How to assess the ‘Megabiodiversity’ of Invertebrates:55% of the world’s geometrid speciesare DNA barcodedAxel Hausmann(1)...
The clock is ticking …Global disasters:continuous loss of radioactivity
The clock is ticking …
Fascinating biodiversity Urgently to be assessed!
Time‘s running out for Biodiversity
Continuous loss of habitats
Continuous loss of habitats
Continuous loss of habitats
The clock is ticking …1. Correct and reliable analysis   of biodiversity   Knowledge / Identification2. Effective tools al...
Reliable analysis: easy identification?
Who is who?         undeterminable sibling species:Eupithecia pulchellata – Eupithecia pyreneata
Who is who?undeterminable insect larvae
Main gap:Megadiverse groups of tropical Insects       fresh samples of geometrids from Peru
The clock is ticking …1. Correct and reliable analysis   of biodiversity   Knowledge / Identification2. Effective tools al...
Traditional assessment:species descriptions
Traditional assessment:species descriptions       Geometridae
Traditional assessment:species descriptions       Geometridae
Traditional assessmentversus DNA barcoding       Geometridae                         2011: 14,500 species!
Traditional assessmentversus DNA barcoding       Geometridae                         2018: 25,000 species!
The clock is ticking!       Geometridae
____ 63% of the world’s geometrid species55%are DNA barcoded                         14,500 geometrid species             ...
Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich
Sampling StrategiesReference Collections Europe North America                                             9%
Sampling StrategiesReference Collection ANIC                            9%
Sampling StrategiesReference Collection Staude (ZA)                                   4%
Sampling StrategiesReference Collection Herbulot                                22 %
Reliably identified collection material             versus fresh samplings                     Europe & North America (200...
Sampling Strategies   Unsorted fresh samplingsZSM: 500K geometrids worldwide
Sampling Strategies
Selection of study sites: Ghana, Kakum NPEudaemonia argusCanopy Accessby Walkway
Sampling under tropical conditions                Ammonia syringe                                    Pinned in the field  ...
Sampling Strategies95well morphospecies selection
Sampling Strategies95well morphospecies selection
A priori identification of samples from tropical countries                    to (sub)family                      (e.g. ‘L...
Optimizing the procedureTaking photographs
Optimizing the procedurePreparing the insects for the PCR plates 96
Optimizing the procedureDatabasing and quality control
Optimizing the procedure Large-scale production
CalibrationTaxonomic expertise    Forum Herbulot
Calibration                    Type specimenscoll. Herbulot, 100 years, 658 bp   MNHN, >150 years, 658 bp            >200 ...
Continental assessments                    European campaign
Continental assessments               European campaign                                 pending                           ...
Continental assessments                    African geometrids
Continental assessments    African geometrids                          3168 species described
Continental assessments    African geometrids                                            649 Ma-                          ...
Continental assessments       African geometrids                           > 8,500 specimens, 5,750 barcodes,            ...
Continental assessments         African geometrids                           goal: 2.8-3K species (almost complete)      ...
Library of Life – made in GermanyData release geometrids of Bavariaafter less than 2 years 406 of 408 species barcoded (9...
Distances between species14                                                              Minimum pairwise distances betwee...
Distances between species‘Barcode sharing’: Thera obeliscata, T. v. mugo and T. cembraeSYNONYMY
Synonymy             Kuchleria garciapitai Exposito, 2005 syn.n. to                Kuchleria insignata Hausmann, 1995TAXON...
Variation within species70                                                         Variation (maximum pairwise distance) w...
TAXONOMY   Cryptic species detection
TAXONOMY   Cryptic species detection
A new pest for the Fauna of North               Africa: The winter moth O. brumataPEST CONTROL                            ...
Agents for the control of invasive plants              Eueupithecia cisplatensis for the controlQUARANTAINE              o...
ECOLOGY   Agents for the control of invasive plants
ECOLOGY                  Analysis of gut content                                                    COI Sequence          ...
ECOLOGY                  Analysis of gut content                                       matK/rbcL Sequence     COI Sequence...
How to assess the ‘Megabiodiversity’ of Invertebrates:  63% of the world’s geometrid species  are DNA barcoded            ...
Axel Hausmann - Invertebrates Plenary
Axel Hausmann - Invertebrates Plenary
Axel Hausmann - Invertebrates Plenary
Axel Hausmann - Invertebrates Plenary
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Axel Hausmann - Invertebrates Plenary

  1. 1. How to assess the ‘Megabiodiversity’ of Invertebrates:55% of the world’s geometrid speciesare DNA barcodedAxel Hausmann(1), Rodolphe Rougerie(2), Paul D. N. Hebert(3)(1) Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Germany (2) Université de Rouen, France (3) Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, University of Guelph, Canada
  2. 2. The clock is ticking …Global disasters:continuous loss of radioactivity
  3. 3. The clock is ticking …
  4. 4. Fascinating biodiversity Urgently to be assessed!
  5. 5. Time‘s running out for Biodiversity
  6. 6. Continuous loss of habitats
  7. 7. Continuous loss of habitats
  8. 8. Continuous loss of habitats
  9. 9. The clock is ticking …1. Correct and reliable analysis of biodiversity Knowledge / Identification2. Effective tools allowing rapid action
  10. 10. Reliable analysis: easy identification?
  11. 11. Who is who? undeterminable sibling species:Eupithecia pulchellata – Eupithecia pyreneata
  12. 12. Who is who?undeterminable insect larvae
  13. 13. Main gap:Megadiverse groups of tropical Insects fresh samples of geometrids from Peru
  14. 14. The clock is ticking …1. Correct and reliable analysis of biodiversity Knowledge / Identification2. Effective tools allowing rapid action
  15. 15. Traditional assessment:species descriptions
  16. 16. Traditional assessment:species descriptions Geometridae
  17. 17. Traditional assessment:species descriptions Geometridae
  18. 18. Traditional assessmentversus DNA barcoding Geometridae 2011: 14,500 species!
  19. 19. Traditional assessmentversus DNA barcoding Geometridae 2018: 25,000 species!
  20. 20. The clock is ticking! Geometridae
  21. 21. ____ 63% of the world’s geometrid species55%are DNA barcoded 14,500 geometrid species barcoded (63%)
  22. 22. Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich
  23. 23. Sampling StrategiesReference Collections Europe North America 9%
  24. 24. Sampling StrategiesReference Collection ANIC 9%
  25. 25. Sampling StrategiesReference Collection Staude (ZA) 4%
  26. 26. Sampling StrategiesReference Collection Herbulot 22 %
  27. 27. Reliably identified collection material versus fresh samplings Europe & North America (2000) ANIC Australia (2000) coll. Staude, ZA (1000)Rest(13,000) coll. Herbulot, world (5000)
  28. 28. Sampling Strategies Unsorted fresh samplingsZSM: 500K geometrids worldwide
  29. 29. Sampling Strategies
  30. 30. Selection of study sites: Ghana, Kakum NPEudaemonia argusCanopy Accessby Walkway
  31. 31. Sampling under tropical conditions Ammonia syringe Pinned in the field (Larger specimens in Killing jar small envelopes) Back home: Labelling & leg sampling Barcode success rate: >95% Relaxing (max. 2 days) & spreading later on!
  32. 32. Sampling Strategies95well morphospecies selection
  33. 33. Sampling Strategies95well morphospecies selection
  34. 34. A priori identification of samples from tropical countries to (sub)family (e.g. ‘Larentiinae) 5% to species 20% (e.g. ‘Eois aurata) 45%to genus 30% (e.g. ‘Eois AH01Ge) to species group, tentatively (e.g. Eois aurataAH01Ge)
  35. 35. Optimizing the procedureTaking photographs
  36. 36. Optimizing the procedurePreparing the insects for the PCR plates 96
  37. 37. Optimizing the procedureDatabasing and quality control
  38. 38. Optimizing the procedure Large-scale production
  39. 39. CalibrationTaxonomic expertise Forum Herbulot
  40. 40. Calibration Type specimenscoll. Herbulot, 100 years, 658 bp MNHN, >150 years, 658 bp >200 geometrid holotypes >500 paratypes
  41. 41. Continental assessments European campaign
  42. 42. Continental assessments European campaign pending 9% barcoded European geometrids 91%  total of 970 species (Hausmann 2007)  barcoded by April 2011: 880 species (91 %)  accessible on BOLD with image and georeferencing
  43. 43. Continental assessments African geometrids
  44. 44. Continental assessments African geometrids 3168 species described
  45. 45. Continental assessments African geometrids 649 Ma- dagascar 1543 Rest 914 South Africa 3168 species described
  46. 46. Continental assessments African geometrids  > 8,500 specimens, 5,750 barcodes,  > 2,500 species (“BIN”s)  calibration: Hausmann, Staude & Lenz
  47. 47. Continental assessments African geometrids  goal: 2.8-3K species (almost complete)  data release publication late 2012 (PLoS one)
  48. 48. Library of Life – made in GermanyData release geometrids of Bavariaafter less than 2 years 406 of 408 species barcoded (99%) 1815 specimens, 1393 barcodes
  49. 49. Distances between species14 Minimum pairwise distances between species > 2% 1-2%12 0-1%1086420 0-0,5 1-1,5 2-2,5 3-3,5 4-4,5 5-5,5 6-6,5 7-7,5 8-8,5 9-9,5 10- 11- 12- 13- % % % % % % % % % % 10,5 11,5 12,5 13,5 % % % % 99 % diagnostic barcodes!
  50. 50. Distances between species‘Barcode sharing’: Thera obeliscata, T. v. mugo and T. cembraeSYNONYMY
  51. 51. Synonymy Kuchleria garciapitai Exposito, 2005 syn.n. to Kuchleria insignata Hausmann, 1995TAXONOMY Kuchleria insignata Kuchleria garciapitai Holotype, E Spain from type locality, C Spain
  52. 52. Variation within species70 Variation (maximum pairwise distance) within species >2% 1-2%60 0-1%50403020100 0-0,5 1-1,5 2-2,5 3-3,5 4-4,5 5-5,5 6-6,5 7-7,5 8-8,5 9-9,5 10-10,5 11-11,5 12-12,5 13-13,5 5 % with cryptic diversity in COI (15+5 species, >2%) 9/20 with double clusters, 11/20 with out-sticking singletons
  53. 53. TAXONOMY Cryptic species detection
  54. 54. TAXONOMY Cryptic species detection
  55. 55. A new pest for the Fauna of North Africa: The winter moth O. brumataPEST CONTROL photo: E. Friedrich map: BOLD database
  56. 56. Agents for the control of invasive plants Eueupithecia cisplatensis for the controlQUARANTAINE of Parkinsonia aculeata in Australia photos: CSIRO, Australia by the courtesy of Tim Heard
  57. 57. ECOLOGY Agents for the control of invasive plants
  58. 58. ECOLOGY Analysis of gut content COI Sequence unknown larva (Dead Sea) Identification moth: Semiothisa aestimaria
  59. 59. ECOLOGY Analysis of gut content matK/rbcL Sequence COI Sequence unknown larva (Dead Sea) Identification plant: Identification moth: Tamarisk Semiothisa aestimaria
  60. 60. How to assess the ‘Megabiodiversity’ of Invertebrates: 63% of the world’s geometrid species are DNA barcoded Funding agenciesAcknowledgementsPaul Hebert for a wonderful and successful partnership!Rodolphe Rougerie, University of Rouen for iBOL 1.9 co-leadSujeevan Ratnasingham (BOLD), and the teams of BIO and CCDBBFB-team: G. Haszprunar, S. Schmidt, M. Balke, L. Hendrich, A. SegererBayerisches Staatsministerium für Wissenschaft und KunstHundreds of enthusiastic and active partners all over the world

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