Paul Hebert - Saturday Closing Plenary

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Paul Hebert - Saturday Closing Plenary

  1. 1. Barcodes, Organelles, Genomes Paul Hebert Justin Schonfeld Sujeevan Ratnasingham
  2. 2. Sequence Data for Arthropod Species Genomes - 46 Mitochondrial Genomes - 214 Barcodes - 121,000
  3. 3. Probing Arthropod Mitochondrial Genomes With DNA Barcodes1. Nucleotide Composition2. Amino Acid Evolution3. Structural Change
  4. 4. A/T % in Arthropod Mitochondrial Genomes vs COI 90% 85% 80%Genome Sequence 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% COI
  5. 5. Nucleotide Composition of COI in Arthropods Crustaceans Scale Insects 100000 10000 1000# of Species 100 10 1 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 AT Composition (%)
  6. 6. Nucleotide Composition of COI in 17 Insect Orders% of Species % AT
  7. 7. Nucleotide Composition of COI in Two Insect Orders 10,000 8,000 Hymenoptera LepidopteraSpecies 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 % AT
  8. 8. Barcode Region as a Sentinel for Mitochondrial Evolution Amino Acid Substitutions Insertions & Deletions
  9. 9. Amino Acid Divergence in COI Versus Other Mitochondrial Proteins 1.0 0.8Correlation with COI 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 atp6 atp8 nd1 nd2 nd3 nd4 nd4l nd5 nd6 co2 co3 cytb
  10. 10. Amino Acid Divergences in the Barcode Region for Different Families of Hymenoptera
  11. 11. Amino Acid Divergences in the Barcode Region for Two Insect Orders Lepidoptera Hymenoptera
  12. 12. # of Indels in Mitochondrial Genes of Two Insect Orders>30 Lepidoptera 25 Hymenoptera 20 15 10 5 0 atp6 nd1 nd2 nd3 nd4 nd41 nd5 co1 co2 co3 cytb
  13. 13. Indels in the barcode region forLepidoptera and Hymenoptera 3 bp 6 bp 9 bp
  14. 14. Varied Rates of Protein Evolution & Indels in Barcode Region
  15. 15. Haplodiploid Diploid
  16. 16. Insect Phylogeny and HaplodiploidyHaplodiploidSome Haplodiploid
  17. 17. DiploidHaplodiploid
  18. 18. Amino Acid Divergences at COI for Diploid Hemiptera
  19. 19. Amino Acid Divergences at COI for All Hemiptera Diploid Haplodiploid
  20. 20. Haplodiploidy Greatly Accelerates Mt EvolutionWHY? It aids co-evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomesBASIS FOR CO-EVOLUTION 10% of nuclear gene products are exported to the mitochondrion. Nuclear and mitochondrial gene products interact strongly Male haploidy provides perfect screening system for nuclear variants improving mitochondrial performanceEVIDENCE FOR CO-EVOLUTION Molecular analysis shows residue by residue substitutions Studies on cybrids
  21. 21. Evidence for Co-evolution ATP generation in Cybrids 0% 0% 80 % 80 %Lower Primate mt Orangutan mt Chimpanzee mt Gorilla mt Human Nucleus +
  22. 22. Does the accelerated rate of mtDNA evolution inhaplodiploids provide insight into general patterns of mtDNA evolution?CONSIDER: 1. Land Plants 2. Cnidarians 3. Fungi 4. Protists
  23. 23. Consider Land Plants
  24. 24. Consider Land Plants A Three Particle Problem
  25. 25. Consider Land Plants A Three Particle Problem
  26. 26. Consider Corals A Three Particle Problem
  27. 27. Consider Other Cnidaria A Two Particle Problem
  28. 28. Consider Fungi A Two Particle Problem
  29. 29. Consider Non-Photosynthetic Protists A Two Particle Problem
  30. 30. Consider Photosynthetic Protists A Three Particle Problem
  31. 31. Consider Seaweeds A Three Particle Problem But some Haplodiploids
  32. 32. Fast Runners
  33. 33. Why Does Haplodiploidy Evolve?Might rapid mitochondrialevolution convey an advantagein Red Queen situations? Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!
  34. 34. Churchill Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae Eriophyidae
  35. 35. San Diego Cynipidae Cynipidae Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae
  36. 36. Adelaide EriococcidaeThysanoptera EriococcidaeEulophidae Eriococcidae
  37. 37. Consider Parasitoids
  38. 38. Mitochondrial genomes are fractals
  39. 39. Interactions among genomic compartments impact molecular evolution
  40. 40. These interactions can explain the lack of a universal barcode marker
  41. 41. The Red Queen may drive genomic structure
  42. 42. Horizontal Genomics – We have only begun!
  43. 43. Consider Mosses and Ferns A Three Particle Problem But Haplodiploids

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