CCIH 2012 Conference, NCD Pre-Conference, Dr. Synnove Knutsen, Power of Faith to Address Non-Communicable Diseases, Adventists
The power of faith toaddress non-communicable diseases. Findings from the Adventist Health Study
• Is faith in itself associated with risk of developing chronic disease?• Is faith a vehicle or driving force for reduction in risk factors?
Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) have along tradition of focus on healthy lifestyle to reduce risk of disease.
8 “keys” to healthy living:•Nutrition – focus on vegetarian diet•Exercise•Water – inside and outside•Smoking – non-smoking•Temperance•Air – fresh air•Relaxation – adequate sleep•Trust in God
Dan Buettner – author of “BlueZones” - 9 healthrecommendations:•Nutrition – reduce calories by 20%•Plant based foods - legumes•Move – moderate and regular exercise•Life Purpose•Downshift–calm down, smell the roses•Belong to a spiritual community•Family – make it a priority (parents, spouse, children)•Social network with similar values•Grapes – wine from red grapes
• Is faith in itself associated with lower risk of chronic disease? • Is faith a vehicle or driving force for reducing risk factor levels?
Overview –of studies that can possibly address this
Adventist Health Studies USA, 1958-2012 BRHS 2006- 11,000 AMS 1958-1985 1958 1966 1974 23,000 SDA 1988 2001 2002- AHS-2 2011 96,000 SDA 25+ years 5,700 30+ years California overlap USA & Canada1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 AHSMOG 1977-2002 AHSMOG-2 6,328 SDA 2002- 25+ years 96,000 SDA 12,000 California 30+ years overlap AHS-1 1974-1988 USA & Canada 34,192 SDA 25+ years California
Studying Seventh-day AdventistsSTRENGTHS –• homogeneous in many lifestyle choices• heterogeneous in nutritional habits - wide range from strict vegetarian to regular American diet.• Very low smoking and alcohol use: can study effect of lifestyle without the confounding or modifying effects of these..
Adventist Religion & Health Study (BRHS): 2006-Present BRHS – • a sub-study of AHS-2 • 11,000 Adventist Americans aged 50+ • Aim: to understand what specific aspects of religion, life stressors and other health behaviors account for better or worse health • trace some of the biopsychosocial pathways to health.
Survival of Adventist (1980-88) and other California(1985) women aged 30+. (p < .001)
Survival of Adventist (1980-88) and otherCalifornia (1985) men aged 30+. (p < .001)
AHS-1Age at death according to lifestyle choices • Diet – vegetarian vs. non-vegetarian • Exercise • Nut intake • Maintaining normal body weight (as in BMI) • Smoking • HRT in females
Expected age at death among Adventist women according to high or lowlevels of various lifestyle factors. Years, (95% CI)
Expected age at death among Adventist men according to high or low levelsof various lifestyle factors. Years, (95% CI)
Persons unable to exercise due to disease, e.g. arthritis, CHD, stroke, etc are not penalized.
US Adventist vegetarians who increased theirmeat intake to weekly consumption of meat over a17-year interval experienced a 3.6 year decrease in life expectancy Increased Maintained meat intake Zero Meat Intake Singh PN, Sabate J, Fraser GE. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 78(3): 526-532
From the 1 (1960) to the 2nd study (1976), stsome Adventists changed from vegetarian diet to some meat. Incident diseases next 6 years (‘76-’82).RR (Singh et al.)