Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.Matter is composed of very small particles called atoms. In nature, there are 92 different forms of matter that we call elements. Atoms by Brainpop
There are 11 elements of which most living things are composed.The most abundant element in the human body is oxygen.The second most abundant element in the human body is carbon, and in third place is hydrogen. Together, these three elements make up 92% of a human being.
You are expected to memorize thesymbols for the 11 elements that make up most living things: Element Symbol Oxygen O Carbon C Hydrogen H
You are expected to memorize thesymbols for the 11 elements that make up most living things: Element Symbol Nitrogen N Calcium Ca Phosphorus P
You are expected to memorize thesymbols for the 11 elements that make up most living things: Element Symbol Potassium K Sulfur S Sodium Na
You are expected to memorize thesymbols for the 11 elements that make up most living things: Element Symbol Chlorine Cl Magnesium Mg Intro to Elements Clip
Atoms combine together to form most of the substances we observe in the world around us.Compounds are formed when the atoms of two or more elements chemically joined together to form a new substance with very different properties than the elements of which it is formed.
Compounds, continued… o The smallest piece of a compound is called a molecule o Salt is an example of a compound. It is composed of an atom of sodium chemically “glued” to an atom of chlorine. Each of these NaCl units is called a molecule.
o There are many compounds that are important to living things.
Mixtures are formed when two or more substances are mixed together but not chemically combined.Each substance retains its own characteristics, and can be separated from each other by simple physical means.The air in this room is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and small amounts of other gases. Compounds & Mixtures Clip
Reading Chemical Formulas: H2 OThe letters tell you what elements make up the molecule…what are the elements in this molecule?The little numbers to the right of the letters tell you HOWMANY ATOMS of each element. If there isn’t one, it justmeans that there is one atom of that element.If there was a number in front of the formula, it would tellyou how many MOLECULES of that substance there was: 4H2O How many molecules of water are there here?
One type of mixture that is important to living things is a solution.In a solution, the atoms or molecules of one substance are mixed evenly throughout another substance which is usually a liquid or a gas.
Salt dissolved in water is an example of a solution.A suspension is a type of mixture that is similar to a solution, but particles in a suspension will settle out of it is left undisturbed.Blood is an example of a suspension.
If a sample of blood is left undisturbed, what will settle to the bottom of the test tube?Red Blood Cells, platelets, white blood cellsWhat is the name of the liquid part of the blood that is left at the top?Plasma Compounds & Mixtures Clip
There are two types of compounds that are important to living things: Organic and inorganic compoundsOrganic compounds contain the element carbon.There are 4 types of organic compounds that are important to living things:
Organic Composed of: Examples FunctionCompound Sugar ReleasesCarbohydrate C, H, O Starch energy for cells cellulose
Organic Composed of: Examples FunctionCompound Fats Stores and Lipid C, H, O Oils releases MORE Waxes energy for cells Cell membranes are made of lipids
Organic Composed of: Examples FunctionCompound Used toProtein C, H, O, N enzymes build cell parts; Made of smaller parts called amino Where are proteins made in the cell…? acids
Organic Composed of: Examples FunctionCompound C, H, DNA StoresNucleic O, N, P RNA hereditary Acid information
Inorganic compounds are also important to living things. They DO NOT contain carbon.Some examples include:• water (formula: H2O)• salt (formula: NaCl) Simple Chemistry Clip
Let’s Talk about one organic compound that is veryimportant to living things… Glucose is one of the most important molecules in biology. Here are some things you need to know about it: The chemical formula forglucose is: C6H12O6 Glucose is manufactured in PLANTS in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS All cells (plants and animals) use glucose for the purpose of GETTING ENERGY
Let’s Talk about one organic compound that is veryimportant to living things… • All energy in a glucose molecule is located in THE BONDS. BONDS • When the bonds of this molecule are broken, energy is released. This happens in the MITOCHONDRIA of the cell (the powerhouse organelle).