E-Learning: Innovation scenariosWeaknesses of traditional e-Learningand analysis of more effective methodologiesC.A.T.T.I.D.Centre of Applications for Television and Digital TechnologyInnovation”Sapienza” University of Rome
Summary• Adults as distance e-Learners: peculiar characteristics• Weaknesses of traditional e-Learning programs involving employed learners• The quest for improved interactivity and the importance of relationship building• Towards e-Learning 2.0 – Reference’s framework – Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D.• Simulations: opportunities and threats – Some important aspects – Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D – Critical points to take into account
Adults as distance e-Learners Peculiar characteristics (1/2)Employed learners who participate in distance learning programs areoften quite different to learners enrolled in university or post-graduatedistance learning programs. Adult learners, in fact:• have a different set of needs, strategies and motivations towards the learning process• can be experiential learners and have a life experience that becomes an additional resource for learning• are often capable to successfully generate internal motivation for their learning, frequently based on notions of self-development, career advancement and achievement
Adults as distance e-Learners Peculiar characteristics (2/2)• are intent on directly applying their learning and approach learning primarily as a problem-solving activity• tend to complete e-Learning in their personal time due to workload pressures in the workplace• can experience feelings of isolation through lack of support and a perceived lack of control. These sorts of circumstances can force mature learners into non-completion even though they may be performing well in their distance studies
Weaknesses of traditional e-Learning methodologies involving employed learners (1/2) Weaknesses of Unsatisfied needs of traditional e-Learning employed e-LearnersDistributes consolidated knowledge Generate new knowledge building on personal experiences and previous achievementsIs often e-Teaching Be involved in learning experiences that enhance spontaneous and playful dimension of learningMay isolate the learner Being part of learning communitiesIs delivered by a single Make the training an opportunity to buildprovider/institution relationships and create discussion and group sharingMay ignore the learner’s context and Build on their prior knowledge andprevious achievements perceive the applicability of the lessons learned to their work
Weaknesses of traditional e-Learning programs involving employed learners (2/2)Formative effectiveness can be affected by the mismatchbetween traditional e-Learning features and the employed-learner’s needs.E-Learning programs that are exclusively based on self-learning,display a dropout-rate as high as 75% in working environments.
The quest for improved interactivity and the importance of relationship buildingBecause of the high failure-rate of traditional e-Learning, manyprofessionals realized the need to keep in high regard not only thepeculiarities of the used media, but also the adult students’ needs,expectations and learning style.Positive results have been achieved through the adoption of a learningenvironment embodying:• Social networking (the so-called “e-Learning 2.0”)• A well-framed use of simulations and serious games
Towards e-Learning 2.0The advent and the rapid growth of Web 2.0 introduced, in the lastfew years, substantial changes in the practices of web-based distancelearning.The spread of social networking and social media, with all the corollaryof interaction and activity in online communities, has created a kind ofliteracy to peers’ collaboration and information/knowledge sharing.
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Reference’s frame (1/3)Since 2003 Web 2.0 has been characterized by a rapid growthfollowed, at a later time, by a slowdown, thus testifying to itsmaturity.Web 2.0 provides different media, allowing for different ways to havea dialogue and collaborate: this could help learners, in an instructionalenvironment, to enhance their knowledge in a more participant andmotivating way.Which 2.0 applications could be used in a learning environment?What is nowadays their actual diffusion?
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Reference’s frame (2/3)• Social Networking Services (November 2009: over 450 million profiles on social networking sites)• Blogs (The size of the blogosphere has doubled every 5-7 months in recent years and more than 100,000 blogs are created daily)• Wikis (Since its creation in 2001, Wikipedia has grown rapidly into one of the largest reference websites, attracting at least 684 million visitors yearly by 2008. There are more than 75,000 active contributors working on more than 10,000,000 articles in more than 250 languages)• Tagging, Social Bookmarking e Folksonomies (January 2010: About 5 million blogs posted at least one tagged post)
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Reference’s frame (3/3)• Media Sharing Services (More than 1 billion photos are uploaded in photo sites. December 2009: there were 2,500 university channels on YouTube and many learning-related topic groups).• Podcasts (The estimated number of podcasts in 2010 was over 1.000,000 when, only three years earlier, there had been fewer than 100,000)• Online social gaming (more than 1000 MMORPG, “Massive(ly) Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game”, exist today worldwide. Playing games online is attracting a quarter of the total worldwide Internet population)
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (1/7)Currently C.A.T.T.I.D. is involved in various projects where, among thekey elements, strategies and tools of e-learning 2.0 are used.Among the most significant are:• AddMe, Activating Drivers for Digital eMpowerment in Europe• Cemsdi, Civil-servants Empowerment for Multi-media Service Delivery ICT-enabled• ESCS, Training European Senior Civil Servants for tomorrow
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (2/7)AddMe, Activating Drivers for Digital eMpowerment in EuropeADD ME! is a pan-European network bringing together into a commonframework and learning environment, by means of a community of practice,the different social and institutional organizations that support or cansupport disadvantaged groups in becoming major beneficiaries of publicservices to which they are entitled.Target:• elderly poor and retired seniors• youngsters not in education, employment and training (NEET), and non-EU teenagers that are integrating into a local community with their families or by themselves• individual civil servants from small or medium size local governments, mainly those administrations that do not pertain to large metropolitan areas and suffer the digital divide
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (3/7)AddMe, Activating Drivers for Digital eMpowerment in EuropePartners:1) CATTID (CATTID) (Coordinator) IT 11) 4C Hungary (4C) HU2) KS Nalra (KS) NO 12) eINK Hungary (eINK) HU3) GISO (GISO) GR 13) Nottingham City (Notts) UK4) ADICONSUM (ADI) IT 14) Esd Limited UK5) Inesc Porto (INE) PT 15) Vysocina Region (VYS) CZ6) Gov2u (Gov2u) GR 16) Seniornett Norge (SEN) NO7) Digital Access (DA) GR 17) CEMR (CEMR) BE8) University of Adgar (UIA) NO 18) Santa Maria de Feira Mun. (SMF) PT9) Comune di Modena (CM) IT 19) I2BC (I2BC) ES10) Fondazione Mondo Digitale (FMD) ITStart Date: November 2009 Duration: 24 months
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (4/7)Cemsdi, Civil-servants Empowerment for Multi-media ServiceDelivery ICT-enabledCEMSDI is a project to empower the public sector in Europe, through astrong capacity building initiative of civil servants and other practitioners bycreating a validated learning environment supporting planning,reorganization of administrative procedures and working methodologies,service delivery and communication with citizens and enterprises using themodern ICT.Target:• civil servants from local and regional governments• practitioners from associations, agencies, institutes, local networks and enterprises created by local/regional administrations• practitioners from SME’s
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (5/7)Cemsdi, Civil-servants Empowerment for Multi-media ServiceDelivery ICT-enabledPartners:1) INNOVA EU Belgium (Coord.)2) CATTID (University of Rome “La Sapienza”) Italy3) Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione Locale Italy4) Comunità Montane Media Valle del Cerchio (Toscana) Italy5) Norwegian Association of Local Authorities Norway6) Asociaciòn de Municipios del Pais Vasco EUDEL Spain7) Robotiker Spain8) Electronic Service Deliver (ESD ) Limited UK9) INESC PORTO Portugal10) Régie Cooperativa VARD- 2015, CIPRL Portugal11) Vysocina Region, VYSOCINA Czech RepublicStart Date: April 2010 Duration: 24 months
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (6/7)ESCS, Training European Senior Civil Servants for tomorrowThe course aims at improving competences, networking skills and knowledgefor those officials who have regular exchanges with their Europeancounterparts or those interested in working in the Public Administration ofanother EU Member State. This type of mobility scheme will enhancelearner’s career development and will provide them with a significantexperience in an international and highly professional environment.The ESCS is an innovative model of transnational training and networking,thanks to the active involvement of European schools and institutes ofpublic administration from 9 countries.The e-learning module lasts six weeks and is highly interactive, with fulltutorial assistance to users and interaction and collaboration via a “forumcafé” and a “wiki”.
Towards e-Learning 2.0 Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (7/7)ESCS, Training European Senior Civil Servants for tomorrowPartners:• the Scuola Superiore della Pubblica Amministrazione - SSPA (Italy)• the Ecole nationale dadministration - ENA (France)• the Bundesakademie für öffentliche Verwaltung im Bundesministerium des Innern - BAköV (Germany)• the National School of Public Administration - EKDDA (Greece)• the Kormányzati Személyügyi Szolgáltató Közigazgatási Képzési Központ - KSZK (Government Centre for Public Adm. and Human Resource Services) (Hungary)• the Krajowa Szkola Administracji Publicznej - KSAP (Poland)• the Instituto Nacional de Administration Publica - INAP (Spain)• the National School of Government (United Kingdom)• the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (France)Start Date: November 2009 (3rd ESCS Course)
Simulations: Opportunities and ThreatsSimulations allow to turn theories and hypothesis into concreteexamples by showing their application in real settings.They make possible the creation of an environment suitable forexperiments without risk and/or consequences of various sort.They have the ability to directly involve the learner, placing him at thecenter of the situation.They are suitable for training in managerial contexts, because theyallow the learner to experiment new behavioral strategies, evaluatingthe effects of decisions in the short and long term.
Simulations: Opportunities and Threats Some important aspects (1/2)Some of the characteristics of simulations are very useful in learningcourses that involve students who are placed in professional contexts:• Learners’ identification. In order to fulfill its role and educational purpose a simulation should be able to engage the learner. Since this training approach is characterized by a videogame-like structure, a simulation is capable of attracting and maintaining the attention of learners for its whole duration, even if they repeat the experience
Simulations: Opportunities and Threats Some important aspects (2/2)• Practical approach, problem solving oriented. The submission of real settings allows to place the learner at the center of the reference context and actively involve him/her in resolving the problem• Obtaining feedback. At the end of the simulation, the learner is invited to consider his/her performance, by evaluating the decisions taken, the exchanges made, the critical steps and the total path conducted. This is an opportunity to re-considerate the adopted strategy
Simulations: Opportunities and Threats Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (1/2)LABeL is the e-Learning Laboratory of C.A.T.T.I.D. where, over theyears, extensive research and experimentation have been run on areassuch as immersive education, mobile learning, complexity educationand digital game based learning, with special focus on simulationsand serious game.In 2009, moreover, was held at Label a series of seminars aimed to thesystematization of knowledge and practice on simulations, seriousgames and business games, by analyzing and comparing manynational and international experiences.
Simulations: Opportunities and Threats Experience of C.A.T.T.I.D. (2/2)An example of effective use of simulations in a business context is represented bythe case “Bank robberies: Security measures and effective actions” of ABITraining.• The online simulation allows users to interact with the robbery event in a likely but protected context• It is addressed to all operators of commercial network• It has an estimated duration of 4 hours• It is built on three scenarios with different dynamics of the robbery and involving a different number of robbers• Within each scenario, the story is structured in steps, which leads the learner to the decision-making• At the end of each scenario the user receives a report that analyzes and comments every choice
Simulations: Opportunities and Threats Critical points to take into accountMain problems related to the use of simulation in educationalcontexts:• Long time for implementation and high production costs• Need to employ professionals that are still rare on the marketTherefore it is not appropriate to invest much time on thedevelopment of a single training simulation, but to invest in planning asystem designed to automate some of the technical aspects of thecreation process of simulations, thereby enabling those who do notpossess technical skills to work as developers.
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