HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is animmune destroying virus that is acquired throughthe exchange of blood and other bodily fluids.Common means of transmission: Unprotected sex (oral sex, vaginal & anal intercourse) Contaminated needles (sharing of drug injecting equipment) Transfusions Childbirth (from infected mom to baby) Breast milk Organ transplant
The NumbersAs of 2006,39.5 million individuals worldwide are estimated to be diagnosed with HIV(Brown and Vanable, 2008). o In Botswana, an estimated 11.8 million young people were HIV-positive (Onyewadume, 2008). Unfortunately 40,000 new cases of HIV will be diagnosed annually in the US alone (Brown and Vanable, 2008). o African Americans account for 50% of AIDS cases
Mental Health Care: A Necessary ComponentLike any illness, the signs and symptoms of a chronic or terminal illness canbe difficult to deal with, causing depression and anxiety to develop. Mentalhealth care has been proven to improve quality of life and well-being in thosethat are HIV-positive(Shacham, Basta, & Reece, 2007).A look at three populations will show a difference in cultural norms but acommonality amongst triggers of mental distress. a significant proportion reported difficulties coping with stress (Brown & Vanable, 2008) adjustment challenges contributed to poor disease management.
HIV and The African American PopulationBarriers to seeking mental Cultural barriers thathealth care: impact mental health care: found to have high levels of mistrust in government depression with little to no services and medical care treatment. mistrust in health care the negative opinion of providers Americans in regard to psychotherapy costs of mental health care lack of treatment options limited access to providers with in the community
HIV and The African PopulationContributing factors to Cultural barriers thatHIV-positive status: impact mental health care: gender, dating customs female reproductive system, removes power to negotiate tearing of the vaginal lining intimate relationships during intercourse o Sex with a virgin cures HIV/AIDS (Onyewadume, gender, older men date 2008). younger girls (Onyewadume, myths of God using HIV/AIDS 2008). as a form of punishment (Onyewadume, 2008). The uncontrollability of the male libido (Onyewadume, 2008).
The Burden: Women and children speak up about life with HIV/AIDS
HIV and The Chinese PopulationHIV-positive people in China can findthemselves living in hostile environments thatcan be dangerous for themselves and theirloved ones. Psychosocial stressors: Individualism (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010). Feelings of fear & helplessness (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010). Ostracized loved ones (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010). Job loss (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010). Loss of independence (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010). Others negative reaction to their HIV status (Jin, Zhao, Feng & Wu, 2010).
Instruments used:Self-questionnaire to obtain participant demographic informationPsychiatry Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale, designed to measure stressful life events (Pukay-Martin, Cristiani, Saveanu & Bornstein, 2003).Symptom Check List 90
ReferencesBeck, A., McNally, I., & Petrak, J. (2003). Psychosocial predictors of HIV/STI risk behaviors in a sample of homosexual men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 79 (2), 142-146.Brown, J. & Vanable, P. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral stress management interventions for persons living with HIV: A review and critique of the literature. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 26-40.Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Basic information about HIV and AIDS. Divisions of HIV/AIDS, Viral STD, and TB Prevention. Atlanta, Georgia. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/Cucciare, M., & Trafton, J.A. (2009). Predicting response to cognitive-behavioral therapy in a sample of HIV-positive with chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 340-348.Fincham, D., Smit, J., Carey, P., Stein, D.J., & Seedat. S. (2008). The relationship between behavioral inhibition, anxiety disorders, depression, depression and cd4 counts in HIV-positive adults: A cross sectional controlled study. AIDS Care, 20(10), 1279-1283.Haarrasilta, L., Marttunen, M., Kaprio, J., & Aro, H. (2003). Major depressive episode and health care use adolescents and young people. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 366-372.Jin, C., Zhao, G., Zhang, F., Feng, L., & Wu, N. (2010). The psychological status of HIV-positive people and their psychosocial experiences in eastern China. HIV Medicine, 11, 253-259.Kraaij, V., Van Der Veek, S.M.C., Garnefski, N., Schroevers, M., Witlox, R., & Maes, S. (2008). Coping, goal adjustment, and psychological well-being in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS Patient Care and STD’s, 22, 395- 402.Levy, J. A. (1993). HIV pathogenesis and long-term survival. AIDS. 7(11), 1401-1410.Monroe, S. M., Slavich, G.M., & Torres, L.D. (2007). Major life events and major chronic difficulties are differentially associated with history of major depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116 (1), 116-124.Onyewadume, M.A. (2008). HIV/AIDS-anxiety among adolescent students in botswana. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 30, 179-188.Pukay-Martin, N.D., Cristiani, S.A., Saveanu, R., & Bornstein, R. (2003). The relationship between stressful life events and cognitive function in HIV-infected men. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 15(4), 436-441.
YouTube. (2009). Because of my status, living with hiv in alexandra township part 2. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEDLkNpmcLc&feature=relatedYouTube. (2011). Stigma undermines china’s hiv/aids fight. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sEDLkNpmcLc&feature=related