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FYN Principle #8 - Reduce Stormwater Runoff


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FYN Principle #8:
Reduce Stormwater Runoff

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program

Published in: Technology
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FYN Principle #8 - Reduce Stormwater Runoff

  1. 1. Reduce Stormwater Runoff Stormwater Runoff Define Problems Solutions Best Management Practices (BMP) Prevent Runoff Vegetative Cover -Alternative Groundcovers Reduce Pollutants -Fertilizer -Pesticides Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele
  2. 2. Hydrologic Cycle <ul><li>Water on earth is constantly recycled </li></ul><ul><li>Components of water cycle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Infiltration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transpiration- the process by which plants release water into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface and channel storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater storage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The soil matrix filters and somewhat detoxifies impurities from water as it travels through the ground.
  4. 4. Urbanization Intensity of land use Amount of impervious surfaces Water quality degradation
  5. 5. Stormwater Runoff - Rainwater that flows off yards, roads and parking lots, carrying pollutants into our waterways.
  6. 6. Nonpoint source pollution Sources of pollution that can not be pinpointed to any single cause. Usually associated with trash, car oil, chemical lawn products, and other residues that are easily carried away by flowing water.
  7. 7. According to the EPA, polluted runoff is the #1 water quality issue in Florida <ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins Sediments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thermal Stress </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Photo courtesy of NEMO
  8. 8. Stormwater Contaminants nitrogen, phosphorus Nutrients sodium chloride, calcium chloride Salts sand, silt, and other particles Sediment grass clippings, fallen leaves, human and animal waste Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) viruses, bacteria, protozoa Pathogen pesticides, oil, gasoline, grease Organic chemicals zinc, cadmium, copper, chromium, arsenic, lead Metals
  9. 9. The Problem <ul><li>Increased volume of surface runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Increased velocity of surface runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of pollutants in runoff </li></ul>Erosion Sedimentation Flooding Lowered water quality
  10. 10. <ul><li>Elevated nutrients can cause : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polluted drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive aquatic plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower dissolved oxygen levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish Kills </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Solution <ul><li>Use practices or methods to prevent, reduce, retard, or remove stormwater runoff contaminants before reaching receiving waters </li></ul><ul><li>Best Management Practices (BMP) are a series of direct recommendations based upon research, evaluation and educated assumptions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Be Florida-Friendly <ul><li>Regardless of the type of property you own, you can help preserve Florida’s natural resources by: </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Vegetative Cover </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Pollutants </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevent Runoff Keep rain and irrigation water on your property and out of storm drains.
  14. 14. Factors Affecting Stormwater Runoff: <ul><li>Rainfall intensity, flow rate, season </li></ul><ul><li>% Impervious surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Watershed size, slope </li></ul><ul><li>Soil type, soil compaction </li></ul><ul><li>Type of vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Density of vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Within our control </li></ul><ul><li>Not within our control </li></ul>
  15. 15. Minimize runoff by using pervious surfaces… for walkways, patios, and driveways
  16. 16. Direct downspouts and gutters towards porous areas If downspouts drain to planted areas, be sure to select plants adapted to periodic flooding.
  17. 17. Collect Rain Water <ul><li>Use a rain barrel or a cistern to collect and store runoff for irrigation purposes </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Water during early morning hours </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are already wet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less evaporation losses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water less frequently in cooler months </li></ul><ul><li>Water “as needed,” not routinely </li></ul><ul><li>Do not irrigate if rain is expected </li></ul>Plan irrigation schedules according to the weather
  19. 19. Earth Shaping <ul><li>If your property is sloped, you may want to make minor grade changes to divert runoff. This can be accomplished by: </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing terraces </li></ul>Terracing can be an attractive design element in your yard.
  20. 20. Berms and Swales <ul><li>Creating swales (low areas) and berms (raised earthen areas) will help to catch, hold, and filter stormwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevations and depressions as small as 3-6 inches can make a huge difference </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Vegetative Cover <ul><li>Planting groundcovers on slopes is an excellent way to: </li></ul><ul><li>Catch and filter stormwater </li></ul><ul><li>Slow the velocity of water movement </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce erosion </li></ul>Turfgrass is a versatile groundcover that is very effective at filtering nutrients.
  22. 22. <ul><li>Attractive </li></ul><ul><li>Insulates the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a living mulch that helps to build up humus levels in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Provides habitat and cover for beneficial insects and other predators </li></ul>Covering the ground with a carpet of vegetation has other advantages: Blanketflower Gaillardia pulchella
  23. 23. Disadvantages <ul><li>If the ground cover is too vigorous, it may require containment </li></ul><ul><li>It can compete with other plants for water and nutrients </li></ul>The following factors should also be taken into account, when choosing the right plant for the right place… Sweet potato Ipomea batatas ‘Margarita'
  24. 24. Select plants based on site conditions: <ul><li>Acid  alkaline- (test your soil’s pH) </li></ul><ul><li>Dry  moist </li></ul><ul><li>Full sun  shade </li></ul><ul><li>Heat  cold </li></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul><ul><li>Obstructions </li></ul>Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus ‘Diva’
  25. 25. Alternative Groundcovers For Shade Lilyturf Liriope muscari (USDA Zone 6-11) Periwinkle Vinca major (USDA Zone 8-11) Cast Iron Plant Aspidistra elatior (USDA Zone 8-11)
  26. 26. Alternative Groundcovers Beach Sunflower Helianthus debilis (USDA Zone 8B-11) Perennial Peanut Arachis glabrata (USDA Zone 8-11) Clover Trifolium repens (USDA Zone 5-11)
  27. 27. Alternative Groundcovers Junipers (USDA Zone 8-11) Juniperus spp . For Sun Asiatic Jasmine (USDA Zone 8-11) Trachelospermum asiaticum
  28. 28. Tree Canopy <ul><li>Incorporate trees in the landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intercept rainfall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce soil compaction thus improving water infiltration into soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase the value of property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficient way to cool the home </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Reduce Pollutants
  30. 30. <ul><li>Sweep grass and soil back onto lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Sweep up any fertilizer on impervious surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Remove trash </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up oil spills and leaks with cat litter </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up after pets </li></ul>Because water can wash off our yards, it is important to reduce the amount of pollutants on our property.
  31. 31. It is unrealistic, and even unwise to strive for an insect, disease, and weed-free yard. Instead: <ul><li>Learn to identify key pests associated with the plants in your yard </li></ul><ul><li>Check plants regularly for signs of pest problems </li></ul><ul><li>Determine what amount of damage warrants action </li></ul>
  32. 32. Manage Yard Pests Responsibly <ul><li>Avoid routine applications of pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the least harmful method of control </li></ul><ul><li>Treat only affected area rather than spraying the entire yard </li></ul>
  33. 33. Fertilize Appropriately <ul><li>Follow printed instructions carefully! </li></ul><ul><li>Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides before a heavy rainstorm </li></ul>If applied improperly, excess fertilizers can run off our yards into waterways or leach into groundwater.
  34. 34. Further Reading <ul><li>SL 143: How Contaminants Reach Groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>PI 2: Factors Influencing Pesticide Movement to Groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>FRE 76 Laws Governing Use and Impact of Agricultural Chemicals: Agricultural Chemicals and Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>ENY 294: The Smart Way to Avoid Landscape Pests and Other Problems </li></ul>
  35. 35. Thanks for your attention! <ul><li>The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture Education and Communication Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Horticulture Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entomology and Nematology Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and Water Sciences Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Center For Wetlands, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Department of Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry </li></ul></ul>