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Meeting Future FuelEfficiency and EmissionsRegulations with theOpposed-Piston EngineJohn KoszewnikChief Technical OfficerA...
1©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppos...
2©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppos...
3©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Achates PowerA company formed to design and develop clean, moreefficient, lo...
4©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Modernizing an Old Idea“The simplicity and compactness of the OPengine, comb...
5©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke Engine OperationSource: JP Pirault, M. Flint, Opp...
6©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppos...
7©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Engine Architectures with Comparable FrictionIVC IPCIPCEngine 4SCylinders 6T...
8©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Quantifying the Surface Area / Volume Ratio AdvantageIVC IPCIPCSurface Area ...
9©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Fuel Injection System Unique and proprietary injector nozzle design and spr...
10©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Heat Release Rates-1-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.200.20.40.60.810100200300400500600700800...
11©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Why Is an OP2S Diesel More Fuel Efficient?Versus four-stroke engines 30+% ...
12©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppo...
13©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Why Does an OP2S Diesel Have Superior Emissions?• By selecting an appropria...
14©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Fuel Injection SystemPiston Bowl ShapeWhy Does an OP2S Diesel Have Superior...
15©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppo...
16©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.1.6L Single-Cylinder Measured Data00.250.50.7510204060801001201401601802002...
17©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved. Out of 100% fuel energy, the single-cylinder test results cover heat loss...
18©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Multi-Cylinder Interface Model Input Data Input data into GT-Power model a...
19©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.OP Engine Performance AdvantageComparison of optimized OP2S engine vs. conv...
20©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Engine Speed (RPM)Torque(n/m)BSFC Map HD 2016800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2...
21©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppo...
22©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Practical ConsiderationsPackagingWrist Pin Durability-600000-500000-400000-...
23©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Oil Control Design Parameters Liner temperature Bore texture, form after ...
24©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Da Vinci Lubricant Oil Consumption (DALOC™)Oil Measurement System Measures...
25©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.OP2S Oil Consumption ResultsWeighted cycle-averageAverage of three runs.Con...
26©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.-600000-500000-400000-300000-200000-1000000100000200000-160000-140000-12000...
27©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Biaxial Wrist Pin BearingLadder-type bearing andcorresponding biaxial bearing
28©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Biaxial Bearing Analysis ToolThe bearing parameters (clearance, axis spacin...
29©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Piston Thermal Management Countermeasures Management of the “hot side” – t...
30©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Detailed CFD Results: Baseline vs. Best CandidateGeneticAlgorithmsBest
31©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.5Thermocouple Measurement / FEA ExtrapolationBowl<520 CPin<180 CRings<285CU...
32©2013 Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opp...
33©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.02004006008001,0001,2001,4001,6000% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7%Conventional Engine...
34©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an oppo...
35©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.How To Validate a Game-Changing TechnologyThe opposed-piston, two-stroke en...
25 Companies to Watch in Energy TechFor More InformationContact:koszewnik@achatespower.com+1 858.535.9920, ext. 301Visit:w...
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CALSTART Webinar Series: Achates Power on Opposed Piston Two Stroke Engines 4-24-2013

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Achates Power on Opposed Piston Two Stroke Engines 4-24-2013
Opposed-piston, two-stroke (OP2S) engines have a long and successful history that dates back to the late 1800s. Used in ground, marine and aviation applications, these engines are known for their record-setting combination of power density and fuel efficiency. However, despite two-stroke powertrain advancements, the engines suffered from high NOx and soot, along with poor oil control. Therefore, their use in on-road applications ceased with the advent of global emissions regulations. Yet with the technologies now available, there has never been a better time to modernize the OP2S.

The CALSTART Achates Power-hosted webinar featured John Koszewnik, Chief Technical Officer, Achates Power who provided an historical overview of opposed-piston engines and their inherent thermal efficiency benefits. Mr. Koszewnik also introduced attendees to measured results from an Achates Power OP2S engine which suggest that the technology can produce an economically and environmentally sustainable powertrain that can fit existing vehicles, be manufactured in today's engine plants, and run on a variety of fuels including diesel and natural gas.

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CALSTART Webinar Series: Achates Power on Opposed Piston Two Stroke Engines 4-24-2013

  1. 1. Meeting Future FuelEfficiency and EmissionsRegulations with theOpposed-Piston EngineJohn KoszewnikChief Technical OfficerApril 24, 2013
  2. 2. 1©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  3. 3. 2©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  4. 4. 3©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Achates PowerA company formed to design and develop clean, moreefficient, lower cost engines Founded in 2004 Well supported, technically and financially Design and development of multiple variationsof opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engines Demonstrated, validated results, 4,000+ testhours on several engine generations State-of-the-art facilities and analytical tools Highly capable teamAn intellectual property company We rely on existing OEMs to produce our engines for theirvehicles. Our revenue comes from a combination of professionalservices and royalties.
  5. 5. 4©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Modernizing an Old Idea“The simplicity and compactness of the OPengine, combined with its potential for brakefuel efficiency in excess of 45%, and lowemissions suggest this is a power unit thatneeds re-evaluation.”“Weight and cost comparisons indicate thatthe two-stroke OP engine could beapproximately 34% lighter than the equivalentperformance four-stroke and cost 12% less.Source:JP Pirault, M. Flint, Opposed Piston Engines – Evolution, Use, andFuture Applications; SAE International 2009
  6. 6. 5©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke Engine OperationSource: JP Pirault, M. Flint, Opposed Piston Engine: Evolution, Use, and Future Applications, SAE International 2009
  7. 7. 6©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  8. 8. 7©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Engine Architectures with Comparable FrictionIVC IPCIPCEngine 4SCylinders 6Trapped Volume/Cylinder 1.0 LBore 102.6 mmTotal Stroke 112.9 mmStroke per Piston 112.9 mmStroke/Bore Ratio 1.1Trapped Comp. Ratio 15:1Intake Valve Closure 180 bTDCEngine OP2SCylinders 3Trapped Volume/Cylinder 1.6 LBore 102.6 mmTotal Stroke 224.2 mmStroke per Piston 112.9 mmStroke/Bore Ratio 2.2Trapped Comp. Ratio 15:1Intake Port Closure 120 bTDCOpposed-Piston, Two-Stroke(OP2S) EngineFour-Stroke(4S) Engine
  9. 9. 8©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Quantifying the Surface Area / Volume Ratio AdvantageIVC IPCIPCSurface Area (mm2) 4.05*104Volume (TDC) (mm3) 1.43*105Surface area / Volume(mm-1) 0.28Opposed-Piston, Two-Stroke(OP2S) EngineFour-Stroke(4S) EngineSurface Area (mm2) 2.07*104Volume (TDC) (mm3) 1.14*105Surface area / Volume(mm-1) 0.18-49%-20%-36%This surface area-to-volume advantage minimizes heat losses…i.e.,more energy goes into work and improves fuel efficiency.This comparison is conservative as the cylinder head of a four-stroketypically runs 80-100o C less than the cylinder liner.
  10. 10. 9©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Fuel Injection System Unique and proprietary injector nozzle design and spray patternprovides interdigitated fuel plumes with larger λ=1 isosurfaces Dual injectors per cylinder provide multiple injection events,appropriate flow rates and mid-cylinder penetrationPatented Achates Power Combustion SystemPort and Manifold Design Port design is optimized to provide optimal blow down, uniflowscavenging, supercharging and swirl characteristicsPiston Bowl Shape Proprietary piston crown designs combine swirl with tumblemotion during compression Provides excellent mixing, air utilization and charge motion forrapid diffusion and flame propagation Ellipsoidal shape of combustion chamber guarantees airentrainment into spray of plumes coming from two sides intocenter of cylinder Minimal flame-wall interaction during combustionResult: Short burn duration, earlier auto-ignition timing, minimal heat transfer losses
  11. 11. 10©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Heat Release Rates-1-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.200.20.40.60.8101002003004005006007008009001000MassBurntFractionHeatReleaseRateCrank AngleTypical 4S EngineMeasured OP2S Engine
  12. 12. 11©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Why Is an OP2S Diesel More Fuel Efficient?Versus four-stroke engines 30+% lower surface area-to-volume ratio No heat losses to cylinder head Shorter burn duration Earlier combustion phasing withoutexceeding peak cylinder pressure Leaner combustion -- i.e., favorablespecific heat of air/fuel mixture Reduced pumping losses at low loadsleads to flat fuel map – can leaveresiduals in reducing pumping work0.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16SurfacetoVolumeRatioatTDC[1/mm]4-Stroke Engine Displacement [L]API OP6 2-stroke diesel4-stroke diesel30% lower
  13. 13. 12©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  14. 14. 13©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Why Does an OP2S Diesel Have Superior Emissions?• By selecting an appropriatepower density, the OP2S dieselhas lower peak cylinderpressures and lower peaktemperatures and, therefore, canmeet more stringent NOxemissions limits withoutsignificant calibration trade-offs• In addition, our OP2S diesel hasa very high Exhaust GasRecirculation (EGR) tolerance.EGR also reduces peaktemperatures and therebyreduces NOx.4-Stroke Disp.4-StrokeBMEP05101520250 2 4 6 8BMEP(bar)Displacement (L)BMEP/Displacement Trade-OffComparison to 4-Stroke Engine at Rated Power™Source: Kaario O., Antila E. and Larmi M. Applying sootphi‐T maps for engineering CFD applications in dieselengines, SAE 2005‐01‐3856, 2005
  15. 15. 14©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Fuel Injection SystemPiston Bowl ShapeWhy Does an OP2S Diesel Have Superior Emissions?By selecting the appropriate injection strategy (hole size, spray pattern, fuel railpressure, start of injection and duration timing) coupled with the appropriate pistonbowl shape, the opposed injection sprays can avoid impinging upon one another andcan avoid contact with the piston crown. This results in low particulate matter.
  16. 16. 15©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  17. 17. 16©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.1.6L Single-Cylinder Measured Data00.250.50.751020406080100120140160180200220240-30 0 30 60 90nAMFB(-)AHRR(J/deg)Crank Angle (deg aMV)1.6L Single CylinderINDICATEDRESULTS SUMMARYOPERATING CONDITIONS HEAT RELEASE ANALYSISSpeed 1203 (rpm) CA10 -3.4 (deg aMV)Delivered AirFlow 141.3 (kg/hr) CA50 2.0 (deg aMV)Fuel Mass 62.7 (mg/rev) CA90 14.4 (deg aMV)SOI -6.0 (deg aMV) BurnDuration (10-90) 17.8 (deg aMV)InjectionDuration 6.7 (deg) EnergyReleased 2701.1 (J)InjectionPressure 1200 (bar)CALCULATED OUTPUTSAVERAGE GASTEMPERATURESIMEP 8.8 (bar)IntakeManifold Inlet 324.5 (K) Indicated Thermal Efficiency 53.2 (%)Intake Manifold 323.3 (K) IndicatedPower 28.9 (kW)ExhaustManifold 588.8 (K) IndicatedTorque 229.1 (N-m)ExhaustManifold Outlet 566.0 (K) PeakPressure 142.0 (bar)Loc.of Peak Pressure 5.0 (deg aMV)AVERAGE GAS PRESSURES MPRR 8.4 (bar/deg)IntakeManifold 2.10 (bar) Loc.of MPRR -1.0 (deg aMV)ExhaustManifold 2.01 (bar) ISFC 156.8 (g/ikW-hr)ISCO2 497.0 (g/ikW-hr)EMISSIONS-BASED CALCULATIONS ISCO 0.08 (g/ikW-hr)Delivered AF 28.4 (-) ISNOX 3.772 (g/ikW-hr)ISHC 0.211 (g/ikW-hr)Combustion Efficiency 99.9 (%)EGR Rate 30.4 (%) ISSoot 0.005 (g/ikW-hr)CylinderPressure(Bar)
  18. 18. 17©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved. Out of 100% fuel energy, the single-cylinder test results cover heat losses and the air flow enthalpies. Indicated thermal efficiency doesn’t take into account pumping and friction. Pumping losses for a multi-cylinder includes Supercharger, Turbocharger, Charge Air Cooler andExhaust Aftertreatment System. Brake thermal efficiency is indicated efficiency minus pumping minusfriction losses.020406080100Exhaust-IntakeEnthalpyHeatTransferIndicatedThermalEfficiencyPumpingLoss:SC, TC, CAC, EATSFrictionBrakeThermalEfficiencyPercentFuelEnergySingle-CylinderMeasurementMulti-CylinderPredictionData Generation ProcessFrom Indicated to Brake-Specific Values
  19. 19. 18©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Multi-Cylinder Interface Model Input Data Input data into GT-Power model are a combination of test cell data and a set of application-specificassumptions. The multi-cylinder model also considers wave dynamics and tuning effects.Geometry Data:stroke/boredisplacementnumber of cylinderscompression ratioAir ChargeSystem:scaled TC,SC maps,EGR systemEngine CoolingSystem:CAC and EGR coolerperformance,coolant temperaturesAftertreatmentSystem:backpressurerepresentative of fullaftertreatmentMulti CylinderPerformance ModelSingle CylinderTest Data:speed, fuel & airmass, pressures &temperaturesPerformance Report:Brake-specific data:BSFC, BMEP, BSNOx, BSPM, etc.Friction:Chen-Flynn modelparameterizedaccording internalcorrelated modelCombustionSystem:rate of heat release,excess air ratioEGR rateTest DataAssumptionsLegend:Data Generation ProcessScavengingCharacteristics:measured with high-speed sampling
  20. 20. 19©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.OP Engine Performance AdvantageComparison of optimized OP2S engine vs. conventional, state-of-the-art medium-duty engine 15% “best point” advantage 22% cycle-average advantage (20.8% at equivalent engine-out NOx)Best Point48.5% BTEBest Point40.9% BTEOP2S
  21. 21. 20©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Engine Speed (RPM)Torque(n/m)BSFC Map HD 2016800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 24002004006008001000120014001600180020002200BSFC(g/kW-hr)160170180190200210220230240250260270280290300310320Projected Heavy-duty OP2S BSFC Map 11 Liter, 3-cylinder 2000-2500 Nm Max Torque 400-500hp Max PowerBest Point51.5% BTE
  22. 22. 21©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  23. 23. 22©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Practical ConsiderationsPackagingWrist Pin Durability-600000-500000-400000-300000-200000-1000000100000200000-160000-140000-120000-100000-80000-60000-40000-2000002000040000600000 120 240 360 480 600 720ForceinWristpin(N)Crank Angle (deg)Wristpin loads for typical 4-Stroke vs 2-Stroke4-stroke2-stroke0CompressiveTensileOil Consumption VersusPower Cylinder DurabilityFuel specific oil consumptionPiston Thermal Mgmt.
  24. 24. 23©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Oil Control Design Parameters Liner temperature Bore texture, form after honing, form atoperating temperature Oil ring tension Scraper element conformability Ring end gaps, end chamfers and landchamfers Groove tilt, pinch, keystone angle, textureand flatness Ring side clearance, cross sealing andside sealing Volume behind ring, volume between rings
  25. 25. 24©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Da Vinci Lubricant Oil Consumption (DALOC™)Oil Measurement System Measures piston/ring/liner and turbochargerlubricant losses Measurement principle: Sulfur free fuel (< 2 ppm) Oil with known sulfur (~3500 ppm) Excite SO2 in exhaust with ultraviolet light Quantify fluorescence Technology benefits: Real-time resolution Sensitivity: <0.1 g/hr. minimum detection limit Repeatability: <2% test-to-test Accuracy: <10% from other methods Non-intrusive, non-destructive Insensitive to air, fuel or soot dilution in the lubricant oil
  26. 26. 25©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.OP2S Oil Consumption ResultsWeighted cycle-averageAverage of three runs.Conclusion:The OP2S engine achieved weighted, cycle-average, fuel-specific oil consumption of 0.11% with allpoints in the operating map < 0.18%. This beats the best two-stroke results published in the literatureand is within the range of state-of-the-art, heavy-duty, four-stroke engines.Best two-stroke inliteratureModern heavy-dutyfour-strokeBest in class
  27. 27. 26©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.-600000-500000-400000-300000-200000-1000000100000200000-160000-140000-120000-100000-80000-60000-40000-2000002000040000600000 120 240 360 480 600 720ForceinWristpin(N)CrankAngle (deg)Wristpin loads for typical 4-Stroke vs 2-Stroke4-stroke2-strokeWrist Pin0CompressiveTensile
  28. 28. 27©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Biaxial Wrist Pin BearingLadder-type bearing andcorresponding biaxial bearing
  29. 29. 28©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Biaxial Bearing Analysis ToolThe bearing parameters (clearance, axis spacing, etc.) are optimized to provide adequateMOFT, filling, film density and film pressure.
  30. 30. 29©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Piston Thermal Management Countermeasures Management of the “hot side” – that is, combustion strategy: Piston bowl geometry Injection – i.e., spray pattern, number of holes, hole size Calibration – start of injection, duration, air/fuel ratio Liner & manifold – port-to-port balance, swirl Management of the “cold side” Cooling gallery – geometry and fill ratio Oil jets – number and flow rate Oil flow through the connecting rod Material selections Crown and skirt Anti-oxidation coatings Appropriate power densities Etc.
  31. 31. 30©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Detailed CFD Results: Baseline vs. Best CandidateGeneticAlgorithmsBest
  32. 32. 31©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.5Thermocouple Measurement / FEA ExtrapolationBowl<520 CPin<180 CRings<285CUndercrown<285CSurface Temperature Limits1 & 36 & 7TemplugModel includes:1. Temperature-dependent material properties2. Epoxy thermal conductivity3. Hot-side zones (flame contact)4. Cold-side zones (impingement, galleryshaking)
  33. 33. 32©2013 Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  34. 34. 33©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.02004006008001,0001,2001,4001,6000% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7%Conventional Engine Efficiency Technology RoadmapWaste heat recoveryImproved fuel injection system$per%FuelConsumptionImprovementFrictionreduction -engineVariabledisplacementpumpAccessory electrificationImprovedturbochargerSources: TIAX, National Academy of Engineering, Achates Power, Inc.% Fuel Consumption ImprovementIncrease cylinder pressureFrictionreduction -accessories
  35. 35. 34©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.Key Questions To Be Addressed Today Who is Achates Power? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine be more fuelefficient than a four-stroke diesel? Why can an opposed-piston, two-stroke diesel engine have superioremissions performance? What has been demonstrated via dynamometer testing? How are the historical challenges of opposed-piston, two-strokediesels addressed? How does this compare with four-stroke fuel efficiency and emissionimprovement actions? How should you validate a game-changing, disruptive technology?
  36. 36. 35©2013Achates Power, Inc. All rights reserved.How To Validate a Game-Changing TechnologyThe opposed-piston, two-stroke engineProvides a step-function efficiency improvementMeets emissions requirementsHas fewer parts, less mass, lower costsDemonstrated, enduring advantages……a game changer.Key validation stepsSound thermodynamic and combustion basis for claimsPublished and peer-reviewed data backing up those claimsNo unsolvable implementation issues
  37. 37. 25 Companies to Watch in Energy TechFor More InformationContact:koszewnik@achatespower.com+1 858.535.9920, ext. 301Visit:www.achatespower.com

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