Gwp south asia presentation south asia palimentarians and policy makers islamabad dec 16 18


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Gwp south asia presentation south asia palimentarians and policy makers islamabad dec 16 18

  1. 1. South Asian Parliamentarians and Policymaker’s at Work: Putting Climate Change Adaptation, Food Security, Population Dynamics Back in the Agenda- Sub Regional Conference Priyanka Dissanayake- Regional Coordinator GWP South Asia – APAN Thematic Node Water December 17, Islamabad , Pakistan
  2. 2. A growing international network since 1996 •13 Regional Water Partnerships • 84 Country Water Partnerships (around 70 in 2009) • 2,820 institutional Partners in 167 countries (around 2000 in 2009
  3. 3. GWP –South Asia (APAN Thematic Node –Water) Regional Office –Hosted by International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Sri Lanka Six CWPs BWP (Bangladesh) BhWP (Bhutan) GWP Nepal IWP (India) PWP (Pakistan) SLWP (Sri Lanka)
  4. 4. GWP –South Asia The aim of Global Water Partnership South Asia (GWP SAS) is to support South Asian countries in the sustainable development and management of their water resources and to fully promote and apply an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach at the community, national and regional levels. IWRM provides a holistic approach to integrating water resources management within the broader environmental, socio-economic and political framework, and provides a basis of improved coordination amongst all stakeholders for planning and managing water resources at the river basin level.
  5. 5. • 4% of the World’s land area 23% of global population • Possesses about 4.5% of the water resources • one in five people in South Asia still lack improved water sources • Water Security Index 1.6 – South Asia less secure • highest regional Global Hunger Index score indicating highest levels of hunger among population 40 %of the world’s hungry • Least Food-secure Sub-region • highest concentration of undernourished and poor people • high economic growth • high urban growth • low access to energy. • The resources are considerably stressed (even without climate change) • .
  6. 6. Climate Change in South Asia Observed Changes • Increase in Temperature – in varying degrees • Changes in the south Asia monsoon systemprecipitation amounts, timing and spatial distribution • Increase in extreme climate events – increased floods and droughts • Changes in Mean Annual Runoff changes in water available for agriculture, industrial and domestic use • Rapid melting of snow, ice and Glaciers – Glacial lake outbursts
  7. 7. Observed Changes –Annual Precipitation Positive: Sri Lanka Negative: Pakistan, Bangladesh and India Trend in Annual Precipitation, 1979 – 2005 as a % of 1961-1990 Average Source: lPCC Technical Paper VI Water for a food-secure world
  8. 8. Observed Changes – Annual Runoff Increases in some places and decreases in others No clear trend Trend in Annual Runoff, 1971-1998 as a % of 1900-1970 Average reconstructed by climate models Source: Milly et al. 2005 Water for a food-secure world
  9. 9. Observed Changes – Drought Severity Increasing droughts seen in South Asia Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for 1900 to 2002 Source: Dai et al. 2004 Water for a food-secure world
  10. 10. Projected Changes – Annual Runoff Positive: Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India, parts of Nepal and Bhutan Negative: Pakistan and Afghanistan Change in Annual Runoff in 2090-2099 relative to 1980-1999 Source: Milly et al. 2005 Water for a food-secure world
  11. 11. The Water Challenges in South Asia 1.Climate Change Adaptation in Water and Agriculture sectors 2.Water Related Disaster Coping and Disaster Preparedness (Floods and Droughts main focus) 3.Water Management Agricultural Productivity and Food Security 4.Trans-boundary Water Issues 5.Over exploitation of Ground Water and Ground Water Depletion and Ground Water Quality 6. Rapid Urbanization , Water Supply (Drinking Water) , Sanitation and Wastewater Management 7. Inadequate capacity at the field/grass root level to address water challenges (River Basin and Lower level Organizations) 8.Inadequate use of Information Technology/Media in the water sector 9. Rain Water Harvesting - Inadequate Storage and maintain the quality of the harvested water 10. Energy Security and its impacts on Water and Food Security, Hydropower development and river degradation Current planning and management have proven insufficient to address the challenges of meeting society’s diverse needs for water
  12. 12. Agriculture in South Asia • A major part of South Asian agriculture is managed by smallholder farmers –Vulnerable • Most threatened- Rain-fed farmers
  13. 13. Water Security for CCA in South Asia • Safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of and acceptable quality water • Sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development • Ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters • Preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability
  14. 14. Adaptation and the Way forward • Climate science and the projections of its various impacts are at an early stage of development in the region • Research Technology Gaps -Access to climate data, their management, and forecasting and modeling capacity are constraints • South Asia is among the most data-rich regions of the developing world and is well endowed with considerable analytical capacity for providing policy inputs – a capacity that has yet to be fully mobilized for effective policy and institutional responses
  15. 15. water supply per person for individual river basins projections for 2025 WRI
  16. 16. Water Co-operation in CCA Adaptation in South Asia • Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan share 20 major rivers • Weak linkages, data exchange coordination and communications among stakeholders
  17. 17. Water Co-operation in CCA Adaptation in South Asia • South Asia’s river systems – highly dependent on cyclical rainfall from monsoons and glacial melt from the high Himalayas – that are especially vulnerable to climate change • Water co-operation: Across sectors and borders for the efficient and sustainable use of water – International Year Water Co-operation 2013 • Requires mediation and dispute resolution for water sharing between countries and communities – Many Treaties • Water Cooperation for Early Warning –Starting Point? REGIONAL INTERVENTION
  18. 18. Adaptation and the Way Forward • • • • • • • Look for “no regrets” interventions catering to current development needs too. Eg: restoration of Sri Lanka’s ancient tank storage system. Promoting Increased rain water harvesting Safe reuse of wastewater Promote Coordination and data sharing among water sector agencies Increased data generation through the use of remote sensing technology Regional climate modelling to better understand the climate in the region Build adaptive capacity through infrastructure development and income diversification
  19. 19. Inadequate Capacity to Address Water Challenges • Are our capacities adequate to address the requirements and expectations of national policies and national strategies on climate change? • What are the public expectations, and are our responses adequate? • Is there sufficient policy support to improve the capacities of the water sector institutions dealing with food security? • Do we have sufficient links with local universities, to develop our capacity? • Are we linked with global climate change adaptation networks? Do we get the required information from them? • Do we have sufficient regional or global training programs? Are we using the expertise available within the region in an optimum manner? • What specific subject areas are more relevant for having training? • What can we do to improve the collaboration among institutions to improve the adaptation capacity? (local, regional and global level) • How to improve capacity at the field/grass-root level to address the water challenges?
  20. 20. GWP South Asia Climate & Water Program GWP South Asia Water & Climate Resiliency Program (DFID/WACREP) 2013 to 2015 40 activities with CWPs Regional activities with SACEP & UNDP GEF Regional interventions on transboundary activities needs to be complementary to bilateral negotiations and activities.