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Au psy492 m7_a3__e_portf_corker_c

  1. 1. Undergraduate Studies ePortfolio Chandra Corker B. A. Psychology, 2012 1
  2. 2. Personal StatementPsychology is a field that affects every aspect of human life; the processes of the mind to develop a thought that causes the body to carry out an action and even the reason as to why we gravitate to certain items as a consumer is the art of Psychology. All around us, industries are making organizational changes to influence the perception of the consumer; customer satisfaction is the marketing engine for today. The demand for “above and beyond” customer service delivery calls for trained individuals, opening the career market beyond what was once noted.There is no doubt that as long as there is life, psychology will exist; there is no escaping it. The need for mental and emotional healing will always be a sought out component of the human spirit; its boundaries are limitless due to culture and diversity. As this educational journey began, I was focused on a traditional mental health setting, four sterile walls within the confines of a hospital or mental health clinic. Now that the light at the end of the tunnel is in sight, the realization of the options and opportunities that exist are astounding.As a career path, it is important that I concentrate on strengthening family structure (women’s health and child safety); realizing that even those two choices leave such a broad range for career focus. The complexity of the human body still leaves science pondering upon the physiology of system functions, as a woman, the questions multiply; added with the matters of life experiences and socioeconomic hardships. As the neck, in some instances the head, of the household, the stress can manifest physically. Providing an outlet where woman can gather to be restored, network and obtain resources valuable to their personal and family needs is essential for the stability of the family unit.
  3. 3. Personal Statement cont.The decision to work with children comes through the lack of resources available within the community setting. As a society, lost is the need to nurture and protect the innocent; we have become plagued with allowing nature to take its place. When afforded, materialistic products and electronics have substituted cherished family bounding; depleting this generation of emotions and mechanism of socialization, making way for behavioral imbalances. The course that I have chosen is not a rescue mission, but a calling to give my all. This goal will be achieved as I further my education, attaining a Dual Masters of Arts in School Counseling and Community Counseling.The decision to study psychology was birthed through various life experiences. When looking at my community, it is obvious the need for resources that address the healing of the human spirit. I live in a culture where asking for help characterizes a person as vulnerable. I want to be a part of a change that helps others to recognize that seeking out services and resources to improve one’s own quality of life is a characteristic of strength.As an African American, I take great honor in acknowledging the Sukuma proverb “One knee does not bring up a child” establishing the origins of communal responsibility with child rearing; encouraging the wisdom and strength of men and women of all ages to become involved in laying foundational structure and discipline, instilling morals. The days of individualism has run its course, now needed is a cohesive unit; I am not trying to be a super woman, no need attempt a solo act to save the world. However, I do vow to commit to helping others until all plans, ideas and modes of creativity have been exhausted; this includes giving of my time and my talent while going beyond of duty (within ethical boundaries) to be a part of a profession that believes in people.
  4. 4. Resume Chandra N. Corker 10114 S. Eggleston Ave. (773) 332-1087 Primary (773) 332-1160 Secondary jccorker5@wowway.comEducationArgosy University, Chicago CampusBA Psychology, 2012Concentration: Criminal JusticeOlive Harvey CollegeAssociate of Arts, 2009Work HistoryAdvocate Medical GroupBurbank, ILFebruary 2011 to CurrentPatient Service RepresentativeAdvocates and serves as a liaison to effectively direct and assist patients with appointment coordination and problem solving. Duties include large volumes of monitoring daily operations, appointment coordination, computerized order entry, and telephone triage. Verifies insurance and accept payment at time of service. Complete other administrative duties as assigned; drafting reports and correspondence, creating interoffice signage and other attention to detail assignments.
  5. 5. Resume cont.Service Employees International Union IL & INChicago, ILJune 2008 to April 2009Customer Service Representative-Team LeadManage the statewide healthcare enrollment program for Home Daycare Provides and Home Healthcare Workers. With a large clientele of approximately 25,000 workers and a$27 million budget, performed case management and quality control, members education services, outreach programs, established vendor contracts to purchase goods & services, assigned staff workload, conducted weekly staff meetings and interviewed potential employees.Northwestern Memorial HospitalChicago, ILApril 2004 to April 2008Customer Service RepresentativeAdvocates and serves as a liaison with various hospital departments and physicians offices to effectively direct and assist patients with appointment coordination and problem solving. Duties include large volumes of monitoring daily operations, appointment coordination, computerized order entry, and telephone triage.SecretaryProvide clerical support for the management staff. Demonstrated attention to detail; compiled medical records and drafted office correspondence. Answered telephones, directed calls and routed messages. Resolved patient accounts and created statistical reports. Responded to court subpoenas, monitored departmental archiving logs and chart maintenance.Patient Care TechnicianProvide basic patient care under the direction of a medical doctor and registered nurse to assist the patients with activities for daily living needs. Measured vital signs, collected specimens, and carried out other non-sterile tasks; executed phlebotomy skills and performed EKG’s.
  6. 6. Resume cont.Fresenius Medical CareChicago, ILAugust 2002 to April 2004Medical Records ClerkAdministrative ClerkAudited and maintained patient records. Corresponded to court subpoenas. Scheduled patient transportation and assisted with new patient admissions. Prepared internal and external corporate audits for site review; facilitating staff assignment. Conducted new employee orientation; gathering required documents and monitoring training modules. Reviewed daily staff schedule; assigning adequate coverage.Internships & Volunteer HistoryAssembly of Faith Outreach CenterChicago, ILSeptember 1997 to August 2011Outreach CoordinatorFocuses on administrative duties that orchestras the organization of community outreach programs, establish vendor relationships, resource advocacy, creating lesson plans for mentorship and after school programs, coordinating activities, and publishing materials.University of Chicago HospitalsChicago, ILApril 2006 to December 2007Volunteer Services Internal AuditorInternshipConducted internal audit of current volunteer records and maintained compliance according to the standards and regulations of The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organization; monitoring eligibility,
  7. 7. Resume cont.Patient Resource Coordinator, Student InternInternshipResource coordinator for the Womens Care Center; worked with antepartum at risk teenage patients. Responsible for conducting patient assessment in collaboration with nurse case managers, social services, and recreational therapist in order to deliver personalized recreational therapy services to alleviate stressors due to extended hospitalization.SkillsCertified Nurse’s Assistant (1994)Knowledge of Microsoft applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook)Trained All Kids enrollment agentSuperior customer service etiquettes
  8. 8. Professional ReferencesTanya AnthonyChicago Park District – Chief Administrative Officer12656 S Michigan AveChicago, IL 60628773- 858-8080tsanthony4@yahoo.comVicky TanunalondAdvocate Medical Group – Operations Manager4901 West 79th StreetBurbank, IL 60459708-346-8260Vicky.Tanulanond@advocatehealth.comRosemarie DoddAdvocate Medical Group – Clinical Manager4901 West 79th StreetBurbank, IL
  9. 9. Reflection My academic tenure at Argosy University has been life altering. I have toadmit that I entered the university questioning the process; I was uncertain if I hadmade the right decision of what degree to pursue. As time went on and I completedcourses, I realized that I could not have made a better choice. Argosy creates anatmosphere that is conducive for learning; the intimate classroom setting, access totechnology and skilled professors and staff caters to any student, any learning style. Through my Argosy experience, I obtained skills to self-analyze; theobjective is to embrace my strengths and address my weaknesses. Some of mystrengths are my drive and determination to overcome obstacles and my passion forwriting. My weakness is time management; I want to do it all. I do not turn down anyopportunity. I am a late bloomer; married and had children at an early age. Now Ifeel as if the world is mine and I must conquer all; sometimes all at one time. The end of my journey is nearing, and I am glad that the light is shiningbrightly. Throughout my educational journey, I have established relationships withinstructors and fellow students that will last a lifetime. I am proud to say that Iattended Argosy University and I believe that I have embodied its DNA that makesroom for a successful professional career.
  10. 10. Table of Contents• Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information Literacy• Research Skills• Communication Skills: Oral and Written• Ethics and Diversity Awareness• Foundations of Psychology• Applied Psychology• Interpersonal Effectiveness
  11. 11. Critical ThinkingCognitive Abilities: Split-Brain Scenario Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  12. 12. Critical Thinking Cognitive Abilities: Critical Thinking and Information LiteracyThe brain is made up of two hemispheres that are responsible for specific functions. These two hemispheres are connected and communication is facilitated through a thick nerve band called the corpus callosum. Known to many is how the right side of the brain controls the left side of the body and the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body. Dominate functions of the left hemisphere are language, math and logic. While the right brain is dominate in spatial abilities, face recognition, visual imagery and music.In cases of split-brain, the hemispheres are no longer connected; they no longer communicate with one another. In this models scenario, a split-brain patient was shown an image in the left visual field but could not name the information. Normally, the information goes from the right hemisphere, to the corpus callosum and to the language center of the left hemisphere. The left hemisphere enables us to produce speech. The damage to the corpus callosum prevents the patient from communication what they are seeing in the left visual field. This particular patient will ignore everything that occurs to the body on the left side; even failing to report moving objects.The most common symptoms experienced after split-brain operation are depression and anxiety. For these symptoms I would recommend individual therapy and/or cognitive behavioral therapy to teach coping mechanisms; severe cases would warranty the use of antidepressant medications. Other medical risks are continued seizures, although they will not be as severe as previous episodes, stroke, loss of movement, language and sensation due to nerve impairment. Overall, any decision to have surgery comes down to the pros outweighing the cons; the potential post-surgical health outcome is better than their current status.
  13. 13. Critical ThinkingThe study from the first video definitely raises some eyebrows. According to the American Counseling Association (ACA) Section G.2.a., any study participant has the right to informed consent in language that precisely explains the study and procedures to be performed. With that said, one has to except that the extent of the study was understood by the participant. What may have been alarming, and even inappropriate, was the researcher and interviews interaction as they watched the study participant response to the images posted during the study.The ethical unethical component of research is its needs to use willing participant to prove or disprove proposed theory. Is it right to trade the suffering experienced by participants for the knowledge gained by the research? Maybe in layman’s term no; but how else do we find cures for diseases and viruses that might otherwise destroy the human race. The human anatomy is so complicated; and the physiology of brain may never fully be understood. Without participants, such as the one in the first video, we may never gain insight on intricate matters.American Counseling Association. (2005).Research and publication. In ACA Code of Ethics. Retrieved from www.counseling.orgYouTube. (2012). Split brain video. Retrieved on Jan 18, 2012. Retrieved from
  14. 14. Critical ThinkingResearch Skills: Childhood Trauma & Chronic Pain in Adulthood: A Correlational Study Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  15. 15. Critical ThinkingAbstract This correlational study will examine the connection between childhood trauma and chronic pain disorders in adulthood. The objective of this study is to reveal the linear connection of trauma and pain based upon documented cases of child abuse and physician diagnosed pain disorders. Reports of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in outpatients with chronic pain (Tietjen, Brandes, Peterlin, Eloff, Dafer, Stein, Drexler, Hutchinson, Aurora, Recober, Herial, Utley, White, & Khunder, 2010). Cases of pain disorders indicating the experience of child abuse (n=250) will be examined. Various types of childhood abuse and neglect are strongly associated with a painful illness; test data will reveal that higher scores of trauma will result in higher measurements of pain. The correlations reported between a history of childhood abuse and pain disorders are difficult to ignore (Wilson, 2010).MethodsParticipantsThe sampling population will include 250 adult patients (male and female) ages 18 and older; race and ethnicity will vary and will not be used as a mean of exclusion. All research participants are patients of Roseland Community Hospital Pain Clinic and have indicated, during the collection of demographic information, experiencing a form of trauma (neglect, maltreatment and/or abuse) during childhood.
  16. 16. Critical ThinkingInstrumentsThe assessment tools used for the purpose of the study is The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; a self-report retrospective inventory used to measure childhood or adolescent abuse and neglect. Also included is a 3 item Minimization/Denial scale for detecting false-negative trauma reports. There is only one version of this assessment available, making the results consistent and reliable.To assess the severity of pain, the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale will be used. These two instruments will establish a relationship between childhood trauma and chronic pain disorders in adulthood.ProcedureSurveys were completed by patients seeking treatment at the pain clinics during an office visit. Self-reported information on demographics (including body mass index), social history, and physician-diagnosed pain disorders was collected. Any patient indicating a traumatic event during childhood will complete The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. If necessary, further details will be obtained through 1:1 interviews to gather details regarding physician- diagnosed pain disorders. The patient’s description of pain will be measured according to the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and the data will be recorded.
  17. 17. Critical ThinkingResultsChronic pain during adulthood among women and men that experience a traumatic event during childhood is prevalent. Whether through the means of neglect, maltreatment or abuse, most occurrences lead to painful syndromes. Trauma will be measured according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and compared to the pain scores from the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale; higher scores of trauma will result in higher measurements of pain, as well as lower scores in trauma will indicate lower measurements of pain. Less than 15% of the participants will report trauma in all categories of child abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual). Comorbidity will be a worthy component worth documenting (including psychological disorders, but its pain level will not be measured (only primary syndromes will be measured).
  18. 18. Critical Thinking ReferencesBaker, C. K., Norris, F. H., Jones, E. C., & Murphy, A.D. (2009). Childhood trauma and adulthood physical health in mexico. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 32, 255-269. doi:10.1007/s10865-009-9199-2Coro, P.S., Edwards, V.J., Fang, X., & Mercy, J.A. (2008). Health-related quality of life among adults who experienced maltreatment during childhood. American Journal of Public Health,98(6), 1094-1100Goodwin, R. D., Hoven, C. W., Murison, R., & Hotopf, M. (1993). Association between childhood physical abuse and gastrointestinal disorders and migraine in adulthood. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1065- 1067.Han, C., Masand, P. S., Krulewicz, S., Peindl, K., Mannelli, P., Varia, I. M., Pae, C., & Patkar, A. (2009). Childhood abuse and treatment response in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a post-hoc analysis of a 12 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of paroxetine controlled release. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 34, 79-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.00975.xHays, K. F. & Stanley, S. F. (1996). The impact of childhood sexual abuse on women’s dental experiences. Journal of Child and Sexual Abuse, 5(4), 65-74.Hulme, P.A. (2004). Theoretical perspectives on the health problems of adults who experienced childhood sexual abuse. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 25, 339-361, doi:10.1080/01612840490432899Kopec, J. A. & Sayre, E. C. (2004). Traumatic experiences in childhood and the risk of arthritis. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(5), 361-365.Lampe, A., Solder, E., Ennemoser, A., Schubert, C., Rumpold, G., & Sollner, W. (2000). Chronic pelvic pain and previous sexual abuse. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 96(6), 929-933.Norman, S. B., Means-Christensen, A. J., Craske, M. G., Shebourne, C. D., Roy-Byrne, P. P., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Associations between psychological trauma and physical illness in primary care. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(4), 461-470. doi: 10.1002/jts.20129Ray, S. L. (1996). Adult male survivors of incest: an exploratory study. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 5(3), 103- 114Romans, S., Belaise, C., Martin, J., Morris, E., & Raffi, A. (2002). Childhood abuse and later medical disorders in women: an epidemiological study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 71(3), 141-150.
  19. 19. Critical ThinkingShaughnessy, J. J., Zechmeister, E. B. & Zechmeister, J. S. (2009). Research methods in psychology. (8 th Ed.). Boston: McGraw HillSurtees, P., Wainwright, N., Day, N., Brayne, C., Luben, R., & Khaw, K. (2003). Adverse experience in childhood as a developmental risk factor for altered immune status in adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10(3), 251-268.Tietjen, G. E., Brandes, J. L., Peterlin, B. L., Eloff, A., Dafer, R. M., Stein, M. R., Drexler, E., Hutchinson, S., Aurora, S. K., Recober, A., Herial, N. A., Utley, C., White, L., & Khunder, S. A. (2009). Childhood maltreatment and migraine (Part III). Association with comorbid pain condition. Headache: The Journal of Head & Face Pain. 50(1). 42-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1526- 4610.2009.01558.xUllman, S. E., & Brecklin, L. R. (2003). Sexual assault history and health-related outcomes in a national ample of women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 46-57.Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C. & Weisaeth, L. (1996). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford Press.Wilson, D.R. (2010). Health consequences of childhood sexual abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 46(1). 56-64.
  20. 20. Critical ThinkingCommunication Skills: Reference Request Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  21. 21. Critical Thinking Chandra Corker 10000 S. Evans Ave. Chicago, IL 60628 (773) 332-xxxx Primary (773) 332-xxxx Mobile chcorker1@stu.argosy.eduFebruary 25, 2012Dear Vicky Tanunalond,I am writing you to request a letter of recommendation for me. Although I have only worked for Advocate Medical Group - Burbank for over 11 months, I do believe that my skills and ethics have been found notable in your eyes.Recently, I was offered a position with Centers for New Horizons as a Program Assistant. This role requires me to interact with high- need clients; providing case management skills to assist them in obtaining housing, satisfying high school diploma requirements and finding entry level job placement. As my Operations Manager, it is my hope that you will be able to mention how you find me qualified to function in such a role.Please let me know if I can assist you in completing this task; any questions or comments are welcomed. The letter is due March 1, 2011, and must include your name, address, telephone number, relationship to me and signature. I am asking that you place the letter in a sealed envelope before giving it to me. Also, as an additional reference, I have attached a copy of my resume. Your time and effort is greatly appreciated!Sincerely,Chandra N. Corker
  22. 22. Critical ThinkingEthics and Diversity Awareness: Milgram’s Study Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  23. 23. Critical ThinkingMilgram’s study was a social psychology experiment that sought to determine the extent of the participants’ willingness to obey an authoritative figure. Although extreme, its results were alarming.When comparing the Milgram study to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) checklist there are a few things that needed to be changed so that the study would pass the IRBs standards. The study was originally justifiable; its purpose was identifying obedience to authority. It is the approach or the method of conducting the research project that was inhumane. The effects (short or long term) of the experiment on the participants that were delivering the electroshock treatment was not valued or considered. It is the duty of the IRB to ensure that the rights and welfare of the citizens are protected according to federal regulations; assuring that the research is conducted in a scientifically sound and ethical manner (Argosy University Online, 2011).Redesigning the study, for ethic’s sake, I would have:• provided surveys with scenarios that detailed a study and provided the participants with several options as their course of action• or asked open ended questions that would allow the participant to freely explain their response or course of actionArgosy University Online. (2011) Module 2. In Ethics. Retrieved from http://myeclassonline.comParsons, R. D. (2001). The ethics of professional behavior. Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Education Company
  24. 24. Critical ThinkingFoundations of Psychology: Abnormal Behavior Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  25. 25. Critical ThinkingAbnormal behavior is behavior that deviates from the norms of the society in which the person lives (Butcher, Hooley, & Mineka, 2010).Determining abnormal behavior can be difficult because the definition is relative to the client and their cultural practices. This statement confirms that culture determines norms and values that yield appropriate behavior for a particular group of people. For example, within Britain’s Traveller Gypsy culture, it is normal for groups to divide per sex; even at the teenage level, girls with girls and boys with boys. If a boy has interest in a girl, he can approach her, carry her off and forcefully restrain her until she submits to a kiss; this is called Grabbing. Grabbing can be very physical. The boy can carry her away screaming and yelling and no one will ever come to the girls’ assistance; this is their way of establishing courtship. It is an honorable process; a girl must be chosen, even if she has no interest in the suitor. Across the waters in Western society this type of behavior would be shunned and possibly punishable by law; the use of physical force and restraint on an unwilling subject can be considered sex assault.All around the world, cultures have various ways of identifying psychological abnormalities. An abnormality is not just one area of dysfunction; it is a complex grouping of behavior, attitude and emotion. According to Butcher, the identification of an abnormality must include these areas: • Suffering, the process of experiencing pain, distress or grief. A counselor must be certain to know acceptable boundaries of suffering brought on by life responsibilities. • Maladaptiveness, the inability to adjust to the environment or situation. • Deviancy, to turn away from what is standard; the act of considering or placing societal value and/or worth of a characteristic. • Violation of the Standards of Society, imparted standards that we are taught to follow (Butcher et al., 2010). Includes determining a person’s capability of being harmful to oneself or others. • Social discomfort, usual uneasiness in social settings and during social interactions. • Irrationality & Unpredictability, behavior that is entirely out of character; unreasonable and unexpected behavior.
  26. 26. Critical ThinkingThe purpose of identifying and classifying a disorder is to learn more about the causes of an illness and to develop a treatment regimen. Several techniques can be used to gather patient history of symptoms: case studies, research, observational approach and self- reported data. Research allows clinicians to study the characteristics of disorders (Butcher et al., 2010); teaching symptoms, cause, occurrences, frequency and duration. Case studies is the presentation of collected information of one person; at times, providing experience into unusual or rare conditions. Interviews and questionnaires provide self-reported data that is recorded and analyzed. The observational approach is self-stated; the clinician observes the participant or group in their natural environment and documents the experience.Identifying the proper method to use when classifying mental illness is relative to the clinician that is treating the patient; it varies according to preference and training or skill set. Agreed upon are certain behaviors that result to abnormality; deviance, distress, dysfunction and danger (Argosy University, 2011). An added condition that further complicates classification of mental disorders is culture; it is diverse and calls for qualified care givers willing to be open, insightful and skilled in the workings of psychology.Argosy University Online. (2011). Module 1: Overview. In Abnormal psychology. Retrieved from http://myeclassonline.comButcher, J. N., Hooley, J. M., & Mineka, S. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Educational, Inc.TLC Videos (2011). Grab a kiss, find a wife? [My big fat gypsy wedding]. Chicago: Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved from
  27. 27. Critical ThinkingApplied Psychology: Social Media Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  28. 28. Critical ThinkingThe culture of social media is prominent; it is a lifestyle of its own developing its own language, defining behavior and apparently impacting the field of psychology. As presented on “Good Morning America”, an application of psychology with social media in treating Agoraphobia is the latest news.Arlynn Presser is a 51 year old romance novelist that has suffered from Agoraphobia for over 30 years. Presser states that she felt the need to avoid the weight of the world; fearing social interaction and public places. Life events that exacerbated Presser’s symptoms were empty nest syndrome (her sons moved out when she was 50), divorce and the convenience of working at home; giving her no reason to leave the house.At the tradition of setting a New Year resolution, Presser resolved to leave her home and meet all of her Facebook friends from all over the world; her 23 year old son accompanied her and documented the experience. Presser’s journey included traveling to 11 countries to the tune of $30,000. She found herself engaged in activities that placed her outside of her comfort zone but worth every encounter as she learned to sing opera, shuffle her feet while boxing, kicked into karate and baiting and reeling while fishing.One year later, Presser has meet 292 of her Facebook friends and vows to continue until all are met. The advantage, according to Presser, she is no longer afraid to interact socially. She admits that her means of coping with Agoraphobia is not conventional, but it worked for her.When dealing with any disease or disorder, one’s ability to function in life is dependent upon developing coping mechanisms. Agreed that Arlynn Presser’s means of dealing with Agoraphobia is unconventional but it led her to leave her home and learn that the world isn’t so scary.Advantages: Since desensitization is the recommended mode of treatment for anxieties disorders, those with mild to moderate cases may benefit from this experience. Adequate support and journaling to reflect upon symptoms and experiences could help one to become more aware of triggers.Disadvantages: Being that Presser is a writer and not a psychologist, she is practicing beyond her boundaries of competence. According to the American Psychological Association Standard 2 - Competence, a psychology professional is bound to be ethical and knowledgeable in their area of treatment; this comes through acquired theory, training and supervision in the field of psychology. When in doubt, referrals are appropriate. Since part of the symptom criteria for Agoraphobia is fear of being in places where help may not be available, worldwide travel was overtly risky. This is not a controlled experiment and Presser could have placed herself and others into to a questionable, if not dangerous, predicament.ABC News. (2012, January 10). Good morning america. New York, NY. agoraphobia-facebook-visits-hundreds-friends-us-15328881Barak, A. (1999). Psychological applications on the internet: A discipline on the threshold of a new millennium. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8, 231-246.
  29. 29. Critical ThinkingInterpersonal Effectiveness: Understanding Culture Chandra N. Corker Argosy University
  30. 30. Critical ThinkingCulture is an important consideration in the interview, assessment and diagnostic process because it determines how a client will interpret, accept and participate in becoming healthy when dealing with a mental illness. Culture impacts how we think, how we behave, how we view mental illness, how we define it and how we adhere to the prescribed treatment (Ruiz, 1999). When conducing an interview or assessment a clinician must be aware of language barriers that could affect interpretation of questions and render the wrong diagnosis; if an assessment is given, language will affect test results.As a clinician it is important to regard a patient’s culture, country of origin, environment, religion, gender and race; all of these factors impact diagnosis and treatment of mental illness (Ruiz, 1999). Studies conducted at the University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center revealed that doctors must treat patients within the context of their culture and race. Results indicate that Asian-Americans do not require as much medication for schizophrenia as do non-Hispanic whites and African-Americans. Results of another study suggest that African-Americans need lower doses of tricyclic antidepressants, or TCAs, and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants, or SSRIs; risking noncompliance in taking medication (Ruiz, 1999).Culture and genetics also effects how the body will react when affected by depression and anxiety; the aches and pain of a mental illness, at times, can be misinterpreted as a physical aliment or, even worse, overlooked completely. Such an event can be a life ending experience to one who is severely depressed. Diversity is not a term of the past and those of us interacting with the public must take a proactive approach in becoming knowledgeable on treating all people from all walks of life.Butcher, J. N., Mineka, S., & Hooley, J. M. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. (14th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.Ruiz, M. (1999). Mental illness / race, culture affect diagnosis, treatment / doctors cite risk of misdiagnosis, noncompliance with medication. Houston Chronicle. 6(2). Retrieved from Proquest
  31. 31. My Future in LearningLearning is a lifelong process, as a lifelong learner I commit to:• Embracing change• Respecting others• Valuing differences• Communicating effectively• Listening• Pursuing excellence• Research with integrity
  32. 32. Contact Me Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio. For further information, pleasecontact me at the e-mail address below.