FYN Principle #7 - Recycle


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FYN Principle #7:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program

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  • FYN Principle #7 - Recycle

    1. 1. Recycle Yard Waste Why Recycle? Yard Waste Define Uses Recycled Mulch Recycled Grass Composting at Home Assembling Pile Materials to Use/Avoid Maintaining Pile Harvesting Pile Earthworm Farming Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele
    2. 2. Why Recycle? <ul><li>Retains the nutrients in your landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Saves money on fertilizer, mulch and waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Florida law prohibits disposal of yard waste in lined landfills </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Legal Definition <ul><li>Yard trash is defined by the 1988 Florida Solid Waste Management Act as “vegetative matter resulting from landscape maintenance and land clearing operations.” It includes… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tree and shrub trimmings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves and palm fronds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stumps </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Florida’s Municipal Waste Stream in 1998 (FDEP Solid Waste Report, 2000) Landfilled 56% Combusted 16% Recycled 28% In 1998, yard waste made up 12% of the municipal waste stream, or 3.5 million tons.
    5. 5. Recycling Solutions <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Mulching </li></ul><ul><li>“ Grasscycling” </li></ul><ul><li>Composting </li></ul><ul><li>Earthworm farming </li></ul>
    6. 6. Recycled Mulch <ul><li>Choose by-product alternatives such as Melaleuca mulch: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvested from invasive plant stands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces destruction of natural wetland areas in Florida </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppresses weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not eaten by termites </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Yard Waste = Mulch= $ <ul><li>Leaves and pine needles can remain under trees for a “self mulching” area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of one bag Pine Nuggets = $3.00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing garbage, Priceless! </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Utility Mulch <ul><li>Many municipalities offer free utility mulch </li></ul><ul><li>A by-product of pruning trees near power lines </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of variable quality and consistency </li></ul><ul><li>You may need to partially compost to kill any weeds, seeds, or insect pests </li></ul>
    9. 9. Grasscycling <ul><li>Grass clippings can be left on the lawn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves money- This is equivalent to about one fertilizer application per year! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remove only 1/3 of the grass blade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasscycling does not result in thatch build-up. Thatch is stem and root overgrowth caused by over-fertilization and over-watering . </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Composting <ul><li>Disposes of food and yard wastes through natural processes </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the soil on your property </li></ul><ul><li>Releases essential elements to plants </li></ul>
    11. 11. What is Compost? <ul><li>Rich, black, sweet-smelling, crumbly, soil-like substance comprised of decomposed organic matter </li></ul>
    12. 12. Composting at Home <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a Location </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Container </li></ul><ul><li>Assembling the Pile </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the Pile </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting Finished Compost </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Level ground </li></ul><ul><li>Well-drained surface </li></ul><ul><li>Near a source of water </li></ul><ul><li>At least 2 feet from any structure </li></ul><ul><li>Close to source of materials </li></ul>Selecting A Location
    14. 14. Choosing A Container <ul><li>Pile method </li></ul><ul><li>Bin </li></ul>
    15. 15. Pile Method <ul><li>No container is used; organic materials are simply mounded in a pile </li></ul>A layer of soil, leaves, or finished compost on top of fresh kitchen wastes will help deter pests.
    16. 16. Compost Bins <ul><li>Purchase a compost bin or build your own. Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Size- at least 1 cubic yard </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility- to add materials and remove finished compost </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to mix materials inside </li></ul><ul><li>Creature access </li></ul>
    17. 17. A bin is not necessary, but useful for deterring pests and keeping the pile neat.
    18. 18. Compost Happens <ul><li>Microorganisms (microbes) initiate decomposition under favorable environmental conditions. They need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Assembling the Pile <ul><li>For faster decomposition, follow these steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put twigs or small branches on the bottom of the pile to allow air to circulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layer materials, alternating nitrogen and carbon layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End with a carbon layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add water to moisten, not soak </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. “ Browns” <ul><li>Carbon-rich materials </li></ul><ul><li>Energy source for microbes </li></ul><ul><li>Typically low in moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Degrade slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky materials help aerate </li></ul><ul><li>May cause nitrogen deficiencies in plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If insufficient nitrogen is present for microbial breakdown </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. “ Greens” <ul><li>Nitrogen-rich materials </li></ul><ul><li>Microbes use for protein synthesis and reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>High moisture content </li></ul><ul><li>Degrade rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Compact easily </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a source of foul odors </li></ul>
    22. 22. Compostable Materials <ul><li>Nitrogen-Rich </li></ul><ul><li>Grass clippings </li></ul><ul><li>Manure </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable food scraps </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon-Rich </li></ul><ul><li>Straw </li></ul><ul><li>Shredded branches </li></ul><ul><li>Uncolored Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Pine needles </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves </li></ul>
    23. 23. C:N Ratios <ul><li>The carbon to nitrogen ratio determines the decomposition rate of organic materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grass clippings ~ 20:1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit waste ~ 35 :1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves ~ 60 :1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Straw ~ 100 :1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood ~ 600 :1 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>30:1 is ideal, obtained by adding one part browns to one part greens </li></ul>S LOW RAPID
    24. 24. Particle Size <ul><li>Size of particles also affect the rate of decomposition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break twigs and small branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shred newspaper and palm fronds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grind stumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarsely chop larger pieces of vegetable matter </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Materials to Avoid <ul><li>Do NOT add: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat or dairy products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oils or mayonnaise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants recently treated with pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed-laden weeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure treated wood </li></ul></ul>Animal products create odor problems and attract pests.
    26. 26. Provide Oxygen <ul><li>Without oxygen (anaerobic conditions), microbes produce foul smelling compounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohols and organic acids that are detrimental to plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as “sour” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incorporate bulky materials like twigs, pine needles, wood chips and straw to provide air space </li></ul><ul><li>Turn pile immediately if odor is detected </li></ul>
    27. 27. Provide Moisture <ul><li>Microbes need moisture for their bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Water pile when needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% ~ 65% moisture content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Squeeze test” -Squeeze compost in your hand: moisture should coat your hand, but not drip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To lower moisture content: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from heavy rains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add dry material and turn pile </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Temperature <ul><li>The metabolic activity of microbes will raise the temperature of the compost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This kills weed seeds and pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A critical mass is needed, ideal pile size is 3 ft. x 3 ft. x 3 ft. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microbes can survive a range of temperatures, but an optimal temperature for decomposition is about 125º F </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial activity starts to decline around 130 º F </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Maintaining the Pile <ul><li>Turn pile occasionally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks up materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases rate of decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposes weed seeds, insect larvae, and pathogens to lethal temperatures in the core of the pile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Add “greens” to the center of the pile </li></ul><ul><li>Pile “browns on top, or layer with fresh “greens” in the center </li></ul>
    30. 30. Factors Affecting Decomposition Rates: <ul><ul><li>Presence of microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particle size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of the pile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of turning </li></ul></ul>Review
    31. 31. Harvest Compost <ul><li>Collect mature compost when it is dark, soil-like, and earthy smelling </li></ul><ul><li>Screen compost </li></ul><ul><li>Remove larger pieces and return those to the compost pile </li></ul>
    32. 32. Use Compost <ul><li>Apply to plant beds as a soil amendment </li></ul><ul><li>Use as mulch </li></ul><ul><li>Blend with sand, peat, and perlite for a potting media </li></ul>Layer 1”-2” of compost underneath decorative mulch to save money and improve soil fertility.
    33. 33. Vermiculture - Earthworm Farming <ul><li>Red wigglers, Eisenia foetida and brown-nose worms, Lumbricus rubellas recycle thin layers of food scraps and paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worms eat decaying food and paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excrete castings, rich in nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperatures lower than compost pile </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu <ul><li>Fact Sheet AE 23: Construction of Home Compost Units </li></ul><ul><li>SL 114: Converting Yard Waste into Landscaping Assets </li></ul><ul><li>Circular 958: Backyard Composting of Yard Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Circular 455: Earthworm Biology and Production </li></ul><ul><li>Circular 1053: Culture of Earthworms for Bait or Fish Food </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture Education and Communication Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Horticulture Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entomology and Nematology Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil and Water Sciences Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Center For Wetlands, UF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States Department of Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry </li></ul></ul>Thanks for your attention!