Building Board Agendas
and The Brown Act
ACSA New Superintendents Workshop
January 28, 2014
Monterey, California
Peter Fag...
About the Presenters


Peter K. Fagen: Partner of Fagen Friedman
& Fulfrost LLP (“F3”)



David Vierra: Superintendent o...
CONGRATULATIONS!!!
Take a second to realize and appreciate
your accomplishment
 Not an easy task ahead, but with strong
l...
What We’ll Cover . . .
1. Overview of the Brown Act
2. What is a Meeting?
3. Closed Session Procedure
4. Brown Act Violati...
1. Overview of the Brown
Act

5
Where to Find the Brown Act


Government Code
 Codified



in Sections 54950-54963

Implementing regulations
 Title

1...
Intent of the Brown Act




Open and public
deliberations
Meaningful public
access

7
SO…WHO IS SUBJECT TO THE
BROWN ACT?

8
Legislative Bodies*

*A school board is a legislative body
subject to the Brown Act
9
Sub-boards and Commissions

10
Sub-boards and Commissions
 All

subcommittees and commissions
created by formal action of the Board,
whether temporary, ...
Ad Hoc Advisory Committee
Rules
1.
2.

3.
4.

The committee must be purely an advisory
committee with no decision making a...
Open Meetings Requirement








All meetings of a legislative
body must be open to the
public, except for
authorized...
2. What Is A Meeting?

14
“Meeting” Defined


A meeting occurs whenever:
 A majority of the Board members gather
at same time and place . . .
 To...
Serial Meetings Prohibited




Serial Meeting: Communications outside formal
meeting, each of which involve less than a ...
Personal Intermediaries


Separate conversations or communications with
board members, where the speaker answers
question...
A Word of Caution . . .


Board members should be wary of acquiring
knowledge, outside of a noticed board meeting, of
the...
Meetings Do Not Include…
 Individual

contact
 Public conferences
 Standing committees
 Other local agency meetings
 ...
General Constraints
 Majority

of the members cannot discuss
school district business among themselves
at “non-meetings”
...
Agendas
 Agenda

must be
posted

 At

least 72 hours prior
to holding a regular
board meeting
 At least 24 hours prior ...
Agenda Description


The agenda must contain a brief general
description of each item of business to be
transacted or dis...
Action and Discussion of Items


The Board may not discuss or take action
on an item not appearing on the agenda
except:
...
Action and Discussion of Items (cont’d)
 To

ask staff to report on an item not on the
agenda at a subsequent meeting
 T...
Placement of Items on Agenda
 Members

of the public, including Board members,
may ask to have a specific matter placed o...
Public Participation and Comment
Regular meeting: Members of the public
must be provided an opportunity to address
the leg...
Public Participation and Comment (cont’d)
 Regular

or special meeting: Members of
the public must be provided an opportu...
Public Participation and Comment (cont’d)
 The

Board may not
prohibit public criticism
of the policies,
procedures, prog...
Public Records
All agendas and other
documents distributed at
a Board Meeting in connection
with an agenda item are
public...
Public Records
Documents distributed to the Board less than
72 hours prior to an open public meeting
shall be made availab...
3. Closed Session
Procedure

31
Closed Sessions
May be held only for purposes expressly
authorized by the Brown Act or Education
Code
 Board must disclos...
Permissible Closed Sessions

1. Personnel Matters
 Purpose: to discuss appointment, employment,

evaluation of performanc...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)


If specific complaints or charges against
employee:
 Employee entitled to 24-hour...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
2. Pending Litigation
 Purpose: to receive advice from legal
counsel
 “Pending” def...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
3. Student Matters
 Closed session required if Board is
considering the suspension o...
Permissible Closed Sessions
(cont’d)

3. Student Matters, cont.


Exception: Expulsions
 Final action to expel a student...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
4. Negotiations/Collective

Bargaining



Discuss negotiations and instruct district...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
5. Security Matters
 Purpose: To meet with law enforcement or
security expert
 To d...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
6. Real Property Negotiations
 Purpose:

to instruct negotiators on price and
terms ...
Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)
6. Real Property Negotiations (cont’d)
Recent Narrowing of Exception: Recent Attorney...
Closed Session:
Agenda Requirements




Closed sessions
must be identified on
the agenda
The Brown Act
provides safe har...
Closed Session:
Reporting Out Requirements



Following a closed session, the Board must
publicly report actions taken un...
Closed Session: Exceptions
to Reporting Out Requirements






Personnel matters: dismissal or nonrenewal of
contract s...
Closed Session: Exceptions
to Reporting Out Requirements (cont’d)




Real estate negotiations: approval of an agreement...
Confidentiality of Closed Sessions






Board members are prohibited from disclosing
information obtained during a clo...
Liability for Disclosing
Closed Session Information




Liability for Disclosing
Confidential
Information:
Board members...
Liability for Disclosing
Closed Session Information (cont’d)






Civil lawsuit: A current or former Board member may ...
Liability for Disclosing
Closed Session Information (cont’d)





Grand Jury: Government Code section 3060
provides that...
4. Brown Act Violations

50
Brown Act Violations




Misdemeanor: For Board member to attend a
Board meeting where action is taken in violation of
T...
Cure or Correct Demands
Before bringing the action, the Board must
be given notice and an opportunity to correct
the viola...
Cure or Correct - Case Law


Even if discussion held without agenda item
at one meeting, if at next meeting was on
the ag...
5. Brown Act Legislative
Update

54
SB 751 – Effective Jan. 1, 2014








All legislative bodies of local agencies, including school
boards, must public...
6. Voting/Taking Action

56
Quorum




Number of members that must be present to
legally transact business
Why? We don’t want small unrepresentative...
Actions by the Board
A

majority vote of all Board members
is necessary for an item to carry (Ed.
Code § 35164)

 Applie...
Actions by the Board (cont’d)
 Actions

requiring 2/3 vote of the Board:

Sell or lease property
 Convey or dedicate pro...
Actions by the Board (cont’d)
 Actions

requiring 2/3 vote of the Board
members present at the meeting:
 Need

to take i...
Actions by the Board (cont’d)
 Actions

requiring 4/5 vote of the Board:

 Expenditure/transfer

of funds to meet
nation...
Actions by the Board (cont’d)
 Actions

requiring unanimous vote
of the Board:
Resolution authorizing community lease
for...
Actions by the Board (cont’d)
 Actions

requiring unanimous vote of the
Board members present at the meeting:
 Private

...
Quick Note: Conflicts of Interest


If there is a conflict of interest, Board member(s)
must:
 Publicly announce the eco...
Resolutions, Voting and
Consent Calendar
Resolutions


Use resolutions when the issue requires more formality,
attention,...
Resolutions, Voting and
Consent Calendar (cont’d)
Consent Calendar




Intended to be used to dispose of ordinary, nonco...
Resolutions, Voting and
Consent Calendar (cont’d)




Chair should ask before
consideration of the
consent calendar: “Ar...
Steps to Success


Treat Board members equally
 Cohesive



When possible, allow adequate lead time to
get a measure pa...
7. Building and Sustaining a
Unified Governance Team

69
How Does the Governance Team
Maintain Positive Relations?


Essential
Components
 Communication
 Structures

70
Communication
 Frequent

discussions
 Keep all Board members informed
 No surprises
 Up front and honest

71
Steps to Success


Treat Board members equally
 Cohesive



When possible, allow adequate lead time to
get a measure pa...
Structures


Short-term
 Agenda

review
 Work Study sessions
 “What’s Happening”
 Board Highlights
 Principal’s News...
January
December

Funding the Vision
February

November
March

October

April

May
September

June
August
July

Implementa...
Thank you for being here
and participating !

75
Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum...
Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum...
Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum...
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New Supts - Building board agendas and the brown act acsa superintendents 2014 (543698 1) (2)

  1. 1. Building Board Agendas and The Brown Act ACSA New Superintendents Workshop January 28, 2014 Monterey, California Peter Fagen David Vierra 1
  2. 2. About the Presenters  Peter K. Fagen: Partner of Fagen Friedman & Fulfrost LLP (“F3”)  David Vierra: Superintendent of Antelope Valley Union High School District (“AVUHSD”) 2
  3. 3. CONGRATULATIONS!!! Take a second to realize and appreciate your accomplishment  Not an easy task ahead, but with strong leadership, knowledge and good communication with students, parents, teachers and governing board, you will succeed  Understanding the Brown Act will help ensure effective governing board meetings  3
  4. 4. What We’ll Cover . . . 1. Overview of the Brown Act 2. What is a Meeting? 3. Closed Session Procedure 4. Brown Act Violations 5. Brown Act Legislative Update 6. Voting/Taking Action 7. Building and Sustaining a Unified Governance Team Please ask questions as we go! 4
  5. 5. 1. Overview of the Brown Act 5
  6. 6. Where to Find the Brown Act  Government Code  Codified  in Sections 54950-54963 Implementing regulations  Title 14, Section 15000, et. seq. 6
  7. 7. Intent of the Brown Act   Open and public deliberations Meaningful public access 7
  8. 8. SO…WHO IS SUBJECT TO THE BROWN ACT? 8
  9. 9. Legislative Bodies* *A school board is a legislative body subject to the Brown Act 9
  10. 10. Sub-boards and Commissions 10
  11. 11. Sub-boards and Commissions  All subcommittees and commissions created by formal action of the Board, whether temporary, decision making, or advisory, are legislative bodies subject to the Brown Act  One exception: Ad hoc advisory committees consisting of less than a quorum of Board members 11
  12. 12. Ad Hoc Advisory Committee Rules 1. 2. 3. 4. The committee must be purely an advisory committee with no decision making authority  The committee must be composed solely of two members of the legislative body (less than a quorum) The committee must not have continuing subject matter jurisdiction  The committee must not have a meeting schedule fixed by formal action of the legislative body  12
  13. 13. Open Meetings Requirement     All meetings of a legislative body must be open to the public, except for authorized closed sessions. Purpose of meeting: To accomplish district business Provide public opportunities for questions and comments No secret ballots 13
  14. 14. 2. What Is A Meeting? 14
  15. 15. “Meeting” Defined  A meeting occurs whenever:  A majority of the Board members gather at same time and place . . .  To hear, discuss, or deliberate . . .  Upon any item that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of the Board or district. (Gov. Code § 54952.2) 15
  16. 16. Serial Meetings Prohibited   Serial Meeting: Communications outside formal meeting, each of which involve less than a quorum, but collectively encompass a majority “A majority of the members …shall not, outside a meeting …use a series of communications of any kind, directly or through intermediaries, to discuss, deliberate, or take action on any item …that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of the legislative body.” (Gov. Code § 54952.2 ) 16
  17. 17. Personal Intermediaries  Separate conversations or communications with board members, where the speaker answers questions or provides information to board members regarding a matter that could come before the board, are not prohibited if the person communicating with the board members “does not communicate to [board] members … the comments or position of any other member or members .” (Gov. Code § 54952.2(b)(2).) 17
  18. 18. A Word of Caution . . .  Board members should be wary of acquiring knowledge, outside of a noticed board meeting, of their peers' opinions or positions on matters to come before the board 18
  19. 19. Meetings Do Not Include…  Individual contact  Public conferences  Standing committees  Other local agency meetings  Community meetings  Social gatherings 19
  20. 20. General Constraints  Majority of the members cannot discuss school district business among themselves at “non-meetings”  Can attend standing committee meetings only as observers 20
  21. 21. Agendas  Agenda must be posted  At least 72 hours prior to holding a regular board meeting  At least 24 hours prior to holding a special board meeting  At a location freely accessible to the public  Agenda must also be posted on a school district’s Internet Web site, if it has one 21
  22. 22. Agenda Description  The agenda must contain a brief general description of each item of business to be transacted or discussed at the meeting, including closed session items  Generally, not to exceed 20 words 22
  23. 23. Action and Discussion of Items  The Board may not discuss or take action on an item not appearing on the agenda except:  To respond to statements made or questions posed by the public during the public comment section – Be careful  To ask questions of staff or the public for clarification 23
  24. 24. Action and Discussion of Items (cont’d)  To ask staff to report on an item not on the agenda at a subsequent meeting  To make a brief announcement  When an emergency severely impairing the public health or safety exists  When there is a need to take immediate action on an item that came to the attention of the agency after the agenda was posted 24
  25. 25. Placement of Items on Agenda  Members of the public, including Board members, may ask to have a specific matter placed on a future agenda  General process  Reviewed by Board President and Superintendent  If within subject matter of district  Decide whether open or closed session item  Decide whether information, consent or action item  No right to demand that requested item be “action item” 25
  26. 26. Public Participation and Comment Regular meeting: Members of the public must be provided an opportunity to address the legislative body on any item within the subject matter jurisdiction of the agency  Special meeting: Public provided an opportunity to address the Board on any item described in the notice  26
  27. 27. Public Participation and Comment (cont’d)  Regular or special meeting: Members of the public must be provided an opportunity to address the legislative body on any item on the agenda either before or during the Board consideration of that item 27
  28. 28. Public Participation and Comment (cont’d)  The Board may not prohibit public criticism of the policies, procedures, programs, or services of the agency, or the acts or omissions of the Board 28
  29. 29. Public Records All agendas and other documents distributed at a Board Meeting in connection with an agenda item are public records  This also means that any document a member brings to the Board meeting to share with the Board will become a public record  29
  30. 30. Public Records Documents distributed to the Board less than 72 hours prior to an open public meeting shall be made available for public inspection when distributed to the Board  Need to list on the agenda the location of where item can be viewed or can post on website.  30
  31. 31. 3. Closed Session Procedure 31
  32. 32. Closed Sessions May be held only for purposes expressly authorized by the Brown Act or Education Code  Board must disclose in open session (or via the agenda) the item(s) to be discussed in closed session  Board may only consider those items covered in statement (or via the agenda)  32
  33. 33. Permissible Closed Sessions 1. Personnel Matters  Purpose: to discuss appointment, employment, evaluation of performance, discipline or dismissal of a public employee 33
  34. 34. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d)  If specific complaints or charges against employee:  Employee entitled to 24-hour Brown Act Notice  Right to have complaints and charges heard in open session  Does not include closed sessions to discuss negative comments in an employee’s performance evaluation 34
  35. 35. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 2. Pending Litigation  Purpose: to receive advice from legal counsel  “Pending” defined as:  Existing litigation against the district  Anticipated litigation against the district where there are facts and circumstances to indicate a significant exposure to litigation  Deciding whether to initiate litigation 35
  36. 36. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 3. Student Matters  Closed session required if Board is considering the suspension of, disciplinary action against, or any other action against student when public hearing would violate student privacy right (Education Code §§ 35146, 48912) 36
  37. 37. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 3. Student Matters, cont.  Exception: Expulsions  Final action to expel a student must be taken in open session (Education Code § 48918)  Student may request expulsion hearing be public, Board may still deliberate in closed session  Do not disclose student name (FERPA) 37
  38. 38. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 4. Negotiations/Collective Bargaining  Discuss negotiations and instruct district negotiators without complying with the Brown Act  Additional exceptions to the Brown Act: meeting and negotiation discussions between district and union, mediation, meeting or investigation conducted by fact-finder or arbitrator (Govt. Code § 3549.1) 38
  39. 39. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 5. Security Matters  Purpose: To meet with law enforcement or security expert  To discuss a threat to building security, or to essential public services (water, drinking water, wastewater treatment, natural gas service, and electric service, or public’s right of access to public services or public facilities) 39
  40. 40. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 6. Real Property Negotiations  Purpose: to instruct negotiators on price and terms of payment for the purchase or sale of identified real property  May not provide general briefings on area land use issues, environmental impacts, site design and related issues  After negotiations are concluded, any agreements and approval of the agreement must be reported in open session 40
  41. 41. Permissible Closed Sessions (cont’d) 6. Real Property Negotiations (cont’d) Recent Narrowing of Exception: Recent Attorney General Opinion stated that closed sessions cannot be used to discuss any issues that might affect the “economic value of transaction” or the “price that the local agency is willing to pay or accept.”  Closed session can include: (1) the amount of payment district is willing to pay or accept in a real estate transaction; (2) the form, manner and timing concerning such payment; and (3) items that are essential to arriving at the authorized price and payment terms (i.e. comparables).  41
  42. 42. Closed Session: Agenda Requirements   Closed sessions must be identified on the agenda The Brown Act provides safe harbor language which automatically satisfies this requirement 42
  43. 43. Closed Session: Reporting Out Requirements  Following a closed session, the Board must publicly report actions taken unless final approval rests with another party or disclosure would hamper the initiation or defense of litigation 43
  44. 44. Closed Session: Exceptions to Reporting Out Requirements    Personnel matters: dismissal or nonrenewal of contract shall be deferred until the first public meeting after administrative remedies, if any, are exhausted Agreements, including labor negotiations: shall be reported after the agreement is final and has been accepted or ratified by other party Student matters: no information shall be released in violation of student privacy rights 44
  45. 45. Closed Session: Exceptions to Reporting Out Requirements (cont’d)   Real estate negotiations: approval of an agreement shall be reported after the agreement is final  Upon inquiry, if final approval with other party Litigation: if final approval rests with other party or with court, district shall report substance of agreement to persons who inquire once settlement final 45
  46. 46. Confidentiality of Closed Sessions    Board members are prohibited from disclosing information obtained during a closed session except to persons entitled to receive that information Unauthorized disclosure could waive attorneyclient privilege, violate privacy rights of students or employees, or impact collective bargaining The prohibition on disclosing confidential information learned in closed session applies to both current and former Board members 46
  47. 47. Liability for Disclosing Closed Session Information   Liability for Disclosing Confidential Information: Board members may be personally liable if they violate Govt. Code section 54963 Removal from office 47
  48. 48. Liability for Disclosing Closed Session Information (cont’d)    Civil lawsuit: A current or former Board member may be civilly liable for unlawfully disclosing confidential closed session information Injunctive relief: The Board may seek an injunction to prohibit the offending Board member (current or former) from disclosing confidential information acquired during a closed session meeting Criminal liability: Government Code section 1222 provides that every willful omission to perform any duty enjoined by law upon a public officer is a misdemeanor 48
  49. 49. Liability for Disclosing Closed Session Information (cont’d)   Grand Jury: Government Code section 3060 provides that the grand jury can issue an accusation against a current Board member for “willful or corrupt misconduct” Written and Verbal Censure by the Board 49
  50. 50. 4. Brown Act Violations 50
  51. 51. Brown Act Violations   Misdemeanor: For Board member to attend a Board meeting where action is taken in violation of The Brown Act, where the member intends to deprive public of information which the member knows the public is entitled to receive The District Attorney, or any interested person, may bring a civil action to stop or prevent violations or to have Board action taken in violation declared null and void 51
  52. 52. Cure or Correct Demands Before bringing the action, the Board must be given notice and an opportunity to correct the violation  Prevailing plaintiff may be entitled to costs and attorney’s fees  For closed session violations, court can order Board to tape record all closed sessions  52
  53. 53. Cure or Correct - Case Law  Even if discussion held without agenda item at one meeting, if at next meeting was on the agenda and action taken, “cure or correct” accomplished and second action avoided “null and void” effect Brethren in Christ Community Services of Ontario, Inc. v. San Bernardino County Workforce Investment Board 2007 WL 431972 (2007) (unpublished decision) 53
  54. 54. 5. Brown Act Legislative Update 54
  55. 55. SB 751 – Effective Jan. 1, 2014     All legislative bodies of local agencies, including school boards, must publicly report any action taken as well as the vote or abstention on that action of each member present Government Code section 54953 already requires all meetings of the legislative body of a local agency to be open and public and prohibits action by secret ballot, whether preliminary or final SB 751 added subsection (c)(2) to the statute, which will bar the reporting of only the numbers of ayes, nays or abstentions on any given item up for vote As a practical matter, school districts will now need to record how each member votes on each item presented  55
  56. 56. 6. Voting/Taking Action 56
  57. 57. Quorum   Number of members that must be present to legally transact business Why? We don’t want small unrepresentative groups making decisions for entire board 57
  58. 58. Actions by the Board A majority vote of all Board members is necessary for an item to carry (Ed. Code § 35164)  Applies even where members are absent or abstain (exception to Robert’s Rules of Order) 58
  59. 59. Actions by the Board (cont’d)  Actions requiring 2/3 vote of the Board: Sell or lease property  Convey or dedicate property to the state or any political subdivision  Temporary borrowing before receipt of fiscal income  Adding a community day school on an existing school site  To issue general bonds  59
  60. 60. Actions by the Board (cont’d)  Actions requiring 2/3 vote of the Board members present at the meeting:  Need to take immediate action not known to the district at time agenda posted  Closed session necessary during an emergency meeting 60
  61. 61. Actions by the Board (cont’d)  Actions requiring 4/5 vote of the Board:  Expenditure/transfer of funds to meet national or local emergency  Adoption of resolution, between July 15 and August 30, to borrow funds  Declaration of an emergency in order to authorize inclusion of a particular brand name or product in a bid specification 61
  62. 62. Actions by the Board (cont’d)  Actions requiring unanimous vote of the Board: Resolution authorizing community lease for the extraction of gas  Waiver of competitive bid process when Board determines that an emergency exists  62
  63. 63. Actions by the Board (cont’d)  Actions requiring unanimous vote of the Board members present at the meeting:  Private sale of surplus property without advertisement Property not worth $2,500 63
  64. 64. Quick Note: Conflicts of Interest  If there is a conflict of interest, Board member(s) must:  Publicly announce the economic interest and the fact that they are disqualifying themselves  Not engage in discussion or voting on matter  Cannot attempt to influence the decision in any way  Consider leaving the room until the matter is over unless the item is on the consent calendar 64
  65. 65. Resolutions, Voting and Consent Calendar Resolutions  Use resolutions when the issue requires more formality, attention, and matters of policy are being adopted Voting    Chair should announce minority votes, i.e., “Hearing one ‘nay’ and no others….” If vote requires more than a majority, Chair should announce before the vote that 2/3 is required Tie vote is a lost vote because no majority was obtained 65
  66. 66. Resolutions, Voting and Consent Calendar (cont’d) Consent Calendar   Intended to be used to dispose of ordinary, noncontroversial business where lengthy debate is not foreseen or desired Board president, through a collaborative process with his colleagues and the superintendent, should identify before the agenda is finalized what is and what is not appropriate for the consent calendar 66
  67. 67. Resolutions, Voting and Consent Calendar (cont’d)   Chair should ask before consideration of the consent calendar: “Are there any items that Board members would like to discuss or have questions on?” Before entertaining those questions, take a vote on the balance of the consent calendar, then return individually to each item of discussion 67
  68. 68. Steps to Success  Treat Board members equally  Cohesive  When possible, allow adequate lead time to get a measure passed  Allow  and stable Board is important for adequate discussion and consideration Frequent communication is essential! 68
  69. 69. 7. Building and Sustaining a Unified Governance Team 69
  70. 70. How Does the Governance Team Maintain Positive Relations?  Essential Components  Communication  Structures 70
  71. 71. Communication  Frequent discussions  Keep all Board members informed  No surprises  Up front and honest 71
  72. 72. Steps to Success  Treat Board members equally  Cohesive  When possible, allow adequate lead time to get a measure passed  Allow  and stable Board is important for adequate discussion and consideration Frequent communication is essential! 72
  73. 73. Structures  Short-term  Agenda review  Work Study sessions  “What’s Happening”  Board Highlights  Principal’s Newsletter  Long-term  Annual Governance Workshop (Handbook)  Annual Progress Report to Board  Annual Vision/Priority Setting Workshop 73
  74. 74. January December Funding the Vision February November March October April May September June August July Implementation Phase/Site Preparing 74
  75. 75. Thank you for being here and participating ! 75
  76. 76. Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum mary only and not legal advic e. We advise y ou to consult with legal counsel to determine how this inform ation may apply to your spec ific fac ts and circumstances . 76
  77. 77. Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum mary only and not legal advic e. We advise y ou to consult with legal counsel to determine how this inform ation may apply to your spec ific fac ts and circumstances . 77
  78. 78. Inform ation in this presentation, including but not limited to PowerPoint handouts and the presenters' com ment s, is sum mary only and not legal advic e. We advise y ou to consult with legal counsel to determine how this inform ation may apply to your spec ific fac ts and circumstances . 78

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