Caffeine 2Benefits of CaffeineThesis: Altough it has been asserted that caffeine intake is harmful for our health, it also has many beneficial effects such as helping to stay awake, lowering the risk of some important diseases and also improves the physical, chemical and mental performance. I. Staying awake A. By binding adenosine level B. By increasing adrenaline level C. By increasing dopamine level II. Lowering the risk of some important diseases A. Kidney stones B. Gall stones 1. Over men 2. Over women C. Colon cancer D. Parkinson’s diseases E. Skin cancer F. Other cancer tumour cells G. Asthma attacks III. Improving performance A. Physical (sport) performance 1. Central nervous system 2. Skeletal muscle 3. Metabolism
Caffeine 2B. Chemical performance 1. Fat oxidation 2. Muscle glycogen 3. Speeding up the cellsC. Mental performance 1. Sharpen the mind 2. Quick and clear thinking
Caffeine 2 Do you know what the most commonly used drug in the world is? The answer iscaffeine. Near a billion people all around the world and 90% of Americans consume caffeinein various forms every day (Brain, 2002, pp. 1-2). Caffeine exists primarily in coffee, tea,cola nuts, mate, guarana, leaves, cacao and other plants (Shears, 1998, pp. 1-2). Also in bothprescription and non prescription drugs such as diet pills, pep-up pills (Maximum StrengthNo Doz and Vivarin) consist of caffeine (“Beware the Java Jitters”, n.d., p. 3). Shears assertsthat caffeine is an alkaloid that taken from plants which contain nitrogen bases (1998, p. 2).Brain added Caffeine generally recognized as trimethylxanthine and chemical formula ofC8H10N4O2. Caffeine is a white crystalline powder that has bitter taste in pure form (2002, p.2). As USP caffeine referance standard, it should be dried at 80oC for four hours (“Caffeine”,1975, p. 105). Shears asserts that some antropologists believe its first usage date back to 2700B.C. in China. Coffee originated in Africa about 575 A.D. By the 11th century it wasintroduced to Arabia, the rest of east started to drink coffee in 1519. Near the 18th centuryAmericans started to use caffeine in various forms (1998, p. 1). Caffeine obtained in pureform in the beginning of 19th century from the plants (“Caffeine”, 1998, p. 15). FDA(American Food and Drug Administiration) accepted caffeine, in 1958 as safe to consume(Shears, 1998, p. 1). Also Erin Finley, sophomore in LAS, (cited by Scott, 2001, p. 3)believes caffeine is safe. Although it has been asserted that caffeine intake is harmful for ourhealth, it also has many benefitial effects such as helping to stay awake, lowering the risk ofsome important diseases and also improves the physical and chemical performance. First of all many people use caffeine for staying awake late at night and for being alert(Shears, 1998, p. 1). According to Erin Finley (cited by Scott, 2001, p. 2) “caffeine is a safealternative to staying awake when compared to other drugs”. As a result many collegestudents and drivers use caffeine because it increases energy and alterness (Brain, 2002, p. 2).
Caffeine 2 Brain examine the fact that how does caffeine keep people awake. According to him caffeine helps to stay awake by binding adenosine level, or by increasing adrenaline and dopamine level. Adenosine binds the receptors while it releases from the brain. Therefore it decreases the nerve cell activity. Caffeine binds adenosine receptor, but differs from adenosine, it doesn’t decrease the activity of nerve cell’s. In other words caffeine blocks adenosine’s function, so that it increases the cell activity and cause alterness. Neuron firing in the brain rises as the caffeine functions like adenosine. The pituitary glands suppose of an emergency existance due to increasing activity. Adrenal glands which are aroused by the freed hormones of the pituitary glands produce adrenaline. Adrenaline which is also called “fight and flight” hormone causes excitement and rapid heart beat. Thus it give a boost. Caffeine also rises dopamine levels, like amphetamines including heroine and cocaine do. What triggers the pleasure center is dopamine which is a neurotransmitter. Although heroine and caffeine processes are the same, heroine’s effect is much higher. On the other hand, both of them let you stay awake (2002, pp. 3-5). Secondly, caffeine lowers the risk of some important diseases (Brain, 2002, p. 1).Although many doctors insist on ill effects are caused by caffeine, as stated in HealthBenefits and Concerns there is no good evidence considers that kidney stones formers shouldavoid caffeine consumption. In fact for both sex, consuming caffeine decreases the risk ofproducing a kidney stone (2000, p. 4). Also Bovsun asserts, studies are done over 46.000 menby researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health show that drinking two or threecups of coffee per day reduces by 40% and drinking four cups a day reduces by 45% of therisk of producing gall stones (1999, p. 1). However being a woman increases the risk. Studiesdone over 80.898 female between 34-59 ages shows drinking more than four cups of coffee
Caffeine 2 reduces the risk of producing gall stones by 28% for women (Ingels, 2003, p. 1). Furthermore, according to some researchers, as a result of making the intestinal level of secondary bile acids less, caffeine may decreases the risk of colon cancer (“Health Benefits and Concerns”, 2002, p. 4). Moreover, according to a study published in the Journal of American Medical Association, caffeine may stop parkinson’s diseases and it consequent shaking is caused by effected areas on the brain (“Caffeine Might Prevent Parkinson’s”, 2000, p. 1). Also other experiments (on hairless mice) show that a skin lotion consisting of caffeine may lower cancer tumors on skin by more that half (“Caffeine May Lower Skin Cancer” 2003, p. 1). Additionaly researches made in UK show that caffeine has preventable effect on cancer tumour cells (“Caffeine Clue”, 2002, on 10.00 UK). Besides caffeine moderates asthma attacks by opening up breathing tubes, as a result of producing adrenaline (Brain, 2002, p. 3). Finally according to the majority of laboratory researches, caffeine can improve thephysical (sport) performance, the body’s chemical performance and the mental performance.As mentioned in Fast Facts on Caffeine, caffeine which is a proven erogogenic aid improvesathletic performance. This improvement changes between 20% and 50% on continuousexercises. For one hour exercise athletes should consume 3 – 6 mg. caffeine for eachkilogram of their body weight according to increase the advantages taken from caffeine.(about 2 mg/1b of body weight) For example a 175 – 1b. percent should consume two to fourcups. To increase the performance, caffeine should be taken one hour before the exercises.International Olympic Committee (IOC) limits caffeine usage for athletes as 12 ug. permililiter of urine. Also NCAA limits as 15 ug. / miligram of urine. As it seen IOC and NCAApermits high caffeine consumption. To approach urinary caffeine limits a 175 – 1b. percentshould consume seven regular size cups of coffee.
Caffeine 2 There are three main theories about how caffeine improves the sport performance.First explanation involves caffeine’s stimulating effects on central nervous system (CNS). Itaffects athlete positively and give him a boost. In order to fire muscles into action caffeinearouse CNS for stimulation. The second theory mentiones caffeine’s positive effect onskeletol muscle performance. Caffeine intake causes changes on calcium activity that is astimulation of the ion transport of potassium into non – contracting tissues. The ion transportproduces changes in calcium and potassium levels. Caffeine decreases the potassium level inorder to support the excitability of the muscle fiber. In summary caffeine helps to have a longand strong muscle contraction. The third theory focuses on the how body’s chemicalperformance improves sport performance within metabolic explanation (n.d., p. 1-2). AsShears stated “Caffeine increases the level of fatty acids. Caffeine has been shown to increaseoxidation of these fuels” (1998, p. 6). According to some physiologist caffeine rises fatoxidation and keeps muscle glycogen in order to increase performance. (“Finding Conclude”,2002, p. 1). Furthermore Brain (2002 increases body’s chemical performance by helping torelease adrenaline. As a consequence of increasing the adrenaline level, muscles tighten upready for action, the blood sugar level increases for expending extra energy, blood flow tomuscles and also blood pressure increases, the coloured part of the eye, through which lightpasses become bigger, the heartbeat rhythm become faster (p. 3). Another important benefit of caffeine is on mental performance. Mary Sullivan, R.D., a nutrition support specialist at univercity of Chicago hospitals believes caffeine can sharpen the mind and achieve person’s goals in healthy way (“Beware the Java Jitters”, n.d., p. 2). Additionaly Scott asserted caffeine stimulate the CNS that improves the capability of clear thinking. In order to think more quickly and clearly caffeine narrows down the blood
Caffeine 2vessels in the brain and stimulate the brain’s thin outer shell which is called cerebralcortex (2001, pp. 2-3). Caffeine also improves manual tasks such as typing (Shears, 1998,p. 4). In conclusion safetiness which is also accepted by Doctor Neil Benowitz, a UCSFresearcher, increases caffein’s popularity. According to him “Most studies suggest that ifyou don’t drink more than 3 to 4 cups a day, it is pretty safe” (Brain, 2002, p. 1). Manypeople use caffeine to jump into the day. As the people inform about caffein’s beneficialeffect it will become more widespread all over the world. And also it will become a part ofeveryone’s life.
Caffeine 2 ReferencesBovsun, M (1999) Coffee Reduces Gallstone Risk. United Press International. Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www.applesforhealth.com/coffee1.htmlBrain, M. (2002, December 29) Benefits of caffeine. Retrieved October 20,2003, from http:// tv.ksl.com/index.php?nid=44&sid=3917Caffeine. (1975, March 22). In The United States Pharmacopeia (Twentieth Revision, p105) Washington D.C: Board of TrusteesCaffeine. (1998) In The world Encyclopedia (Vol. III, P14). Chicago: World Book, INC.Caffeine benefits. (n.d.), Retrieved October 20,2003, from http://www.4eatsmart.com/Caffein/ benefits.htmCaffeine clue to fighting with cancer. (2003, August 21) Journal of Biological Chemistry, Retrieved October 20,2003, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/2207153.stmCaffeine may lower the skin cancer risk (2003). Associated Press, October 20, 2003, from http://stacks msnbc.com/news/799472.asp?cp1=1#BODYCaffeine Might Prevent Parkinsons’ (2000, May 24) Journal of the American Medical Association Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2000 / 05/24/tech/printable198875.shtmlFast facts on caffeine. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20,2003, from http:// www.carbboom.com /articles/article2-print.htm Findings conclude substained caffeine intake negates the benefits of creatine supplements, (2002) Journal of a Applied Psychology, Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www. immunesupport.com/library/showarticle .cfm /id/3433/searchtext/caffeine/
Caffeine 2Health benefits and concerns (n.d.) Retrieved October 20,2003, from http:// www. mycustompak.com/healthNotes/Food_Guide/Coffee.htmIngles, D. (2003, February 27). Coffee may lower risk of gall stones in women. Retrieved October 20,2003 from http://www.pccnaturalmarkets.com/health/Newswire/Back_issues /newswire_2003_02_27_3.htmMothernature.com, INC. Articles (n.d.) Beware the Java Jitters, Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www.mothernature.com/Library/bookshelf/Books/44/15.cfmaffeineScott, C. (2001, September 27). Caffeine may have many benefits drawbacks. The Daily Illini Online. Retrieved October 20,2003, from http:// www.dailyillini.com /sep01/sep27/ news/ printer/news_story10-printer.shtmlShears, A. (1998) Introduction to caffeine from Ball State University Chemistry Department, Unpublished Mastered Theses, Retrieved October 20,2003, from http://www.geocities.com /CapeCanaveral/Launchpad /6202/int.htm Sorenson, K. (n.d.), The Low down on your cup of “Joe” Retrieved October 20,2003, from http://www.competitionzone.com/articles/caffeine.htm