Development of an Autonomous Sensing and Positioning System for Use With Fruit Production Equipment<br />Reuben Dise and M...
Labor is one of the biggest challenges the Specialty Crop Industry currently faces.<br />% Variable Production Costs (TFPG...
Thinning is an area that could significantly reduce labor if mechanized and automated.<br />Labor Intensive<br />31% of cl...
Mechanized alternatives like the Darwin String Thinner have been shown to have a large impact on production costs.<br />Ha...
Improving quality and efficiency of mechanized non-selective thinners is the next step.<br />Improve Actuation<br />Improv...
Darwin String Thinner<br />Speed Controller<br />Rotating Spindle<br />3 pt Mounting<br />Chords<br />Hydraulic Angle Adju...
Modifications<br />
Setup<br />Thinner Moved to Rear<br />
Actuation<br />Flow Divider<br />Spindle Rotation Remains Unchanged<br />Proportional Control Valves<br />Position Sensors...
Controls<br />E- Stop<br />LED Indicator Lights<br />Joystick for Tilt and Offset <br />Autonomy Controls<br />
Testing<br />
New controls and actuation will meet or exceed the performance of the standard Darwin and testing will provide baseline da...
Blossom Removal<br />Blossom Removal in Saturn Peaches<br />Blossom Removal in White Lady Peaches<br />* Letters Represent...
Fruit/Blossoms Per Cross Sectional Area<br />Blossom and Fruit per Limb Cross Sectional Area in Saturn Peaches<br />Blosso...
Hand Thinning Times<br />Followup Hand Thinning Times in Saturn Peaches<br />Followup Hand Thinning Times in White Lady Pe...
Sensing<br />
Using speed and distance sensors an accurate map of the trees can be created and a device can be precisely positioned.<br ...
Sensing Setup<br />GPS<br />Ultrasonic Sensor Mast<br />Position Feedback Sensors<br />Computer and Microcontroller<br />L...
Ultrasonic Sensing<br />Arduino Microcontroller<br />$65<br />4 Sonar Range Finders<br />Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-WR1<br />$10...
Best Fit Line<br />z<br />Sensor Distance Readings (dashed lines)<br />x<br />Orchard Row<br />Sensor Mast<br />y<br />
Laser Sensing<br />Trimble AG GPS 442<br />SICK LMS 120 Laser Rangefinder<br />
3D Map of Laser Data<br />
Algorithms<br />Ultrasonics<br />Linear Least Squares Regression<br />Laser<br />Collision Search in a Voxel Grid<br />Pos...
Fully extended and angled out is preferred</li></li></ul><li>Testing<br />
Testing is currently being done to evaluate and refine autonomous positioning algorithms.<br />
Future Work<br />
Much more work is needed to fully develop an autonomous thinning device. <br />Further Develop Autonomy Algorithms<br />Co...
Acknowledgments<br />Advisor: Dr. Paul Heinemann, PSU ABE<br />Committee Members:<br />Dr. Jude Liu, PSU ABE<br />Dr. Jim ...
Acknowledgments<br />Special Thanks To:<br />Jim Schupp<br />Edwin Winzeler<br />Tom Kon<br />Celine Kuntz<br />Russell Ro...
Questions?<br />
Development of an Autonomous Sensing and Positioning System for Use With Fruit Production Equipment
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Development of an Autonomous Sensing and Positioning System for Use With Fruit Production Equipment

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  • Add Labor Costs of Thinning
  • Add data
  • Percent removal of blossoms using 2 different treatments
  • Cross sectional area measured at ribbons and counts taken above that ribbon
  • Time For 1 Person to do 1 acre at 403 trees/acre
  • Add Sensor Pic
  • Add funding partners
  • Development of an Autonomous Sensing and Positioning System for Use With Fruit Production Equipment

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Development of an Autonomous Sensing and Positioning System for Use With Fruit Production Equipment<br />Reuben Dise and Matthew Aasted<br />June 23, 2010<br />
    3. 3.
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Labor is one of the biggest challenges the Specialty Crop Industry currently faces.<br />% Variable Production Costs (TFPG, 2010)<br />
    6. 6. Thinning is an area that could significantly reduce labor if mechanized and automated.<br />Labor Intensive<br />31% of cling peach cultural costs<br />Chemical Thinning<br />Limited uses, especially in Stone Fruit and Organic Production<br />Mechanization is being adopted by growers.<br />(Schupp et al., 2008, Baugher et al., 2009)<br />
    7. 7. Mechanized alternatives like the Darwin String Thinner have been shown to have a large impact on production costs.<br />Hand Thinned<br />Blossom Thinned with String Thinner<br />Net Economic Impact<br />CA = $1490/acre<br />PA = $934/acre<br />WA = $847/acre<br />SC = $264/acre<br />(Baugher et al., 2010)<br />
    8. 8. Improving quality and efficiency of mechanized non-selective thinners is the next step.<br />Improve Actuation<br />Improve Control<br />Add Sensing and Autonomy<br />Increase speed<br />
    9. 9.
    10. 10. Darwin String Thinner<br />Speed Controller<br />Rotating Spindle<br />3 pt Mounting<br />Chords<br />Hydraulic Angle Adjustment<br />Hydraulic Motor<br />Flow Control Valve<br />
    11. 11. Modifications<br />
    12. 12. Setup<br />Thinner Moved to Rear<br />
    13. 13. Actuation<br />Flow Divider<br />Spindle Rotation Remains Unchanged<br />Proportional Control Valves<br />Position Sensors (Potentiometers)<br />35 degree Tilt (unchanged)<br />610 mm Lateral Offset Added<br />
    14. 14. Controls<br />E- Stop<br />LED Indicator Lights<br />Joystick for Tilt and Offset <br />Autonomy Controls<br />
    15. 15. Testing<br />
    16. 16. New controls and actuation will meet or exceed the performance of the standard Darwin and testing will provide baseline data for autonomous control.<br />Treatments:<br />Manually Actuated Darwin (walk behind)<br />Fixed angle Darwin, moved in and out of canopy by steering tractor<br />Hand Thinned Control<br />
    17. 17. Blossom Removal<br />Blossom Removal in Saturn Peaches<br />Blossom Removal in White Lady Peaches<br />* Letters Represent Statistically Different Groups at alpha = 0.05<br />
    18. 18. Fruit/Blossoms Per Cross Sectional Area<br />Blossom and Fruit per Limb Cross Sectional Area in Saturn Peaches<br />Blossom and Fruit per Limb Cross Sectional Area in White Lady Peaches<br />* Letters Represent Statistically Different Groups at alpha = 0.05<br />
    19. 19. Hand Thinning Times<br />Followup Hand Thinning Times in Saturn Peaches<br />Followup Hand Thinning Times in White Lady Peaches<br />* Letters Represent Statistically Different Groups at alpha = 0.05<br />
    20. 20.
    21. 21. Sensing<br />
    22. 22. Using speed and distance sensors an accurate map of the trees can be created and a device can be precisely positioned.<br />Speed Sensor<br />Distance and Mapping Calculations<br />Distance Sensors<br />Autonomous Positioning<br />Tree Map<br />
    23. 23. Sensing Setup<br />GPS<br />Ultrasonic Sensor Mast<br />Position Feedback Sensors<br />Computer and Microcontroller<br />Laser Rangefinder<br />
    24. 24. Ultrasonic Sensing<br />Arduino Microcontroller<br />$65<br />4 Sonar Range Finders<br />Maxbotix LV-MaxSonar-WR1<br />$100<br />Low Cost GPS<br />USGlobalSat EM-406A GPS Module<br />$60<br />
    25. 25. Best Fit Line<br />z<br />Sensor Distance Readings (dashed lines)<br />x<br />Orchard Row<br />Sensor Mast<br />y<br />
    26. 26. Laser Sensing<br />Trimble AG GPS 442<br />SICK LMS 120 Laser Rangefinder<br />
    27. 27. 3D Map of Laser Data<br />
    28. 28. Algorithms<br />Ultrasonics<br />Linear Least Squares Regression<br />Laser<br />Collision Search in a Voxel Grid<br />Positioning Heuristic<br /><ul><li>Angle is less expensive because it is faster
    29. 29. Fully extended and angled out is preferred</li></li></ul><li>Testing<br />
    30. 30. Testing is currently being done to evaluate and refine autonomous positioning algorithms.<br />
    31. 31. Future Work<br />
    32. 32. Much more work is needed to fully develop an autonomous thinning device. <br />Further Develop Autonomy Algorithms<br />Compare:<br />Manually Controlled (baseline)<br />Ultrasonic Sensing<br />Laser Sensing<br />Next step is a selective thinner<br />
    33. 33.
    34. 34. Acknowledgments<br />Advisor: Dr. Paul Heinemann, PSU ABE<br />Committee Members:<br />Dr. Jude Liu, PSU ABE<br />Dr. Jim Schupp, PSU FREC<br />Dr. Tara Baugher, PSU Adams Co. Ext.<br />Dr. Ben Grocholsky, CMU Robotics Institute<br />Co-researcher: Matt Aasted, CMU Robotics Institute<br />
    35. 35. Acknowledgments<br />Special Thanks To:<br />Jim Schupp<br />Edwin Winzeler<br />Tom Kon<br />Celine Kuntz<br />Russell Rohrbaugh<br />Amelia Jarvinen<br />Terry Saluda<br />Research Sponsored by:<br />USDA SCRI<br />Assistantship Support by:<br />California Canning Peach Association<br />
    36. 36. Questions?<br />

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