CALSTART Presentation - VanAmburg (HDV Emissions)

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CALSTART Presentation - VanAmburg (HDV Emissions)

  1. 1. HD Truck Fuel Economy Task GroupKey Issues for Phase 2 of EPA/NHTSA RuleBill Van Amburg, CALSTARTLeadership CircleAuburn Hills, MIJune 5, 2013
  2. 2. HD Truck Fuel Economy Task GroupGoals:» In advance of rule development, discuss key issuesfor industry and users» Make sure beneficial fuel saving technologyincluded in rule design» Seek areas of agreement; identify key areas ofconcern» Work collaboratively to develop recommendations» Provide feedback to regulators2
  3. 3. HDV FE Phase 2 Aims at Vocational» Slow ramp up of rule left a lot of achievablereductions off the table, especially invocational trucks» Unintended outcome of possibly slowingdeployment of more advanced technology» Second phase of rule will be aimed atvocational vehicles
  4. 4. Phase 1 Rule Flexibility Helps – ButMay Not be Needed by OEMs» Rule so farbeing easilymet, manyOEs pre-certifyingvehicles» May not needcredits untilperhaps 2017
  5. 5. Phase 2 Commitments in Phase 1 Rule» Focus on energy security and environmental goals» Preserve industry’s ability to meet market needs with a diverse range ofvehicles» Continue our collaborative outreach with stakeholders» Set more stringent standards based on forcing advanced technologies such aswaste heat recovery, hybrids, EVs» Consider a range of test procedure and protocol approaches:» Chassis dynamometer testing for certification or model validation?» Is there a need to continue using separate engine standards?» Do we make our vehicle simulation compliance tool more sophisticated?» Consider bringing forward the “WP.29” Global Technical Regulation, includinga new World Harmonized Duty Cycle» Consider expanding credit trading across the heavy-duty sector5DRAFT & DELIBERATIVE
  6. 6. Potential Approach for Phase 2» Build on successes of Phase 1» Maintain single national program regulatory structure» Continue stakeholder outreach, EPA focus on GHGs» Recognize that this is a highly technical rule» Phase 1 got existing technologies off the shelf and on to new vehicles» Phase 2 should consider forcing new and advanced cost-effective technologies» Identify the new technologies that should be fully recognized» Waste-heat recovery, hybrids, full electric vehicles, advanced transmissions, intelligent vehicle controls,and heat rejection management, others?» Refine our test procedures and vehicle simulation model for certification» To equitably recognize these new technologies; as integrated into a complete vehicle» Conduct baseline and advanced technology testing» To validate test procedures and model refinements» To assess emissions reductions» Assess technology costs and benefits» Consider options for stringencies and timing, including “phase-ins”» Consider updating flexibilities» To ensure a smooth transition to Phase 2, promote innovation, and achieve lowest costs6DRAFT & DELIBERATIVE
  7. 7. Some Emerging Questions forPhase 2» We are in the very early stages of assessing these» This is NOT a comprehensive list:» Should we continue with separate engine standards in Phase 2?» Should trailers be included in Phase 2 in some way?» Should we create more vocational vehicle categories and duty cycles?» Should we consider vehicle labeling or other consumer informationapproaches?» Should we consider incentives for alternative fuels/CNG?7DRAFT & DELIBERATIVE
  8. 8. Are There Opportunities to Greatly Improve FuelEconomy Beyond Phase 1?» 84% say room for big improvement» 69% want more stringent fuel economy regsGreatest Opportunities» Class 2b: 40% say youcould get 20% or more FEgain» Vocational: more thanhalf think you can get atleast 15% improvement» Many called outadvanced hybrid /electrification as anopportunityFuelEconomyImprovement(Avg.)5%10%15%8
  9. 9. Key Issues for Phase 2 Rule:Duty Cycles, Testing Protocols, Full Vehicle Testingare Top IssuesLessImportantMoreImportant9
  10. 10. Duty Cycles Matter for Measuring andTesting Truck Efficiency!» 46% of respondents said duty cycles are “critical/must have”» 87% said they were “very important” or “critical/must have”» 89% say tech would benefit from representative duty cycleMost respondents say need more duty cycles – thoughrecognize difficulties» 2/3 liked 5 duty cycle “straw man”» Some wanted fewer – maybe 3 representative duty cycles» Many said “no two fleets are the same” and too difficult /costly to try to “pigeonhole” fleets
  11. 11. Consensus Points in Task GroupActivities to Date» Support Limited Vocational truck segmentationbased on how vehicles broadly used (CalHEATexample)» Support compiling and recommending limitednumber (3-6) of Duty Cycles that are sufficient tocover the basic applications while allowing newtechnology to demonstrate its worth» Believe there are some duty cycles so customthey must be included – Possibly extreme cycles,such as refuse variations
  12. 12. Consensus to Date» 3-4 Vocational segments based on CalHEATfindings are acceptable and outline way trucksgenerally used» Duty cycles are critical to successful Phase 2» However: want to recommend fewest number ofmeaningful “cycles” that “bound’ how a truckgenerally used (cannot specifically match howEVERY truck is specifically used) – 80% solution» Accepted by industry and fleets as adequate
  13. 13. 6 Truck Categories – Based on How Trucks Operate• Younger Trucks; High Annual VMT• Mostly higher average speed, highway driving• Between cities; Drayage; Day Cabs• Includes second use trucks; trucks w/ smaller enginesOver the RoadShort Haul/Regional• Cargo, freight, delivery, collection• Lower VMT; Lower Average speed; Stop-startUrban• Cargo, freight, delivery, collection• Higher VMT; Higher Avg speed; Both urban/ highwayRural/Intracity• Utility trucks, construction, etc.• Lots of idle time; Lots of PTO useWork sitesupport∙ Commercial use; Automotive OEMs & volumesPickups/VansClass 2B/3Class 3-8 Vocational Work TrucksClass 7/8 Tractors13
  14. 14. » Final draft will bepresented at June25 CEC Workshop» Available forreference» Additional in-depth briefingscan be setRoadmap Report
  15. 15. Task Group: Possible Approach forCertification» Combine limited set of appropriate duty cyclesinto ONE test cycle – perform only one test (orsimulation)» OEM would use for certification just theresults on the duty cycle of intended use» Other data could be used to informfleets/users what to expect if used in differentcycles
  16. 16. Key Issues» Compile and recommend 3-6 specific DutyCycles that are sufficient to cover the basicapplications while allowing new technology todemonstrate its worth» Tech such as transmissions, aero, light weighting,hybrid, thermal recovery, work site idling» Are there some duty cycles so custom theymust be included?
  17. 17. Existing Duty Cycles!» Many cycles for trucks and buses» None are perfect – but are there a few that“bound” the way most trucks are used?17
  18. 18. Possible Consolidation» Highway line haul – ARB HHDDT; NESCAUM» Regional haul – modified ARB HHDDT; HTUF Class 8bRegional» Intermodal Class 8 Drayage Truck – Univ. of Texas/Port ofHouston; TIAX/POLA/POLB» Pick Up and Delivery – HTUF Class 4 and HTUF Class 6Parcel Delivery; CILCC» Beverage - CILCC variant?» Neighborhood Refuse Truck – NREL/Ohio StateUniversity/Oshkosh» Utility Service Truck – CILCC with work-site operation» Refrigeration - Handled within the Utility segment due tocombination of driving cycle and work-site cycle» Shuttle Bus – (Airport, Rental, Municipal) – truck cycle orbus cycle?» Transit Bus – Manhattan; Orange County: CBD18
  19. 19. Task Group - Current Discussion:Possible Duty Cycles (not final)» Urban/suburban driving» CILCC; Pick-up and Delivery (PDDS); transit cycles» Issues: # stops; extreme cycles (aggregate refuse cycle)» Intracity/Rural driving» CILCC with high speed component?; regional class8 variant; UDDS» Work site support cycles» CILCC for driving; utility work cycle or variant foridle component
  20. 20. Discussion Notes 1/24» Refuse needs to be included somehow as it is anunusual application. May need to look at one cyclewith 100-200 stops, and another with 300-500 andanother with up to 1500 for extreme circumstances.» Also for refuse, need to look at ways to capturecompaction cycle or auxiliary load, or you are doing adisservice to these vocations. For hydraulic hybrids,length of stops could be a factor as well.» Auxiliary load needs to be included in test and maybeduty cycles should have definitions of whetherauxiliaries are on or off for the cycle.» QUESTION – Which auxiliaries need to be captured?
  21. 21. » A wide range of advanced, high-efficiency truck technology can bemoved to cost-payback marketentry points by 2020» Such outcomes will require strongand consistent development,validation and early marketsupport programs» To drive full value from the suite ofavailable technologies requires amore nuanced – but still limitedand discrete – testing andcertification process for Phase 2Summary
  22. 22. CALSTARTClean Transportation Technologiesand Solutions

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