The Barcoding Enterprise: CBOL’s view for 2011 to 2015 Dr. Scott E. Miller, Chair Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL) Deputy Under Secretary for Collections Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC www.barcodeoflife.org; MillerS@si.edu
Who Came to Adelaide?463 delegates from 61 countriesLarge representation by non-academicsectors– Government officials, regulatory agencies– Private companies– Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)ALA, Others from Biodiversity Informatics
Diverse with respect to:Single, few, many barcoding projects/labSpecimens from collections, fieldworkReasons for barcoding:– 72% - Biodiversity inventories– 52% - Phylogenetics– 46% - Ecological applications– 42% - Taxonomy– 35% - Building the reference library
Diverse with respect to:Personal/group labs, core facilitiesProducing 10s, 100s, 1000s of barcodesRelying on sequencing services from:– 32% - Commercial sequencing service– 29% - Canadian Centre for DNA barcoding– 24% - Personal or group lab– 28% - Institutional core facility
Data Release for Adelaide379 abstracts being presented:225 presenters responded to survey ondata for their presentations:– 125 presenters have private BOLD data– Of these, 88 have only private BOLD data– 70 keep their data only on personal computers– 60 have public GenBank records– 44 more have unpublished GenBank data– 18 have public BOLD data projects
Plant Barcoding ProgressAcceleration of plant barcode studiesAssessment of matK and rbcLExpansion of data on ITSApplication to illegal logging64 Plant presentations in Adelaide– More than Fish (55) and Fungi (38)Implementation in GenBank delayed
Progress since Mexico City, 2009Approval soon of standard Fungal BarcodeFirst adoption by government agency, the USFood and Drug Administration (FDA); – Angelo Ferrari’s poster on Italy’s FDAExpanded use of next-generationsequencing, especially analysis of mixtures--Adelaide session on Environmental DNA(18 presentations)Expanded applications in ecology, evolution
Progress on Specimen Sources Large-scale tissue mining projects in major collections: – Australian National Insect Collection, tens of thousands of specimens – USNM bird frozen tissue: 3000 specimens, 1147 newly barcoded species – USNM and AMNH mammal frozen tissue – CBS fungal collection - Smithsonian National Zoo – Discussions underway with many others
An Experiment in Museum Tissue Mining and Fast Data Release Bird frozen tissue sampling winter/spring Sequencing completed in September Sequence quality control in October Taxonomic checking in early November – Obvious errors removed – Minor discrepancies remain Data released for Adelaide Conference - Fort Lauderdale Protocol for early data release – Crowd-sourced annotation by community – Will data be mis-used??
Progress on InformaticsContinued Barcoding leadership inbiodiversity informatics and cybertaxonomy– Partnerships with GBIF, Encyclopedia of Life, Atlas of Living Australia– Biodiversity WG of Genomics Standards Consortium– e-Biosphere workshop (Copenhagen, July 2012) and conference (London, March 2013)BOLD 3.0 with group annotationBiorepositories.org – approved Voucher IDs
Barcoding and the CBDRecognition of Non-Commercial Research inNagoya Protocol, Access and Benefit SharingMemorandum of Understanding, iBOL-CBD
Barcoding Near a Tipping Point Create partnerships with user communities (government agencies, private companies) Engage more major collections with frozen tissue and younger identified specimens Engage new collecting programs with teams of taxonomists (e.g., Moorea) Implement early and full data release, embrace community-based data curation (Fort Lauderdale Protocol)
Major Issues for Adelaide: Scaling Up!iBOL and other projects have high goals forbuilding reference library:– Can we find sufficient voucher specimens?– Will vouchers have reliable species IDs? Role of interim taxonomy and BINs?– Will barcoding become a truly Open Science and lead Biodiversity Informatics and cybertaxonomy?– Will new core facilities, BOLD mirror databases be built to increase global productivity?– Role of NGS and other new technologies?
Sincere thanks to:– Andy Lowe and Local Organizing Committee– Co-hosts, Sponsors, Exhibitors– Presenters and other delegates– CBOL Secretariat StaffCelebrate our accomplishmentsRemember our vision and missionBe open to user communities, internationalpartners, education applicationsChallenge each other to take risks