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Viruses

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Viruses

  1. 1. Viruses & Bacteria
  2. 2. What are VirusesA virus is a non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells.
  3. 3. T4 Bacteriophage
  4. 4. Herpes Virus
  5. 5. Escherichia Coli BacteriumE. coli is a bacterium. That is a crude cell, it is not a virusbecause viruses are protein containers with DNA cores or RNA cores.
  6. 6. E. Coli and the BacteriophageWhat it looks like in real life
  7. 7. The Structure Of a Virus Viruses are composed of a core of nucleic acid The Nucleic acid core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid The Nucleic core is either made up of DNA or RNA but never both
  8. 8. Cycle of Lytic and Lysogenic
  9. 9. Vaccines► Viruses grown on chicken embryos are attenuated vaccines► Another type of vaccine is made by heat killing the virus
  10. 10. Retrovirus Change DNA into RNA. Example of a Retrovirus is HIV
  11. 11. A typical, "minimal" retrovirusconsists of:•an outer envelope whichwas derived from the plasmamembrane of its host•many copies of an envelopeprotein embedded in the lipidbilayer of its envelope•a capsid; a protein shellcontaining•two molecules of RNA and•molecules of the enzymereverse transcriptase
  12. 12. Bacteria Cell
  13. 13. Prokaryotes Cells that do not have a nucleus Exist almost every where on earth Grow in numbers so great you can see them with the unaided eye Are placed in either the Eubacteria or the Archebacteria Kingdoms Make up the smaller of the two kingdoms
  14. 14. EubacteriaMake up the larger ofthe two prokaryotekingdomsGenerally aresurrounded by a cellwall composed ofcomplexcarbohydrates
  15. 15. Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic bacterium Bluish-greenish color Contain membranes that carry out the process of photosynthesis Do not contain the same type of chloroplasts as plants do This bluish-greenish algae can be found nearly everywhere on earth. Can survive in extremely hot environments and even extremely cold environment
  16. 16. Archaebacteria Lack important carbohydrate found in cell walls Have different lipids in their cell membrane Different types of ribosomes Very different gene sequences Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments.
  17. 17. Identifying ProkaryotesCell ShapeCell WallMovement
  18. 18. Bacterium Shapes Cocci~ Sphere shaped bacteria Bacillus~ Rod shaped bacteria Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium.
  19. 19. Gram + and Gram – Bacterium Cell Walls
  20. 20. Cellular Walls Chemical nature of a cell wall can be determined by Gram Staining By finding out what color the cell produces when it is gram stained you can figure out the type of carbohydrates in the cell wall
  21. 21. Movement• Flagella ~ Tail like structure the whips around to propel the bacterium• Cillia ~ Miniature flagella surround the cell that help to “swim”• Non motile ~ Sticky cillia like structures that keep the bacterium from moving
  22. 22. Flagella
  23. 23. Bacteria and theirener g y  Autotrophs  Chemotrophs  Heterotrophs
  24. 24. Autotrophs Make their own energy Using Solar energy Eg. Cyanobacteria
  25. 25. Chemotrophs Make own Energy Using Chemical energy Eg. Archaebacteria
  26. 26. Heterotrophs Obtain food By eating Eg. E-coli
  27. 27. Bacteria Respiration Obligate Anaerobes  Live without Oxygen Facultative  Can live with or Anaerobes without oxygen  Cannot live without Obligate Aerobes oxygen.
  28. 28. Bacteria Reproduction Binary Fission Conjugation Spore Formation
  29. 29. Cellular organism copies it’s genetic information then splits intotwo identical daughter cells
  30. 30. Conjugation A type of Bacteria Sex Two organism swap genetic information, that contains the information such as a resistance to penicillin
  31. 31. Spore Formation: Endospore A type of dormant cell Exhibit no signs of life Highly resistant to environmental stresses such as: -High temperatures -Irradiation -Strong acids -Disinfectants Endospores are formed by vegetative cells in response to environmental signals that indicate a limiting factor for vegetative growth, such as exhaustion of an essential nutrient.
  32. 32. Symbiosis Close relationship between to species in which at least one species benefits from the other Live together for LIFE
  33. 33. Parasitism Bacteria exploit the host cell, injuring them Eg. Mychobacterium tuberculosis
  34. 34. Mutualism Symbiosis in which two of the species live together in such a way that both benefit from the relationship Eg. E-coli
  35. 35. Nitrogen FixationsProcess by which nitrogen in theatmosphere is converted into a form thatcan be used by living things
  36. 36. THE END
  37. 37. This powerpoint was kindly donated towww.worldofteaching.comhttp://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over athousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is acompletely free site and requires no registration. Pleasevisit and I hope it will help in your teaching.

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