Content Acceleration Beyond Caching, Understanding Dynamic Content

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The Internet was not designed to support the fast delivery of website applications. And caching– does not adequately address the performance requirements of dynamic, web-based applications. In this presentation, we will go over the differences, challenges and methodology for accelerating dynamic and static/cached content with a content delivery network (CDN).

These slides were presented at the 2014 Velocity conference at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA United States

For more information please visit cdnetworks.com.

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  • The example is the list of genres for a music service
  • Content Acceleration Beyond Caching, Understanding Dynamic Content

    1. 1. CDNETWORKS.COM CONTENT ACCELERATION BEYOND CACHING UNDERSTANDING DYNAMIC CONTENT By CDNetworks
    2. 2.  CONTENT ACCELERATION – BEYOND CACHING  CHALLENGES  REPLICATION STRATEGIES  CDN VISUALIZED  BEST PRACTICES COVERED CDNETWORKS.COM
    3. 3. GLOBAL INTERNET CHALLENGES CDNETWORKS.COM
    4. 4. CDNETWORKS.COM PoP 3 PoP 2 PoP 1 Tier 3 Networks (Multi-homed ISP) IXC Tier 1 Networks Tier 3 Networks (single homed ISP) Tier 2 ISPs Global Network Providers Internet Users Broadband Providers Tier 2 Networks Regional ISPs, University Networks Transit Transit Transit Transit Peering THE GLOBAL INTERNET IS COMPLEX
    5. 5. INTERNET RTT LATENCY  DISTANCE  SPEED OF LIGHT 70 ms 150 ms LONDON NEW YORK 500 ms SHANGHAI GLOBAL INTERNET CHALLENGES CDNETWORKS.COM SAN FRANCISCO
    6. 6. GLOBAL INTERNET CHALLENGES NETWORK PROBLEMS  NETWORK OF NETWORKS BOTTLENECKS  PACKET LOSS  CONGESTION  RETRANSMISSION CDNETWORKS.COM SAN FRANCISCO USER
    7. 7. MULTIPLE RTTs FOR CONNECTION NEGOTIATION GLOBAL INTERNET CHALLENGES INEFFICIENT PROTOCOLS / RTT MULTIPLIER •CHATTY PROTOCOL •TCP SLOW START •TENS OF BACK & FORTH ROUND TRIPS •30-50 RTTs FOR ONLY 1 PAGE •CONNECTION LOAD AT ORIGIN CDNETWORKS.COM SAN FRANCISCO FILE USER
    8. 8. LATENCY VISUALIZEDWashington Philadelphia Atlanta Boston Chicago Toronto KansasCity Denver LosAngeles SanDiego SanJose Dublin Amsterdam Vancouver Dortmund Hamburg Berlin London Vienna Milan Madrid Moscow Istanbul Tokyo Mumbai Sydney NewDelhi KualaLumpur Shanghai Chengdu Bangalore DL TIME 24kB OBJECT FROM ORIGIN LOCATION IN WASHINGTON DC, USA 5XSLOWER 9XSLOWER 14XSLOWER 30XSLOWER Source: Compuware Gomez backbone agents 50XSLOWER 3XSLOWER Beijing SITE PERFORMANCE DEGRADES AS DISTANCE INCREASES CDNETWORKS.COM MORE DISTANCE  INCREASED LATENCY LONGER RTT  SLOWER DL SLOWER PAGE LOAD
    9. 9. WEB PAGES DO NOT HELP CDNETWORKS.COM
    10. 10. PERSONALIZED AND REAL TIME Ebay, AspenTech, LightSpeed CDNETWORKS.COM
    11. 11. WEB SITE COMPLEXITY & SECURITY Source: http://www.webperformancetoday.com/ CDNETWORKS.COM
    12. 12. EXTERNAL LINKS ajax.googleapis.com fast.fonts.com brightcove.com google-analytics.com platform.twitter.com google-analytics.com BLOCKING!! WORST CASE: CHINA – MANY DOMAINS BLOCKED YOU HAVE NO CONTROLS OVER PERFORMANCE CDNETWORKS.COM
    13. 13. DOMAIN ARCHITECTURE CDNETWORKS.COM
    14. 14. 2 TYPES OF CONTENT STATIC DYNAMIC STATIC & DYNAMIC CONTENT CDNETWORKS.COM
    15. 15. http://www.mobify.com/blog/beginners-guide-to-http-cache-headers/ STATIC CONTENT CDNETWORKS.COM
    16. 16. http://www.mobify.com/blog/beginners-guide-to-http-cache-headers/ DYNAMIC CONTENT CDNETWORKS.COM
    17. 17. STATIC (http/s)  SET TTL DYNAMIC (http/s)  DYNAMIC ACCELERATION VS. WHOLE SITE DELIVERY ENCRYPTED  SOME CDNs CAN ACCEPT ENCRYPTED TCP CONNECTION & ACCELERATE IT CONTENT TYPES CDNETWORKS.COM
    18. 18. CACHING STATIC CONTENT IS EASY CDNETWORKS.COM
    19. 19. STATIC REPLICATION  EASY – USE CDN  FROM “FREE” TO “ENTERPRISE”  CONTENT HAS TTL  CDN REPLICATES CONTENT GLOBALLY  HONORS TTL  CAN DELETE FROM CDN CACHE CDNETWORKS.COM
    20. 20. CACHING NO: CACHING LONGER ROUND TRIPS = LONGER RESPONSE TIME DWA EDGE WITH: CACHING SHORTER ROUND TRIPS = SHORTER RESPONSE TIME ORIGIN ORIGIN CDNETWORKS.COM
    21. 21. CACHING AND COMPRESSION NO: CACHING, COMPRESSION DWA EDGE WITH: CACHING, COMPRESSION REDUCES ROUND TRIP OBJECT SIZE ORIGIN ORIGIN FILEPARTSNOTCOMPRESSED FILECOMPRESSED CDNETWORKS.COM
    22. 22. DYNAMIC CONTENT IS NOT SO EASY CDNETWORKS.COM
    23. 23. DYNAMIC REPLICATION  GENERALLY CANNOT CACHE/REPLICATE PERSONALIZED RESULTS  NEED TO DETERMINE CONSISTENCY REQUIREMENTS  THEN DESIGN ORIGIN ARCHITETURE TO SUPPORT CDNETWORKS.COM
    24. 24. REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT CONSISTENCY QUESTIONS  HOW MANY HITS ON MY WEB PAGE?  CLOSE ENOUGH IS OK  HOW MANY PEOPLE VIEWED MY LINKEDIN PROFILE?  UPDATED HOURLY IS OK  I WANT TO BUY SEAT 11B ON AN AIRPLANE?  CAN ONLY SELL 1X  PROBLEMS IF SOLD MORE THAN 1X CDNETWORKS.COM
    25. 25. REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT CONSISTENCY APPROACHES  WEAK  BEST EFFORT  ACCEPTABLE FOR SOME LOST DATA  EXAMPLE: WEB PAGE COUNTER OR VOIP  EVENTUAL  DATA OFTEN PUT IN “WORK QUEUE”  EXAMPLE: PROFILE VIEWS  STRONG  RELATIONAL DATABASES  USE TRANSACTIONS  WAITS FOR CONFIRMATION  EXAMPLE: SEAT 11B CDNETWORKS.COM
    26. 26. REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT DATACENTER IMPACT:  WHAT ABOUT SINGLE DATACENTER?  WEAK, EVENTUAL, STRONG:  EASY, BUT SPOF  SPEED & RELIABILITY EXCELLENT  WHAT ABOUT MULTI DATACENTER?  WEAK, EVENTUAL:  RELATIVELY EASY, HARDER THAN SINGLE DATACENTER THOUGH…  STRONG  MUCH MORE DIFFICULT  THINK BANK TRANSACTION CDNETWORKS.COM
    27. 27. • What About Multi-Datacenter? – If you need to do it, you need to do it… Source: http://www.cs.usfca.edu/~srollins/courses/cs682-s08/web/notes/transactions.html REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT CDNETWORKS.COM
    28. 28. Source: http://www.cs.usfca.edu/~srollins/courses/cs682-s08/web/notes/transactions.html REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT OPTIONS FOR MULTI-DATACENTER DON’T  JUST BUILD AS RELIABLE OF A SINGLE DATACENTER SOLUTION AS YOU CAN 2+ DATACENTERS - GOOD  MASTER/REPLICA, MULTI-MASTER  GENERALLY NOT STRONG CONSISTENCY (TERMS VARY)  MIGHT LOSE SOME ACTIVE AND VERY RECENT DATA 2+ DATACENTERS - EXCELLENT  2 PHASE COMMIT/PAXOS  THINK OF BANKING & SEAT 11B CDNETWORKS.COM
    29. 29. REPLICATION – DYNAMIC CONTENT Single Origin 3 Datacenters CDN (CDNetworks) ASSUME YOU HAVE A 2 OR 3 DATACENTER SOLUTION DO YOU STILL NEED A CDN? CDNETWORKS.COM
    30. 30. DYNAMIC CDN ARCHITECTURE CDNETWORKS.COM
    31. 31.  THESE ARE SOME COMMON TECHNIQUES  DIFFERENT CDNs USE DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES  MOST CDNs DO NOT SHARE TECHNIQUES  BOTTOM LINE – PERFORMANCE RESULTS MATTER! DISCLAIMER: DYNAMIC ACCELERATION CDNETWORKS.COM
    32. 32. TCP CAN BE VERY SLOW http://asperasoft.com/technology/transport/fasp/#tcp-464
    33. 33. TCP PERFORMANCE DEGRADES http://esj.com/articles/2007/10/23/accelerating-file-transfers-in-the-midsize-enterprise.aspx
    34. 34. 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 20 40 60 80 100Source: RFC 1323 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 0 60 120 180 240 300 RTT (ms) 65kB window RTT (ms) MAX THROUGHPUT (Mbps) 65kB window 30ms  100ms 70% reduction! TCP MATH MAX THROUGHPUT (Mbps) CDNETWORKS.COM
    35. 35. TLS/SSL OFFLOAD NO: SSL OFFLOADING DWA EDGE WITH: SSL OFFLOAD EDGE SERVER WITH SSL CERTIFICATION ENCRYPTS & DECRYPTS ON IT’S OWN TO REDUCE ORIGIN LOAD ORIGIN ORIGIN CDNETWORKS.COM
    36. 36. DYNAMIC CONTENT NO: CACHING, COMPRESSION, CONN. POOLING OR KEEP ALIVE DWA EDGE WITH: COMPRESSION, CONN. POOLING AND KEEP ALIVE CONTINUOUS CONNECTIONS BETWEEN EDGE & SHIELD; & SHIELD + ORIGIN REDUCE ROUND TRIPS FOR TCP OPEN & CLOSE CONNECTION DWA SHIELD PERSISTANTCONNECTIONS ORIGINORIGIN FILEPARTSNOTCOMPRESSED CDNETWORKS.COM
    37. 37. OPTIMALLY TUNED TCP LINKS LONGRESPONSETIME HIGH LATENCY DWA Edge LOW LATENCY WITH LARGE WINDOWS, FAST RETRANSMIT, FINE GRAINED RETRANSMISSION TIMEOUTS AND FAST RECOVERY DWA Shield LOW LATENCY ORIGIN CDNETWORKS.COM
    38. 38. MOBILE ACCELERATION CDNETWORKS.COM
    39. 39. DYNAMIC - ENCRYPTED HAVEN’T TALKED ABOUT THIS YET  SOME BANKING & ECOMMERCE TRANSACTIONS WANT ACCELERATION, BUT CAN’T SHARE CERTIFICATE NETWORK ACCELERATION  SIMILAR TO DYNAMIC ACCELERATION, BUT NOT HTTP, SO CAN’T READ HEADERS, JUST SEE IP PACKETS  ACCELERATION TECHNIQUES AT LOWER LAYER CDNETWORKS.COM
    40. 40. USER CDNETWORKS.COM ORIGIN SSL SSL ENCRYPTED ACCELERATION NO CACHING ACCELERATES SSL TRAFFIC WITHOUT DECRYPTING CONTENT TERMINATES AT REQUESTING/RESPONDING ENDPOINTS
    41. 41. CDNETWORKS.COM COMPLEX ARCHITECTURE Proxy Server TCPHTTPS TCP TCP TCP TCPHTTPS HTTPS Proxy Server CDN POP CDN POP HTTPS Main Server Proxy Server
    42. 42. DNS IS CRITICAL CDNETWORKS.COM
    43. 43. DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM EVERY LINK UNICAST  UNIQUE IP ADDRESS ANYCAST  SAME IP ADDRESS LDNS  REALLY, WHAT IS USED FOR GEO LOCATION EDNS CLIENT SUBNET  WAY FOR LDNS TO PASS BACK END USER NETWORK ADDRESS CDNETWORKS.COM
    44. 44. PSECURITY IS THE NEW MUST HAVE CDNETWORKS.COM
    45. 45. WEB APPLICATION FIREWALL ORIGIN USER Data CDNETWORKS.COM XSS iSQL
    46. 46. DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ORIGIN CDNETWORKS.COM USER Dynamic Content logo.gif File (Static Content) BIG.pdf File (Static Content)
    47. 47. BEST PRACTICES CDNETWORKS.COM
    48. 48. CDN BEST PRACTICES  DETERMINE DOMAINS: STATIC, DYNAMIC, & ENCRYPTED CONTENT  GLOBAL CUSTOMERS = GLOBAL CDN & GLOBAL DNS  DON’T USE ROOT DOMAIN FOR WEBSITE  HAVE PRIMARY & BACKUP ORIGINS  SET TTL HEADERS ON CONTENT & DNS  BE AWARE CDNS SEND EXTRA HEADERS, USE IF DESIRED  USE APIs FOR CDN AUTOMATION CDNETWORKS.COM
    49. 49. CDNS CAN OVERRIDE SOME CDNS CAN RUN “RULES” AT EDGE  OVERRIDE MARKETING TEAM  IMMEDIATE EFFECT REWRITE URL  SEND REQUESTS FROM “1.JPG” TO “OLD/1.JPG” REDIRECT URL (301/302)  “http” to “https” OVERRIDE HEADER  CACHE-CONTROL: MAX-AGE  CACHE-CONTROL: NO-STORE CDNETWORKS.COM
    50. 50. CDNS CAN OVERRIDE CONTENT VARIATION  USE CORRECT index.html BASED ON COOKIE OR GEO LOCATION REFERRER CHECKING  BLACK/WHITE LIST GEO CONTROL  ALLOW/DENY CONTENT BASED ON GEOGRAPHY ORIGIN REQUEST HEADERS  PASS ORIGIN FAILURE  SET BACKUP  DELIVER STALE CONTENT  RETURN 503 (REDUCE ORIGIN LOAD) CDNETWORKS.COM
    51. 51. CDNETWORKS.COM CONTENT ACCELERATION BEYOND CACHING UNDERSTANDING DYNAMIC CONTENT Presented by CDNetworks For more information visit CDNetworks.com

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