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  1. 1. Viruses & Bacteria
  2. 2. What are VirusesA virus is a non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells.
  3. 3. T4 Bacteriophage
  4. 4. Herpes Virus
  5. 5. Escherichia Coli BacteriumE. coli is a bacterium. That is a crude cell, it is not a virusbecause viruses are protein containers with DNA cores or RNA cores.
  6. 6. E. Coli and the BacteriophageWhat it looks like in real life
  7. 7. The Structure Of a Virus Viruses are composed of a core of nucleic acid The Nucleic acid core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid The Nucleic core is either made up of DNA or RNA but never both
  8. 8. Cycle of Lytic and Lysogenic
  9. 9. Vaccines► Viruses grown on chicken embryos are attenuated vaccines► Another type of vaccine is made by heat killing the virus
  10. 10. Retrovirus Change DNA into RNA. Example of a Retrovirus is HIV
  11. 11. A typical, "minimal" retrovirusconsists of:•an outer envelope whichwas derived from the plasmamembrane of its host•many copies of an envelopeprotein embedded in the lipidbilayer of its envelope•a capsid; a protein shellcontaining•two molecules of RNA and•molecules of the enzymereverse transcriptase
  12. 12. Bacteria Cell
  13. 13. Prokaryotes Cells that do not have a nucleus Exist almost every where on earth Grow in numbers so great you can see them with the unaided eye Are placed in either the Eubacteria or the Archebacteria Kingdoms Make up the smaller of the two kingdoms
  14. 14. EubacteriaMake up the larger ofthe two prokaryotekingdomsGenerally aresurrounded by a cellwall composed ofcomplexcarbohydrates
  15. 15. Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic bacterium Bluish-greenish color Contain membranes that carry out the process of photosynthesis Do not contain the same type of chloroplasts as plants do This bluish-greenish algae can be found nearly everywhere on earth. Can survive in extremely hot environments and even extremely cold environment
  16. 16. Archaebacteria Lack important carbohydrate found in cell walls Have different lipids in their cell membrane Different types of ribosomes Very different gene sequences Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments.
  17. 17. Identifying ProkaryotesCell ShapeCell WallMovement
  18. 18. Bacterium Shapes Cocci~ Sphere shaped bacteria Bacillus~ Rod shaped bacteria Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium.
  19. 19. Gram + and Gram – Bacterium Cell Walls
  20. 20. Cellular Walls Chemical nature of a cell wall can be determined by Gram Staining By finding out what color the cell produces when it is gram stained you can figure out the type of carbohydrates in the cell wall
  21. 21. Movement• Flagella ~ Tail like structure the whips around to propel the bacterium• Cillia ~ Miniature flagella surround the cell that help to “swim”• Non motile ~ Sticky cillia like structures that keep the bacterium from moving
  22. 22. Flagella
  23. 23. Bacteria and theirener g y  Autotrophs  Chemotrophs  Heterotrophs
  24. 24. Autotrophs Make their own energy Using Solar energy Eg. Cyanobacteria
  25. 25. Chemotrophs Make own Energy Using Chemical energy Eg. Archaebacteria
  26. 26. Heterotrophs Obtain food By eating Eg. E-coli
  27. 27. Bacteria Respiration Obligate Anaerobes  Live without Oxygen Facultative  Can live with or Anaerobes without oxygen  Cannot live without Obligate Aerobes oxygen.
  28. 28. Bacteria Reproduction Binary Fission Conjugation Spore Formation
  29. 29. Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits intotwo identical daughter cells
  30. 30. Conjugation A type of Bacteria Sex Two organism swap genetic information, that contains the information such as a resistance to penicillin
  31. 31. Spore Formation: Endospore A type of dormant cell Exhibit no signs of life Highly resistant to environmental stresses such as: -High temperatures -Irradiation -Strong acids -Disinfectants Endospores are formed by vegetative cells in response to environmental signals that indicate a limiting factor for vegetative growth, such as exhaustion of an essential nutrient.
  32. 32. Symbiosis Close relationship between to species in which at least one species benefits from the other Live together for LIFE
  33. 33. Parasitism Bacteria exploit the host cell, injuring them Eg. Mychobacterium tuberculosis
  34. 34. Mutualism Symbiosis in which two of the species live together in such a way that both benefit from the relationship Eg. E-coli
  35. 35. Nitrogen FixationsProcess by which nitrogen in theatmosphere is converted into a form thatcan be used by living things
  36. 36. THE END
  37. 37. This powerpoint was kindly donated towww.worldofteaching.com is home to over athousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is acompletely free site and requires no registration. Pleasevisit and I hope it will help in your teaching.