Michelle T. GuzikCooper, S.J.B., Humphreys, W.F., Stevens, M.I., Javidkar, M., Harrison, S., King, R.A., Abrams,K., Harvey...
 >200 calcium carbonate aquifers Enclosed micro caves that lie in ancient river valleys                                 ...
StygofaunaTroglofauna              Images by C. Watts, K. Abrams, M. Harvey, T. Bradford
   Evolutionarily valuable for understanding the    history of Australia: living fossils   Major conservation and manage...
   Levels of diversity amongst fauna both    between and within calcrete aquifers   Examine species boundaries and ranges
 Species delineation is difficult in calcrete system  ▪ Difficulty sampling individuals (i.e. sample size low)  ▪ Large n...
 Create a framework within which we can examine biodiversity ▪ Robust criteria for delineating species   ?               ...
 Barcoding and DNA thresholds  ▪ Quick-sort specimens → genetically divergent lineages  ▪ Insects    ▪ Inter-specific div...
 COI sequencing to identify distinct lineages  ▪ Phylogenetic analyses  ▪ Molecular diversity Morphological comparisons ...
Crangonyctoidea           8614B                                                                             8615          ...
Chiltoniidae                             15%                             15%               King (In press) JCB
Taxon group     DNA delineation   Published      Geography                   (≥11%)          species    (distinct aquifer)...
 COI mtDNA sequencing Two calcrete aquifers  ▪ Aquifer 1: three beetle species (n >300)  ▪ Aquifer 2: three beetle speci...
• Three known beetle species• Very high genetic diversity• Genetic structure and divergences                              ...
•Three beetle species, one amphipod, oneisopod•High genetic diversity•Strong population structure                         ...
Aquifer Taxon group   No. known    Inter-     Intra-    Uncertain                       species    specific   specific    ...
 Both within and between calcrete aquifers high genetic divergences  ▪ Long term persistence of populations    ▪ Taxa is...
 Prediction of ~1000 possible subterranean species  in the Yilgarn alone DNA thresholds can be useful  ▪ But caution as ...
 Australian Research Council  ▪ Discovery grants  ▪ Linkage grants and major linkage partners    ▪ Minara Resources Ltd.,...
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Michelle Guzik - Invertebrates Plenary

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Genetic divergences and species boundaries in subterranean invertebrates 'Down Under'

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Michelle Guzik - Invertebrates Plenary

  1. 1. Michelle T. GuzikCooper, S.J.B., Humphreys, W.F., Stevens, M.I., Javidkar, M., Harrison, S., King, R.A., Abrams,K., Harvey, M.S., Austin, A.D.
  2. 2.  >200 calcium carbonate aquifers Enclosed micro caves that lie in ancient river valleys Calcrete aquifers Ancient river valleys
  3. 3. StygofaunaTroglofauna Images by C. Watts, K. Abrams, M. Harvey, T. Bradford
  4. 4.  Evolutionarily valuable for understanding the history of Australia: living fossils Major conservation and management issues Image by W. Humphreys
  5. 5.  Levels of diversity amongst fauna both between and within calcrete aquifers Examine species boundaries and ranges
  6. 6.  Species delineation is difficult in calcrete system ▪ Difficulty sampling individuals (i.e. sample size low) ▪ Large number of unidentified species ▪ Highly derived morphological forms ▪ Framework for taxonomy is poor (i.e. crustaceans) ▪ Few experts available for morphological examination
  7. 7.  Create a framework within which we can examine biodiversity ▪ Robust criteria for delineating species ? ? ? Images by K. Abrams and M. Harvey
  8. 8.  Barcoding and DNA thresholds ▪ Quick-sort specimens → genetically divergent lineages ▪ Insects ▪ Inter-specific divergences: > 4.4% ▪ Intra-specific divergences: < 1% ▪ Crustaceans ▪ Inter-specific divergence: 16% ▪ Intra-specific divergence: <14%
  9. 9.  COI sequencing to identify distinct lineages ▪ Phylogenetic analyses ▪ Molecular diversity Morphological comparisons ▪ Taxonomy Geography ▪ Species boundaries
  10. 10. Crangonyctoidea 8614B 8615 8608• Almost every CO1 mtDNA clade is restricted 8607 8614 8608.9 Three Rivers Plutonic 8608.6 8608.10 to a single and different calcrete aquifer 8614A 8664A 8664 8665.4 8665.5 8664B Milgun Sth. (Earrie) 8664 5 8664.S 9336• Some sympatric lineages within aquifers 10% 9336.S 9337.1 9344 8811.1 Innouendy 9344.S 9349 9349.S 9348.1 Byro Central• Morphological data support separate 9348.2 9348.S 8824.2 8824.3 8824.1 Dalgety Downs species 8821.1 8821.2 8850.1 8850.2 8850.3 8850.4 Wanna 8828.1 8834.2 8834.3 Gifford 5626 7270 8094M 5626 5609 8142.1 8142.2 5609 Paroo 8094F 8096 18% 5633.8 5632 5632.1 5633.12 9278.1 9278.2 9310 Killara Nth. 28% 9331.S 9332 9309.1 9331.1.1 Mt Padbury 9331.1.2 9309.2 8142 9284.2 9283.1 9272.2 Karalundi 5596.1 Killara 5596 8130 8698 8697.8 8493 Milgun Sth. (Outcamp) 8496 8480 Igarari/ Savory Cooper et al. (2007) Mol. Ecol., (2008) Invert. Syst.; Guzik (2008) Invert. Syst.
  11. 11. Chiltoniidae 15% 15% King (In press) JCB
  12. 12. Taxon group DNA delineation Published Geography (≥11%) species (distinct aquifer)Bathynellidae 18 9 8Amphipoda 22 3 20Aquatic 24 2 15IsopodaColeoptera 99 99 47Copepoda 15 32 5Terrestrial 22 0 12IsopodaCollembola 30 0 14Total 230 145
  13. 13.  COI mtDNA sequencing Two calcrete aquifers ▪ Aquifer 1: three beetle species (n >300) ▪ Aquifer 2: three beetle species, one amphipod, one isopod (n <300) Image by T. Bradford
  14. 14. • Three known beetle species• Very high genetic diversity• Genetic structure and divergences 4% Guzik et al. (2009) Mol. Ecol.
  15. 15. •Three beetle species, one amphipod, oneisopod•High genetic diversity•Strong population structure Guzik et al. (2011) Heredity
  16. 16. Aquifer Taxon group No. known Inter- Intra- Uncertain species specific specific % % %1 Coleoptera 3 9 - 16 0-4 Amphipoda 3 14 - 15 0-12 Coleoptera 3 11 - 15 1-4 Amphipoda 1 - 0-2 Isopoda ? - - 19–21 Population level divergences
  17. 17.  Both within and between calcrete aquifers high genetic divergences ▪ Long term persistence of populations ▪ Taxa isolated underground < 15 my ▪ Large population sizes ▪ Complex environment Image by C. Watts
  18. 18.  Prediction of ~1000 possible subterranean species in the Yilgarn alone DNA thresholds can be useful ▪ But caution as intra-specific divergences can be high Combination of methods is useful especially in complex systems Guzik et al. (2011) Invert. Syst.
  19. 19.  Australian Research Council ▪ Discovery grants ▪ Linkage grants and major linkage partners ▪ Minara Resources Ltd., Newmont Australia, Placer Dome Asia Pacific, South Australian Museum and Western Australian Museum Australian Biological Resources Study ▪ Research grants ▪ South Australian Museum and Western Australian Museum ▪ Capacity building grant ▪ R. Leijs, S. Eberhard, H. Hahn, T. Karanovic, S. Hinze, T. Moulds, C. Watts, K. Saint, J. Waldock , S. Taiti, J-L. Cho

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