observations• Blecker and Esquivel: “…NAFTA failed to fulfill the promise of closing the development gap in Mexico”• Huffbauer and Schott: Econometric projects - societal benefits of NAFTA• Clarkson: “Does North America Exist?” NAFTA was reshaping internal working of the 3 parties and called for a modified, low-key North American Agenda• Staudt and Coronado- North American Union
  7. 7. Nature of Relationship between Canada, Mexico and United States• Interdependent• Dependent• Intermestic - International and Domestic• Challenges for productive engagement• Variables that lead to cooperation
  8. 8. Challenges• Policy Processes• Policy Content• Optimal Outcomes - Best Practices - Models• Low-Hanging Fruit – Lowest Common Denominator form of compromise• Timing of elections and political appointments
  9. 9. North American Agenda • Who’s at the top? • Who’s at the bottom? • Who’s in the middle? • Unilateralism • Tactical balancing • Multilateral cooperation
  10. 10. North American Agenda• How do the three countries see each other?• How do they understand the world order?• What importance to they attach to the “relationship?”• What do they want from each other and why?
  11. 11. Future Deepening of NAFTA• More Regional Integration• Revisiting NAFTA to include: ENERGY• Migration, infrastructure, supranational institutions, common currency, regional security, etc. (Castaneda and Camin)
  12. 12. Mumme and Sanchez• Many Challenges• Environmental Protection• Natural Resource Management• Climate Change• Energy• Positive Assessment of BECC, NADBANK and CEC• CEC Biodiversity work and Big Bend/Río Bravo Project…..however,
  13. 13. Mumme and Sanchez• More needs to be done• Current institutions were not designed to address the multiscaled complexity and multidimensional problems of the 21st century• Trilateral initiatives need to become better integrated and better supported by the governments• Conservation and biodiversity
  14. 14. Mumme and Sanchez• Address rivalry among local, state, provincial, federal institutions• Parks Canada, Environment Canada, USEPA, Department of Interior, SEMARNAT and CONAFOR• Revisit institutions CEC, BECC and NADBANK
  15. 15. Positive Outcomes• “ The automobile industry is almost seamlessly integrated between the three countries….” ( Selee and Diaz-Cayeros)
  16. 16. RecommendationsHandshake – Embrace - KissGreet the neighbor but we have not invitedthem over for dinnerHistorical DistrustPromote the notion of Shared ResponsibilityDeeper forms of regional integration (social)Citizen-to-Citizen Diplomacy JPAC
  17. 17. Environmental Institutions• The three countries should not rest on their laurels….• Continue working on: – Energy – Water – Groundwater – Imaginative and realistic policy recommendations
  18. 18. CEC• Work within the three priorities• Clusters – cross-cutting priorities• Working Groups• Cooperation• The art of the possible• Hopefully laying the groundwork to tackle the more difficult challenges such as:
  19. 19. CEC • Energy • E-Waste • Environmental Degradation • Emissions • Environmental Protection • Environmental Health
  20. 20. For your consideration• Keystone Pipeline?• Pemex?• Fracking?• Meeting with trade representatives from the three countries?
  21. 21. Be realistic, demand the impossible!• Questions• Comments• Thank you, Merci Beaucoup, Muchas gracias

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