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Please WelcomeBeryl Bellman<br />FEAC<br />
Program Management for EA<br />Center for the Advancement of the Enterprise Architecture Profession<br />2009 Summit<br />...
What You Should Not Expect to Learn How to Do Here<br />3<br />
What we will Cover<br />Managing the Unmanageable in organizations<br />Program management in the context of EA – as both ...
The Need for Enterprise Architecture<br />	The effective organization is “garrulous, clumsy, superstitious, hypocritical, ...
Making Sense of Organizations<br /><ul><li>This is because organizations organically emerge out of the communication patte...
Enterprises are instances of complex adaptive systems having many interacting subcomponents whose interactions yield compl...
Enterprise Architecture is a way of understanding and managing such complexity</li></li></ul><li>Dealing with Organization...
Program and Project Management<br />Program management involves the hierarchy within enterprises providing oversight to va...
Page 9<br />
PMI BOK Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Project integration management <br />The processes to ensure elements of the project are...
Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Cost management<br />The processes required to complete project within the approved budget<br />...
Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Communications Management<br />Processes required to collect, distribute, store and dispose of p...
Page 13<br />
Page 14<br />
Risk Assessment and Mitigation<br />Identify risks to program and project<br />Determine impact each risk realization coul...
Culture and Risk<br /><ul><li>Culture is the leading risk factor for compromising integrity and compliance in companies to...
Risk Assessment
The process by which the results of a risk analysis (i.e., risk estimates) are used to make decisions, either through rela...
Risk Management
The planning, organizing, leading and controlling of an organization’s assets and activities to minimize adverse effects</...
Mission<br />Strategy<br />To be<br />Goals<br />As is<br />Enterprise Architecture<br />Culture<br />Leadership<br />peop...
The Culture – EA Connection<br />Virtually all experienced enterprise architects recognize the significance of culture. <b...
Modeling Culture into EA<br />    In this discussion we consider how architects might develop cultural models that integra...
Culture as represented in an Object Oriented Model<br />OO modeling is the underlying structure for many EA tools and meth...
The Modernist View of Culture<br /><ul><li>Culture… taken in its widest ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which in...
Culture is the deposit of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, timing, rol...
Contrasting Views of Culture<br />Culture as a Thing - culture as a container - something that people exhibit<br />Culture...
Culture as a Communication System<br />“Culture is a theory of practice” (Pierre Bordeaux)<br />“Culture is software for t...
An example of an Intercultural Misunderstanding<br />B:  So, how’s your math?<br />I:  ((silence))<br />B:  Not so good hu...
Organizational Culture<br />According to the anthropologist Mary Douglas, culture is not a static ‘thing’ but something wh...
The Underlying Basis of Culture <br />Culture is learned from experience and the interpretation of experience.<br />Cultur...
Parallels between Language and Social Cognition (Ray Jackendoff – Language, Consciousness, Culture)<br />Unlimited number ...
Structures<br />Surface Structure - the array of lived experience<br />Deep Structure - a finite set of underlying princip...
Cultural Levels<br />Artifacts include the visible products of the group as the architecture of its physical environment <...
Artifacts<br />Visible organizational structures and processes<br />(the technical components of EA)<br />Espoused Values<...
Finding and Modeling Assumptions<br />Unless one digs down to the level of basic assumptions one cannot decipher artifacts...
Mechanisms and Constraints<br />Enterprise culture is the accumulated learning that becomes taken for granted and drops fr...
DEC’s Cultural Paradigm - Internal<br />Rugged Individualism<br />Entrepreneurial spirit<br />Truth through conflict<br />...
DEC’s Cultural Paradigm – External – Surviving in a dynamic environment<br />Moral commitment <br />to customers<br />Solv...
Engineering versus Sales<br />DEC grounded in MIT academic culture<br />A basic assumption of engineering culture that ‘go...
Cultural Object Relations Expressed as Business Rules<br />A business rule is guidance that there is an obligation concern...
Such rules can be expressed in a textual form, for example, “If (these conditions) exist, and (this event) occurs, then (p...
Locating and Discovering Business Rules<br />Some are located in policy and other organizational policy and business proce...
Business Rules as Schema with Story Grammars<br />This also is relevant to the work of psychologist David Rumelhart on par...
Business Rules as Transformational Grammars<br />This relation of business rule to cultural schema is consistent with ling...
DEC Conflict Avoidance as  Business Rule used Restaurants<br />If presented with bill<br />Then evaluate contextual status...
The Digital Localized Business Rule for Paying Checks<br />This business rule corresponds to the assumption system structu...
From Hurlbut Managing Domain Architecture Evolution Through Adaptive Use Case and Business Rule Model<br />Page 43<br />
Business Rules in the EA Context<br />From Saurabh Mittal, Amit Mitra, Amar Gupta, Bernard P. Zeigler -Strengthening OV-6a...
Enterprise Culture<br /><ul><li>A Three Perspective View of Culture (Joanne Martin)
Integration – culture as shared by all members in organization wide consensus
Where there is lack of consensus remedial actions are taken or suggestions that those who do not agree leave the organizat...
Differentiation – sub-cultural perspective – focus on inconsistent interpretations based on sub-culture and stakeholder pe...
A loose coupling between representations of the culture as expressed to outsiders versus insiders
Fragmentation – focus on ways in which organizational cultures are inconsistent, ambiguous, multiplicitous and in a state ...
Fragmentation focuses on multiplicities of interpretation that do not coalesce into a collectivity wide consensus of an in...
This perspective includes irreconcilable tensions between opposites including ironies, paradoxes or contradictions within ...
Fuselage Versus Wing Cultures<br />Intercultural Conflict on the C17<br />Page 48<br />
The Emergence of Enterprise Culture<br /><ul><li>An enterprise arises from local interaction of often independent units th...
Each unit or entity interacts with its immediate environment according to a set of low order rules
The combined effects of these lower order interactions within an environment gives rise to higher order organizational phe...
Culture emerges from localized interactions
As culture is grounded at the local level, culture is highly resistant to change
Changing culture entails re-specifying local level rules rather than simply imposing change from the top
EA necessitates an enterprise-wide ethnography taking into account multiple perspectives
Creating an enterprise architecture proffers a mechanism to initiate positive change</li></li></ul><li>Contrasting Perspec...
Contrasting Perspectives<br />  “All art — symphonies, architecture, novels — it’s all puzzles. The fitting together of no...
Puzzles and Enterprise Architecture<br />“One of the things I’m passionate about ...  is having an Enterprise Architecture...
Resolving Puzzles<br />Modeling human communications from each of the three DoDAF perspectives and/or FEAF levels, and dur...
Where to begin? <br /><ul><li>Start anywhere – “go where the money is” (Willie Sutton)
Understand human communications as business processes that incorporate the cultural, social and political/policy dimension...
Analyze where the technical infrastructure supports, constrains and  contradicts
Build models FOR not OF – “in order to… rather than “because”</li></li></ul><li>Enterprise Modeling<br /><ul><li>Involves ...
Reference architectures are intellectual paradigms that facilitate analysis and accurate discussion and specification of a...
They provide a way of viewing, conceiving and talking about an issue</li></li></ul><li>Best Practices and Unique Practices...
Correlation does not necessarily equal causation</li></ul>Page 56<br />
If we observe that all birds and butterflies have wings it doesn’t necessary follow that they will enable human’s to fly<b...
Ethnography and EA<br />   “The breakthroughs that led from categorization to an understanding of fundamental causality ge...
Growing Societies from the Bottom Up<br />We have discussed how agent modeling can be described as sets of cultural “busin...
New Capability Enterprise Architecture for Eagle Eye Golf Club<br />FEAC Certification Program<br />Winter 09<br />By Team...
Products<br />Overview and Summary (AV-1) - Excerpt<br />High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)<br />Operational Activity M...
Overview and Summary (AV-1)Excerpt<br />The Professional Golf Association (PGA) has offered Mr. Chipitin, owner/operator o...
High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACI...
Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Tree Node<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EE...
Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture...
Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Course and Landscape Management<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Ente...
Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Marketing & Media Relations<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterpri...
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2009 Summit Event Master Keynote Bellman

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2009 Summit Event Master Keynote Bellman

  1. 1. Please WelcomeBeryl Bellman<br />FEAC<br />
  2. 2. Program Management for EA<br />Center for the Advancement of the Enterprise Architecture Profession<br />2009 Summit<br />Beryl Bellman, PhD<br />FEAC Academic Program Director<br />Page 2<br />
  3. 3. What You Should Not Expect to Learn How to Do Here<br />3<br />
  4. 4. What we will Cover<br />Managing the Unmanageable in organizations<br />Program management in the context of EA – as both topic and resource<br />Risk management as an exemplar <br />Dealing with Organizational Culture as a risk factor<br />Modeling culture and organizational behavior<br />Culture as Business Rules – OV6A<br />Cultural Perspectives and Developing a Communication Plan<br />Architecting for Decision Support – a case study of a golf course<br />Finding our way<br />Page 4<br />
  5. 5. The Need for Enterprise Architecture<br /> The effective organization is “garrulous, clumsy, superstitious, hypocritical, monstrous, octopoid, wandering and grouchy&quot; Karl Weick<br />On Re-Punctuating the Problemin New Perspectives on Organizational Effectiveness; Jossey Bass 1977<br />
  6. 6. Making Sense of Organizations<br /><ul><li>This is because organizations organically emerge out of the communication patterns that develop in the course of doing business and in response to the host of environmental variables in dynamically changing business landscapes.
  7. 7. Enterprises are instances of complex adaptive systems having many interacting subcomponents whose interactions yield complex behaviors
  8. 8. Enterprise Architecture is a way of understanding and managing such complexity</li></li></ul><li>Dealing with Organizational Messes rather than Problems<br />In a real sense, problems do not exist. They are distractions from real situations. The real situations from which they are abstracted are messes. <br />A mess is a system of interrelated problems. We should be concerned with messes, not problems. <br />The solution to a mess is not equal to the sum of the solution to its parts. The solution to its parts should be derived from the solution of the whole; not vice versa.<br />Science has provided powerful methods, techniques and tools for solving problems, but it has provided little that can help in solving messes. The lack of mess-solving capability is the most important challenge facing us.”<br />Russ Ackoff, University of Pennsylvania<br />Page 7<br />
  9. 9. Program and Project Management<br />Program management involves the hierarchy within enterprises providing oversight to various projects<br />Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of organizational resources for relatively short-term objectives<br />Page 8<br />
  10. 10. Page 9<br />
  11. 11. PMI BOK Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Project integration management <br />The processes to ensure elements of the project are coordinated, including tradeoffs between competing objectives and alternatives to meet stakeholder needs<br />Scope Management <br />Ensures only the work necessary to successfully complete the project is done<br />Time management<br />Processes required to complete the project in a timely manner<br />Page 10<br />
  12. 12. Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Cost management<br />The processes required to complete project within the approved budget<br />Quality Management <br />Processes required to ensure customer satisfaction with the product of the project<br />Human Resource Management<br />Processes required to effectively use people assigned to project<br />Page 11<br />
  13. 13. Nine Knowledge Areas<br />Communications Management<br />Processes required to collect, distribute, store and dispose of project information<br />Risk Management <br />Processes required to identify, analyze and respond to risk events in the project<br />Procurement Management<br />Processes required to acquire goods and services for the project<br />Page 12<br />
  14. 14. Page 13<br />
  15. 15. Page 14<br />
  16. 16. Risk Assessment and Mitigation<br />Identify risks to program and project<br />Determine impact each risk realization could have on project<br />Determine likelihood of risk occurrence<br />Weigh risk against others affecting project according to qualitative rankings (high, medium or low) and quantitative measures<br />Develop risk mitigation strategies<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Culture and Risk<br /><ul><li>Culture is the leading risk factor for compromising integrity and compliance in companies today.
  19. 19. Risk Assessment
  20. 20. The process by which the results of a risk analysis (i.e., risk estimates) are used to make decisions, either through relative ranking of risk reduction strategies or through comparison with risk targets
  21. 21. Risk Management
  22. 22. The planning, organizing, leading and controlling of an organization’s assets and activities to minimize adverse effects</li></ul>Page 17<br />
  23. 23. Mission<br />Strategy<br />To be<br />Goals<br />As is<br />Enterprise Architecture<br />Culture<br />Leadership<br />people<br />Actions<br />Segments<br />products<br />processes<br />people<br />IT<br />Enterprise Architecture as a management instrument<br />“Next to its architecture, which could be viewed as the “hard part of the company,” the soft part, its culture is formed by its people and leadership and is of equal if not higher importance in achieving these goals” Enterprise Architecture at Work by Marcc Lankhorst et al. P 9<br />. <br />Page 18<br />
  24. 24. The Culture – EA Connection<br />Virtually all experienced enterprise architects recognize the significance of culture. <br />They most often attribute to it negative experiences such as encounters with not-invented-here attitudes; turf battles between and among functional stovepiped organizations to seeing EA initiatives challenged as unwelcome intrusions by management to put another bureaucratic obstacle in the way of those who do the real work. <br />Culture from this view is seen as an impediment and something that has to be managed, dealt with and changed. <br />As intercultural business communication theorist Geert Hofstede observed, “Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster.&quot;      <br />Page 19<br />
  25. 25. Modeling Culture into EA<br /> In this discussion we consider how architects might develop cultural models that integrate into enterprise architecture allowing queries to determine impacts on some proposed or actual technological or business process change. <br />Page 20<br />
  26. 26. Culture as represented in an Object Oriented Model<br />OO modeling is the underlying structure for many EA tools and methods<br />Objects are structures holding data and procedures<br /> It provides for both a set of meta models and their instantiation in diagrams relating to different architectural products or artifacts.<br />Page 21<br />
  27. 27. The Modernist View of Culture<br /><ul><li>Culture… taken in its widest ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The condition of culture among the various societies of mankind, in so far as it is capable of being investigated on general principles, is a subject apt for the study of laws of human thought and action. (Tyler, 1871)
  28. 28. Culture is the deposit of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, timing, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe (world view), and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving (Gudykunst and Kim, 2002).</li></ul>Page 22<br />
  29. 29. Contrasting Views of Culture<br />Culture as a Thing - culture as a container - something that people exhibit<br />Culture as a Process - a managed accomplishment - something that people do<br />Page 23<br />
  30. 30. Culture as a Communication System<br />“Culture is a theory of practice” (Pierre Bordeaux)<br />“Culture is software for the mind”<br />(Geert Hofstead)<br />Page 24<br />
  31. 31. An example of an Intercultural Misunderstanding<br />B: So, how’s your math?<br />I: ((silence))<br />B: Not so good huh?<br />I: No<br />Page 25<br />
  32. 32. Organizational Culture<br />According to the anthropologist Mary Douglas, culture is not a static ‘thing’ but something which everyone is constantly creating, affirming and expressing.<br />Organization culture is the emergent result of the continuing negotiations about values, meanings and proprieties between the members of that organization and with its environment.<br />
  33. 33. The Underlying Basis of Culture <br />Culture is learned from experience and the interpretation of experience.<br />Culture is like the operating system of a computer, a pattern of basic assumptions that governs behavior.<br />Culture operates at different levels of awareness; values, beliefs, attitudes and behavior.<br />Changing culture cannot be separated from the success of the associated organizational changes.<br />(from Edgar M. Johnson - IDA)<br />
  34. 34. Parallels between Language and Social Cognition (Ray Jackendoff – Language, Consciousness, Culture)<br />Unlimited number of understandable social situations<br />Requires combinational rule system in mind of social participant<br />Rule system only partly available to consciousness<br />Rule system must be acquired with only imperfect evidence, only partially taught <br />Learning requires inner unlearned resources, perhaps partly specific to social cognition<br />Inner resources determined by genome interacting with process of biological development<br />Unlimited number of understandable sentences<br />Requires combinational rule system in mind of language user<br />Rule system not available to consciousness<br />Rule system acquired with only imperfect evidence in environment – virtually no teaching<br />Learning requires inner unlearned resources, perhaps partly specific to language<br />Inner resources determined by genome interacting with process of biological development<br />Page 28<br />
  35. 35. Structures<br />Surface Structure - the array of lived experience<br />Deep Structure - a finite set of underlying principles or components that generate the infinite variety of surface structure possibilities<br />
  36. 36. Cultural Levels<br />Artifacts include the visible products of the group as the architecture of its physical environment <br />Espoused Values – “focus on what people sayis the reason for their behavior, what they ideally would like those reasons to be and what are often their rationalizations for their behavior” – <br /><ul><li>These include stated mission and vision statements, strategies, values, goals etc that are conscious guides </li></ul>Basic assumptions are theories of practice in use that actually guide behavior and inform group members about how to perceive, think about and feel about things.<br />The underlying reasons for behavior remain concealed and unconscious <br />
  37. 37. Artifacts<br />Visible organizational structures and processes<br />(the technical components of EA)<br />Espoused Values<br />The organization’s strategies, goals and philosophies<br />(the strategic components of EA)<br />Tacit Assumptions<br />Unconscious taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts and feelings – <br />“the way we do things around here”<br />Three Levels of Culture – Adapted from Edgar Schein<br />Page 31<br />
  38. 38. Finding and Modeling Assumptions<br />Unless one digs down to the level of basic assumptions one cannot decipher artifacts, norms and values<br />Assumptions are interlocking and systemic<br />Locate by exploring with informants anomalies observed between visible artifacts and espoused beliefs and values<br />
  39. 39. Mechanisms and Constraints<br />Enterprise culture is the accumulated learning that becomes taken for granted and drops from awareness<br />The learning concerns both how the organization deals with external environments and how it manages its internal integration<br />Culture changes are inevitably a source of anxiety because they upset the ability of members to predict what is ahead <br />The underlying assumptions that comprise enterprise culture and contribute to its success can as business and technological landscapes change become an impediment to survival<br />
  40. 40. DEC’s Cultural Paradigm - Internal<br />Rugged Individualism<br />Entrepreneurial spirit<br />Truth through conflict<br />Push back<br />Get buy-in<br />Innovation<br />Work is fun<br />Family paternalism<br />Job security<br />Personal responsibility<br />He who proposes does <br />Do the right thing<br />Page 34<br />
  41. 41. DEC’s Cultural Paradigm – External – Surviving in a dynamic environment<br />Moral commitment <br />to customers<br />Solving the customer’s problem<br />The market as arbiter<br />Let the market decide<br />Engineering arrogance<br />We know what is best<br />Central control<br />Budget approval at<br />Operations Committee<br />Organizational idealism<br />Responsible people of goodwill<br />can solve the problem<br />Page 35<br />
  42. 42. Engineering versus Sales<br />DEC grounded in MIT academic culture<br />A basic assumption of engineering culture that ‘good work speaks for itself,” and an engineer ‘ should not have to sell himself.’ Public relations and image building are forms of ‘lying’ and are to be avoided<br />Idealism of engineering and dominance over sales and the lack of “the money gene” in the cultural DNA countered DEC’s ability to adapt to growth and changes in the business and technological landscapes<br />The positive innovative culture that could at the same time grind out “fabulous new products” and develop such strong internal animosities that groups would accuse one another of lying, cheating and misuse of resources.<br />
  43. 43. Cultural Object Relations Expressed as Business Rules<br />A business rule is guidance that there is an obligation concerning conduct, action, practice, or procedure within a particular activity or sphere (from the BRG)<br /> In DoDAF (MoDAF) Operational Rules Model (OV-6a) specifies operational or business rules that are constraints on the way that business is done in the enterprise.<br /><ul><li>At lower levels, OV-6a describes the rules under which the architecture or its nodes behave under specified conditions.
  44. 44. Such rules can be expressed in a textual form, for example, “If (these conditions) exist, and (this event) occurs, then (perform these actions).” </li></ul>Page 37<br />
  45. 45. Locating and Discovering Business Rules<br />Some are located in policy and other organizational policy and business process documentation<br />While many rules are expressed as formal rules of the business, there are many that are hidden from view and to be uncovered. <br />Both types both constrain activity and provide schema for culturally appropriate organizational behavior. <br />Page 38<br />
  46. 46. Business Rules as Schema with Story Grammars<br />This also is relevant to the work of psychologist David Rumelhart on parallel distributed processing as microstructures of cognition (he won a McArthur award for this). <br />He developed the concept of “story grammars” as cognitive microstructures that constitute formal grammars to capture the structure of stories.<br /> A formal grammar is an abstract structure composed of a set of (rewrite) sequencing rules that comprise schema. <br />A schema is an abstract representation of a generic concept for an object, event, or situation. He showed schema consist of a network of interrelationships among the major constituents of the situation represented by the schema.<br /> In this way we can consider a business rule as an instance of this concept, which as I argued can be formally modeled.<br />Page 39<br />
  47. 47. Business Rules as Transformational Grammars<br />This relation of business rule to cultural schema is consistent with linguistic theories of generative grammars and transformational linguistics. <br />This approach, first proposed by Chomsky asserts there are transformational operations that are defined for any linguistic string (sentence) that modify (transform) it from, for instance, such as being an assertion to a question to a request. <br />These are also called “rewrite rules.” Anthropologists adapted this idea to develop “rewrite” rules for various cultural concepts or terminological systems such as kinship (c.f. the cognitive anthropological work of Kimball Romney<br /> In this way we can consider a business rule as an instance of this concept, which as I argued can be formally modeled.<br />Page 40<br />
  48. 48. DEC Conflict Avoidance as Business Rule used Restaurants<br />If presented with bill<br />Then evaluate contextual status relative to others present<br />evaluate<br />Recognized lower than others at table<br />lower<br />highest<br />Then leave table until bill is paid<br />Then pay bill<br />Page 41<br />Stay at table<br />
  49. 49. The Digital Localized Business Rule for Paying Checks<br />This business rule corresponds to the assumption system structural schema <br />Schein described for internal integration in the interaction between the two cultural assumptions of family paternalism and truth through conflict. <br />On the one hand there is the strong integrative function expressed in the assumption about the DEC family and on the other hand of the “truth through conflict” when decisions are made. <br />In this case the there is a “pushing back” and “buying in” rather than openly negotiating status in the presence of non-family members.<br />Page 42<br />
  50. 50. From Hurlbut Managing Domain Architecture Evolution Through Adaptive Use Case and Business Rule Model<br />Page 43<br />
  51. 51. Business Rules in the EA Context<br />From Saurabh Mittal, Amit Mitra, Amar Gupta, Bernard P. Zeigler -Strengthening OV-6a Semantics with Rule-Based Meta-models in<br />DEVS/DoDAF based Life-cycle Architectures Development<br />Page 44<br />
  52. 52. Enterprise Culture<br /><ul><li>A Three Perspective View of Culture (Joanne Martin)
  53. 53. Integration – culture as shared by all members in organization wide consensus
  54. 54. Where there is lack of consensus remedial actions are taken or suggestions that those who do not agree leave the organization
  55. 55. Differentiation – sub-cultural perspective – focus on inconsistent interpretations based on sub-culture and stakeholder perspectives.
  56. 56. A loose coupling between representations of the culture as expressed to outsiders versus insiders
  57. 57. Fragmentation – focus on ways in which organizational cultures are inconsistent, ambiguous, multiplicitous and in a state of flux –
  58. 58. Fragmentation focuses on multiplicities of interpretation that do not coalesce into a collectivity wide consensus of an integration view nor create sub cultural consensus of the differentiation perspective</li></li></ul><li>Cultures, sub cultures and contra cultures<br />Page 46<br />Integrationist view<br />Differentiation view<br />
  59. 59. This perspective includes irreconcilable tensions between opposites including ironies, paradoxes or contradictions within organizations<br />Fragmentedview<br />Page 47<br />
  60. 60. Fuselage Versus Wing Cultures<br />Intercultural Conflict on the C17<br />Page 48<br />
  61. 61. The Emergence of Enterprise Culture<br /><ul><li>An enterprise arises from local interaction of often independent units that exist within a common environment
  62. 62. Each unit or entity interacts with its immediate environment according to a set of low order rules
  63. 63. The combined effects of these lower order interactions within an environment gives rise to higher order organizational phenomenon or organizational culture
  64. 64. Culture emerges from localized interactions
  65. 65. As culture is grounded at the local level, culture is highly resistant to change
  66. 66. Changing culture entails re-specifying local level rules rather than simply imposing change from the top
  67. 67. EA necessitates an enterprise-wide ethnography taking into account multiple perspectives
  68. 68. Creating an enterprise architecture proffers a mechanism to initiate positive change</li></li></ul><li>Contrasting Perspectives<br />Picking up the poker – Wittgenstein versus Popper<br />Does philosophy center on the resolution of puzzles posed by language or are there genuine problems to be resolved? <br />When we speak of solutions – do they pertain to puzzles or problems?<br />Page 50<br />Dave Edmonds & John Eidinow <br />
  69. 69. Contrasting Perspectives<br />  “All art — symphonies, architecture, novels — it’s all puzzles. The fitting together of notes, the fitting together of words have by their very nature a puzzle aspect. It’s the creation of form out of chaos. And I believe in form.” (Stephen Sondheim )<br />
  70. 70. Puzzles and Enterprise Architecture<br />“One of the things I’m passionate about ...  is having an Enterprise Architecture and making sure that everything we do fits the puzzle.&quot; <br />Bob Napier, HP EVP & CIO<br />Page 52<br />
  71. 71. Resolving Puzzles<br />Modeling human communications from each of the three DoDAF perspectives and/or FEAF levels, and during all phases of the TOGAF ADM<br />Accounting for human communications from the top Zachman rows<br />Linking to infrastructures used to support them at every layer of relevant depth<br />Resolving conflicts as putting together pieces of a complex puzzle<br />
  72. 72. Where to begin? <br /><ul><li>Start anywhere – “go where the money is” (Willie Sutton)
  73. 73. Understand human communications as business processes that incorporate the cultural, social and political/policy dimensions of organizations
  74. 74. Analyze where the technical infrastructure supports, constrains and contradicts
  75. 75. Build models FOR not OF – “in order to… rather than “because”</li></li></ul><li>Enterprise Modeling<br /><ul><li>Involves assessment of aspects of the enterprise to understand, restructure and design enterprise operations
  76. 76. Reference architectures are intellectual paradigms that facilitate analysis and accurate discussion and specification of a given area of discourse.
  77. 77. They provide a way of viewing, conceiving and talking about an issue</li></li></ul><li>Best Practices and Unique Practices<br /><ul><li>Best practices are useful in developing hypotheses about causation but should not be taken as necessary truth
  78. 78. Correlation does not necessarily equal causation</li></ul>Page 56<br />
  79. 79. If we observe that all birds and butterflies have wings it doesn’t necessary follow that they will enable human’s to fly<br />Page 57<br />
  80. 80. Ethnography and EA<br /> “The breakthroughs that led from categorization to an understanding of fundamental causality generally come not from crunching ever more data but from highly detailed field research, when researchers crawl inside companies to observe carefully the causal processes at work (Christensen and Raynor) .”<br />Page 58<br />
  81. 81. Growing Societies from the Bottom Up<br />We have discussed how agent modeling can be described as sets of cultural “business rules.” <br />These sets comprise different types of strategic interaction games, as exemplified in the classic example of the prisoner’s dilemma. <br />However in game theory focus has been on one game at a time. Using evolving automata cognitive behavior is modeled across multiple games. <br />This points to a games-theoretic model of culture as simultaneously playing out a series of games as constituting ensembles that impacts the strategy for any particular game. <br />By locating the underlying business rule schema that underlie social contextualized behaviors we can in a sense run computational models that allow the traceability we suggested earlier between business process proposals and cultural assumptions that are entailed. <br />Page 59<br />
  82. 82. New Capability Enterprise Architecture for Eagle Eye Golf Club<br />FEAC Certification Program<br />Winter 09<br />By Team ACIS<br />
  83. 83. Products<br />Overview and Summary (AV-1) - Excerpt<br />High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)<br />Operational Activity Model – Activity Tree Node (OV-5) <br />Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)<br />Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4)<br />Operational Information Exchange (OV-3) - Excerpt<br />Operational Activity Model – Context Diagram (OV-5)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />61<br />Operational Activity Mode – Activity Decomposition Models (OV-5)<br />Operational Event Trace Description (OV-6c)<br />Systems Interface Description (SV-1)<br />Systems Communications Description (SV-2)<br />Operational Activities to Systems Traceability Matrix (SV-5b)<br />Technical Standards Profile (TV-1)<br />Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) - Excerpt<br />Conclusion<br />
  84. 84. Overview and Summary (AV-1)Excerpt<br />The Professional Golf Association (PGA) has offered Mr. Chipitin, owner/operator of Eagle Eye Golf Course, an opportunity to host a celebrity charity golf event in April 2012. <br />Purpose: To create a To-Be enterprise architecture that provides information on the activities, organizations, and systems necessary to support a new capability (e.g. host a celebrity charity golf event). <br />In doing so, the architecture also identifies new as well as existing primitives (e.g. op nodes, system nodes, etc.) that remain functional as they are today or that may need to be modified in support of the To-Be scenario. <br />This enterprise architecture is the first in a series of tasks that need to be performed as part of the overall decision making process for accepting or rejecting the PGA’s proposal to host the celebrity charity golf event at EEGC in April of 2012. <br />Viewpoint: Owner/Operator EEGC<br />Timeframes: To-Be<br />Timeframe for making decision to host or not is 6 months <br />Timeframe for event is April 2012 <br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />62<br />
  85. 85. High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />63<br />
  86. 86. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Tree Node<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />64<br />
  87. 87. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />65<br />
  88. 88. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Course and Landscape Management<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />66<br />
  89. 89. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Marketing & Media Relations<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />67<br />
  90. 90. Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />68<br />
  91. 91. Operational Information Exchange (OV-3) - Excerpt<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />69<br />
  92. 92. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Context Diagram<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />70<br />
  93. 93. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A0)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />71<br />
  94. 94. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A1)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />72<br />
  95. 95. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A2)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />73<br />
  96. 96. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A3)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />74<br />
  97. 97. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A4)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />75<br />
  98. 98. Operational Event Trace Description (OV-6c)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />76<br />
  99. 99. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - EEGC Clubhouse<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />77<br />
  100. 100. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - Superintendent Station<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />78<br />
  101. 101. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - Public Information & Media Relations Village<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />79<br />
  102. 102. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central (1 of 2)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />80<br />
  103. 103. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central (2 of 2)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />81<br />
  104. 104. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - Superintendent Station<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />82<br />
  105. 105. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - Public Information & Media Relations Village<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />83<br />
  106. 106. Operational Activities to Systems Traceability Matrix (SV-5b)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />84<br />
  107. 107. Technical Standards Profile (TV-1)<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />85<br />
  108. 108. Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) Excerpt<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />86<br />
  109. 109. Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) – cont’dExcerpt<br />March 16, 2009<br />New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS<br />87<br />
  110. 110. Finding a Way<br /><ul><li>There is a true story that organizational theorist Karl Weick told showing the importance of frameworks or roadmaps to organizations.  He describes how … ” A group of mountain climbers was in the process of ascending one of the most daunting peaks in the Alps when they were engulfed by a sudden snow squall. All were experienced climbers and each had their own idea of the direction they should go in to get back to the base camp. They wander around for some time, arguing about which way to go, while their circumstances became more dire and threatening with each moment of indecision. Finally, one of the climbers dug around in their backpack and found a map. Everyone huddled around the map, studied it, and quickly determined their direction. Several hours later, they arrived safely at the camp. While they were warming themselves around the fire, regaling each other with the story of their near misadventure, one of the climbers picked up the map they had used to descend the Alps. On looking at it more carefully, they realized it was actually a map of the Pyrenees!”</li></li></ul><li>The Enterprise Architecture Map of the IRS<br />Page 89<br />

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