CALSTART Plug In Sources Of Power

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CALSTART Fuels Program Manager, Dr Jasna Tomic, presented on vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology at Plug-In 2009, Long Beach, CA "Plug-in Vehicles as Sources of Power"

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  • Total Annual Load in 2020 = 4,500 billion kWh Total Annual Capacity in 2020 = 1,100 GW
  • CALSTART Plug In Sources Of Power

    1. 1. Plug-in Vehicles as Sources of Power Jasna Tomic Plug-in 2009 Long Beach, CA Aug 12, 2009 Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions
    2. 2. CALSTART: Advanced Transportation National and International in Project Areas 2008 155+ Worldwide Participant Network 4 Offices in US Four focus areas: Tech Commercialization Fleet, Port Consulting Industry Services Policy Development
    3. 3. CALSTART’s Four-Part Role to Grow the Clean Transportation Technology Industry Industry Services Clean Transportation Solutions Group Technology Commercialization Identifying opportunities, building teams, securing funding, and advancing technology, vehicles, fuels, and systems Helping ports, property developers, transit districts, and fleets seeking to implement cost-effective customized solutions Providing value-add services to companies: timely information, partnering, new business opportunities, conferences, technology evaluation Advancing key policies, advising policymakers, and helping companies plan for the future Unique Combination Policy
    4. 4. Vehicle & Electric Grid <ul><li>Two large sector that can be integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Smart interaction between vehicle fleet, grid and intermittent renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Large, low-cost storage for renewables </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) power as bridging technology </li></ul>
    5. 5. Charging Infrastructure needs upgrading <ul><li>CALSTART worked with 5 major utilities to install chargers (1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Well over 100 charging stations deployed </li></ul><ul><li>That infrastructure needs to be updated for coming vehicles </li></ul>
    6. 6. Size of Electrical Connections is Important <ul><li>Public Level 2 charger </li></ul><ul><li>208 VAC, 32 Amps 6.6 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Public Level 3AC charger (100A line) </li></ul><ul><li>208 VAC, 80 Amps 16.6 kW </li></ul><ul><li>Larger residential appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>240 VAC, 40 Amps 9.6 kW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>120 VAC, 15 Amps 1.8 kW </li></ul><ul><li>120 VAC, 30 Amp 3.6 kW </li></ul>
    7. 7. Number of EV and PHEV models growing - cost still a concern <ul><li>GM Volt EREV: Extended Range Electric Vehicle - Pre-production model unveiled Sept 16, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Chrysler surprises industry, announces will produce electric vehicle(s) by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Nissan LEAF 2010 EVs </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi Motors working on an EV with PSA Peugeot Citroen; plans for iMEV by 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The upfront cost is of concern </li></ul>
    8. 8. Fuel Savings vs Cost <ul><li>8 years for HEV </li></ul><ul><li>10 years for PHEV </li></ul>Source: NREL- Denholm, 2007
    9. 9. Battery Size and Daily Driving of EVs and PHEVs <ul><li>Battery size in EVs 15- 50 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>PHEVs 10 – 15 kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Daily driving is ~ 30 miles per day </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of unused energy storage! </li></ul>3
    10. 10. Vehicle to Grid- Integration of Transportation and Power Grid Arrows indicate direction of power flow (Kempton &Tomic, JPS, 2005) 2
    11. 11. Uses for V2G Power EDV Base-load Power Peak Power Ancillary Services turbine Energy Storage
    12. 12. Electricity Market Prices <ul><li>Ancillary Services Capacity Price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency Regulation $15-55/MW-h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinning Reserves $20/MW-h </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity price ($/MW-h) + </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy price ($/MWh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Price </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Baseload Power 2-10 c/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Peak Power 5-80 c/kWh </li></ul>5
    13. 13. Fleet Case -252 EVs <ul><li>For regulation services - 252 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade costs for V2G included </li></ul><ul><li>P line = 15 kW </li></ul><ul><li>t plug = 17 h </li></ul><ul><li>c el = 0.05 $/kWh, c en = 0.15 $/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>NiMH </li></ul><ul><li>CAISO Regulation Capacity price ( 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Reg up p contr = 19.5 $/MW-h </li></ul><ul><li>Reg down p contr = 20.3 $/MW-h </li></ul>
    14. 14. Calculated Profits with V2G for Ancillary Services (Tomic & Kempton, JPS, 2007) 252 RAV4 EVs in CAISO $ 659,000 $380,000 $1,039,000 @15 kW 3,780 Net Profit Cost Revenue FLEET POWER kW YEAR 2003
    15. 15. Mini E Project <ul><li>Satisfied with performance </li></ul><ul><li>Random charging now </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity at 12 c/kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Even at 30 c/kWh equal to $3/gallon </li></ul><ul><li>Putting in place monitoring of mileage and charging </li></ul><ul><li>Need to implement structured program </li></ul><ul><li>Time of charging – Length of charge </li></ul>
    16. 16. HEV and PHEV Trucks <ul><li>GHEV Project- funded by SCAQMD </li></ul><ul><li>In-use data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel, emissions, maintenance over 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>PHEV modeling work </li></ul><ul><li>Parcel delivery, bucket trucks, school bus – what platforms are good candidates for PHEVs? </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of potential use for V2G when parked. </li></ul>Partners – FedEx, Azure , NREL, CALSTART
    17. 17. V2G Provides New Source of Distributed Generation <ul><li>50% of cars as EDVs increase electric load ? </li></ul><ul><li>100 Million cars </li></ul><ul><li>x 15,000 Miles per year / 4.8 Miles per kWh </li></ul><ul><li>= 312 Billion kWh per year at off-peak times </li></ul><ul><li>= 7 % of 2020 total national load </li></ul><ul><li>With V2G, these EDVs also provide a huge power resource: </li></ul><ul><li>100 M cars x 15 kW x 0.5 avail. = 750 GW of DG </li></ul><ul><li>> 70% of 2020 national electric power capacity! </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Even 50% of cars as EDV, IF they have V2G, probably REDUCE grid infrastructure requirements </li></ul>
    18. 18. Benefits of V2G <ul><li>Cost of EVs & PHEVs is relatively high </li></ul><ul><li>V2G provides revenue to owner and helps offset that higher cost </li></ul><ul><li>Dual use for clean transportation and grid power support - shared capital cost </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages early adoption of EVs & PHEVs </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed generation </li></ul><ul><li>Energy storage for grid and integration of renewable sources </li></ul>
    19. 19. Recommendations <ul><li>We need targeted deployment of V2G now! </li></ul><ul><li>Need to show benefits in targeted demonstrations </li></ul><ul><li>Discharging of EVs and other distributed generation back to the grid provides greater benefit to the grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of stored electricity, grid stability, added generation capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design projects with fleets or aggregated vehicles – 50 to 200 vehicles (muni, gov fleets, campus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Controlled charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Variable rate charging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Discharging to grid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4) Added functionality of on-board power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial fleets, utilities, CalISO </li></ul><ul><li>With installation of ‘smart grid’ deploy in parallel new applications and technologies such as V2G that really put the smart grid to use </li></ul>
    20. 20. Recommendations <ul><li>Business case needs to be shown </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-in vehicles have added functionality – export power and V2G power </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial vehicles good early adopters and can provide lessons for the consumer world --- e.g. parcel delivery applications, utility, telecom </li></ul><ul><li>Light-duty vehicles --- Consortium tying together vehicle deployment + infrastructure upgrading + user education </li></ul><ul><li>Regional showcases of plug-in deployment </li></ul>
    21. 22. Jasna Tomic [email_address] 626-744-5600 www.calstart.org Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions SM

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