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Problem-Solving Courts:TJ and Procedural Fairness               Hon. Peggy Fulton Hora     Superior Court of California (R...
The law is…• … a healing profession
Problem-Solving Courts• …focus on the underlying medical/social issues and  chronic behaviors of court users who have recu...
Problem-Solving Courts• …focus on the underlying medical/social problems  and chronic behaviors of court users who have  r...
P-S Principles and Methods1. Reduce recidivism in criminal cases2. Save incarceration and other costs of social   services...
Collaborative Judges• Judges believe they can and should play a  role in the problem-solving process• Outcomes matter--cou...
Collaborative Courts• Recognize the therapeutic potential of the  court’s coercive powers• Finds “Judicial Leverage” is an...
Collaborative Courts• Recognize the therapeutic potential of the  court’s coercive powers• Finds “Judicial Leverage” is an...
Drug Treatment Courts• DTCs emphasize alcohol and drug treatment  services. The two goals of these programs are to  reduce...
Leadership• The role of a leader is to empower others, help  others fix problems and serve others.Brady & Woodward (2007)•...
Leadership, cont.• Hold team-building meetings and focus on program  structure with the team• Expect all team members to p...
Who are Leaders?       • Plenty to do without a process that will be hard and         time-consuming       • Advantages di...
Judicial Supervision Ongoing judicial supervision increases  the likelihood that the participant will  remain in treatmen...
High Performance Judges Know “Effective trial courts are responsive to   emergent public issues such as drug   abuse…A tri...
What does an effective judge know?• What separates drug court judges from  traditional judges is training in addiction,  u...
Comprehensive Law Movement Seeks to maximize emotional, psychological and  relational wellbeing of those involved with le...
THERAPEUTIC JURISPRUDENCE
TJ• “…*T+he most prolific vector *of the Comprehensive  Law Movement], at least in academic and judicial  circles.• “It ha...
Therapeutic Jurisprudence…           “proposes the exploration of ways in which,             consistent with principles of...
TJ’s Overlapping areas of Inquiry  1. Role of law in producing psychological       dysfunction  2. Therapeutic aspects of ...
The task of TJ• Identify and ultimately examine empirically  relationships between legal arrangements and  therapeutic out...
TJ’s QuestionCan we enhance thelikelihood of desiredoutcomes & compliancewith judicial orders byapplying what we knowabout...
Jurisprudent Therapy• Ensures people are helped in ways that obey,  complement, and further the goals of the law• TJ is de...
• Can we reduce the anti-                                      therapeutic                                      consequenc...
“Trumping”             • Legal rights such as due               process and equal               protection are never      ...
PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS/PROCEDURAL JUSTICE
Procedural Fairness/Justice• Posits that the manner in which justice is done isjust as important and the outcome• “…bridge...
Procedural Fairness• Voice: the ability to participate in the case by  expressing their viewpoint;• Neutrality: consistent...
Procedural Fairness, cont.• Respectful treatment: individuals are treated withdignity and their rights are obviously prote...
Fairness is Key• People will accept an unfavorable ruling if they feel  the process is fair.• People who win but who do no...
Why do people accept court decisions?               Tom Tyler, Procedural Fairness, COSCA 2011
Willingness to accept decisions based uponreason for being in court.
R-E-S-P-E-C-T•   Proactive trouble shooting•   Judge directly address progress•   Open courtroom•   All observed consequen...
• Active listening• Rogerian approach  (warmth, empathy, and  genuineness)• Shared respect
A New PerspectiveThe court system as  • an interdisciplinary  • problem-solving  • community institution             Dr. A...
Twenty years of P-S Courts 1989-2009                   • “We’re moving out of                     adolescence into a      ...
NADCP Key Component #7 and United NationsOffice on Drugs and Crime Key Component #7:Ongoing judicial interaction with each...
Judges matterTherapeutic jurisprudence posits:• Does what a Judge says, and how he or she says it,  impact legal outcomes?...
Judicial Communication Scale    • People feeling like they have been treated      fairly was the strongest predictor in co...
Judge is most important factor• 80% of participants say  they wouldnt have  stayed in drug court if  they did not appear  ...
Drug Court Participant:• “It’s a learning experience for me. You just  learn what to do. When you see somebody  doin’ righ...
Judicial Interaction• One of the most important factors for DTC• Judges’ interpersonal skills and ability to resolve legal...
Incentives & Sanctions• After input from the whole team, the judge should  decide on incentives, sanctions and treatment  ...
Incentives and Sanctions•   Timely•   Consistent•   Certain•   Appropriate to hold litigant accountable, move    litigant ...
Why sanctions?• Purpose of sanctions is to keep them engaged in  treatment• Use sanctions to promote sustained change
5 Steps to Deliver the response1. Explain the decision and the factors considered by   the team2. Review severity of the p...
Practice with a partnerDanny has been in DTC for 9  weeks. He once was clean  for 2 weeks. In staffing,  you find out he h...
What do you say to Danny?• Is Danny’s abstinence a proximal or distal goal?• Is there a different response to the “dirty” ...
There are two very different types ofBehavior Changes • Imposed Behavior Change   • Making you do something that you do no...
How do we…• Develop a system that gives offenders access tohelp to engage the intentional process• Do not simply rely on e...
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
Adversarial System          Restorative Justice Crime is defined as a       Crime is seen as a harmviolation of rules, and...
Adversarial System       Restorative Justice Offender is blamed,      Offender is reintegratedstigmatized and          int...
Adversarial System      Restorative Justice Community’s role is     Community is activelylimited                 involved ...
California Community Justice Project:Building Restorative Justice Principles in the Community• Enhance awareness/understan...
A judge must believe that peoplecan change with support and likeinteraction with participants    Source: Applying Drug Cou...
Judge as Change Agent• Visible to & respected by multiple  systems/stakeholders• Able to function as a “boundary spanner”•...
“I am not a social worker” Jane Addams, founder of Hull House,   the consummate “social worker.”
Arguments Against• “*Working  therapeutically] cheapens  the judicial office, placing  the judge at the level of a  ringma...
Dr. Bean now               • “It has been said we                 should expect only one                 good idea in crim...
• “*Being a problem-solving judge] has made me look  at everybody on the other side of the bench—both  defendants and lawy...
Working Therapeutically• It’s good for the judge• In a series of surveys comparing judges working  therapeutically and tho...
Working Therapeutically• Effectuates the court’s orders• If conditions of probation contemplate change in the  defendant, ...
Correlation of Questions• Three answers most highly correlated to the feeling  that the “judicial assignment was beneficia...
Correlation• The most common predictor of positive emotional  effect was the perception by the judicial officer that  “lit...
Judicial Satisfaction is Nonsense• “Ought we to be thinking more about the impact of  the team approach on notions of just...
Needn’t change YOUR style
Back to the Future1. Drug treatment courts will go to scale and serve   every individual who needs court-supervised   trea...
3. Evidence-based sentencing will be employed by   every judge in every court and mandatory   sentencing will become obsol...
New publication                  • Download a pdf version                    at:                    http://www.ndci.org/p ...
New website• National Drug Court Resource Center• www.NDCRC.org
System level approach• The California courts are  already acting on this idea  with a Procedural fairness  initiative.  • ...
Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison
Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison
Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison
Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison
Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison
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Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison

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Therapeutic jurisprudence considers therapeutic and anti-therapeutic aspects of the law, the legal system and the roles of court and corrections actors. These presenters share how strategies have been successfully applied in YOUR DRUG COURT and at a Compulsory Drug Treatment Correctional Center in Sydney, Australia.

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Therapeutic Jurisprudence in the Courtroom and Prison

  1. 1. Problem-Solving Courts:TJ and Procedural Fairness Hon. Peggy Fulton Hora Superior Court of California (Ret.)
  2. 2. The law is…• … a healing profession
  3. 3. Problem-Solving Courts• …focus on the underlying medical/social issues and chronic behaviors of court users who have recurring contacts with the justice system• …apply promising practices and evidence-based interventions from the behavioral sciences to effectuate change• …seek innovative solutions to complex social issues (substance abuse, homelessness, mental health, violence)
  4. 4. Problem-Solving Courts• …focus on the underlying medical/social problems and chronic behaviors of court users who have recurring contacts with the justice system• …apply promising practices from the behavioral sciences to effectuate change• …seek innovative solutions to complex social issues (addictions, homelessness, mental health, violence)
  5. 5. P-S Principles and Methods1. Reduce recidivism in criminal cases2. Save incarceration and other costs of social services, e.g., foster care3. Have great public support4. High participant satisfaction5. High judicial satisfaction
  6. 6. Collaborative Judges• Judges believe they can and should play a role in the problem-solving process• Outcomes matter--court is not just based on a process and precedent Adapted from Judge Judith S. Kaye, Chief Judge, New York
  7. 7. Collaborative Courts• Recognize the therapeutic potential of the court’s coercive powers• Finds “Judicial Leverage” is an appropriate tool
  8. 8. Collaborative Courts• Recognize the therapeutic potential of the court’s coercive powers• Finds “Judicial Leverage” is an appropriate tool• Address complex social issues• Understand that collaboration assists with continuum of care
  9. 9. Drug Treatment Courts• DTCs emphasize alcohol and drug treatment services. The two goals of these programs are to reduce recidivism of drug-related offenses and to create options within the criminal justice system that tailor effective and appropriate responses for offenders with drug problems.
  10. 10. Leadership• The role of a leader is to empower others, help others fix problems and serve others.Brady & Woodward (2007)• As the leader of the team, the judge is fully committed to the drug court program, its mission and goals.
  11. 11. Leadership, cont.• Hold team-building meetings and focus on program structure with the team• Expect all team members to participate in staffing.
  12. 12. Who are Leaders? • Plenty to do without a process that will be hard and time-consuming • Advantages distant, costs immediate • Leaders are those “who can stand back and see the payoffs, who are willing to take risks, and who are willing to use their personal credibility and stock with their peers to get this effort off the ground and keep it going.”McGarry, Peggy and Becki Ney, “Getting it Right: Collaborative Problem Solving for Criminal Justice,” U.S. Dept. of Justice, Nat’l Institute ofCorrections (June 2006) http://nicic.org/Downloads/PDF/Library/019834.pdf
  13. 13. Judicial Supervision Ongoing judicial supervision increases the likelihood that the participant will remain in treatment Regular status hearings are used to monitor participant performance
  14. 14. High Performance Judges Know “Effective trial courts are responsive to emergent public issues such as drug abuse…A trial court that moves deliberately in response to emergent issues is a stabilizing force in society and acts consistently with its role of maintaining the rule of law” Bureau of Justice Assistance’s Trial Court Performance Standards, 1997
  15. 15. What does an effective judge know?• What separates drug court judges from traditional judges is training in addiction, understanding how to motivate behavior change, and simple empathy.• William G. Meyer & A. William Ritter, Drug Courts Work, 14 FED. SENT’G REP. 179, 183-184 (2002).
  16. 16. Comprehensive Law Movement Seeks to maximize emotional, psychological and relational wellbeing of those involved with legal matters Focuses beyond strict legal rights, responsibilities, duties, obligations and entitlements Daicoff, Id.
  17. 17. THERAPEUTIC JURISPRUDENCE
  18. 18. TJ• “…*T+he most prolific vector *of the Comprehensive Law Movement], at least in academic and judicial circles.• “It has rapidly spread to all areas of the law and has been enthusiastically adopted by American judges in the form of ‘problem-solving courts’.” Daicoff, Susan, “Law as a Healing Profession: The „Comprehensive Law Movement‟,” 6 Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal 1 (2006)
  19. 19. Therapeutic Jurisprudence… “proposes the exploration of ways in which, consistent with principles of justice, the knowledge, theories, and insights of the mental health and related disciplines can help shape the law.”Source: Wexler, DB and BJ Winick, eds. Law in a Therapeutic Key, Durham, NC; Carolina Academic Press, 1996 www.therapeuticjurisprudence.org
  20. 20. TJ’s Overlapping areas of Inquiry 1. Role of law in producing psychological dysfunction 2. Therapeutic aspects of the law 3. Therapeutic aspects of the legal system 4. Therapeutic aspects of judicial and legal rolesWexler, Introducing Therapeutic Compliance Through the Criminal Law, 14 Law & Psychol. Rev. 42 (1990)
  21. 21. The task of TJ• Identify and ultimately examine empirically relationships between legal arrangements and therapeutic outcomes• Law reform agenda: Minimize anti-therapeutic consequences and facilitate achievement of therapeutic ones Drogin, Eric “Jurisprudent Therapy and Competency,” 28 Law & Psych. R. 41 (2004)
  22. 22. TJ’s QuestionCan we enhance thelikelihood of desiredoutcomes & compliancewith judicial orders byapplying what we knowabout behavior to the waywe do business in court?
  23. 23. Jurisprudent Therapy• Ensures people are helped in ways that obey, complement, and further the goals of the law• TJ is designed to ensure that the law does things to help people• It also results in more compliance with judicial orders Drogin, Id.
  24. 24. • Can we reduce the anti- therapeutic consequences • Enhance the therapeutic ones • Without subordinating due process and other justice values?Slobogin, Christopher, “Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Five Dilemmas to Ponder,” 1 Psychology Public Policy and the Law 193 (1995)
  25. 25. “Trumping” • Legal rights such as due process and equal protection are never “trumped” by therapeutic concerns even though the court’s action may be anti-therapeutic
  26. 26. PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS/PROCEDURAL JUSTICE
  27. 27. Procedural Fairness/Justice• Posits that the manner in which justice is done isjust as important and the outcome• “…bridges the gap that exists between familiarity and unfamiliarity and the differences between each person….”• www.Proceduralfairness.org• Burke, Kevin and Steve Leban, “Procedural Fairness: A Key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction,” Court Review American Judges Association (2007)
  28. 28. Procedural Fairness• Voice: the ability to participate in the case by expressing their viewpoint;• Neutrality: consistently applied legal principles,unbiased decision makers, and a “transparency” abouthow decisions are made;
  29. 29. Procedural Fairness, cont.• Respectful treatment: individuals are treated withdignity and their rights are obviously protected;• Trustworthy authorities: authorities are benevolent,caring, and sincerely trying to help the litigants—thistrust is garnered by listening to individuals and byexplaining or justifying decisions that address thelitigants’ needs.Tom Tyler, “Why People Obey the Law” 22 (2006)
  30. 30. Fairness is Key• People will accept an unfavorable ruling if they feel the process is fair.• People who win but who do not feel they were treated fairly are unhappy with the procedure
  31. 31. Why do people accept court decisions? Tom Tyler, Procedural Fairness, COSCA 2011
  32. 32. Willingness to accept decisions based uponreason for being in court.
  33. 33. R-E-S-P-E-C-T• Proactive trouble shooting• Judge directly address progress• Open courtroom• All observed consequences• Genuine, caring, consistent, and firmCarrie J. Petrucci, "Respect as a Component in the Judge-Defendant Interaction in a Specialized DomesticViolence Court that UtilizesTherapeutic Jurisprudence.“ CRIMINAL LAW BULLETIN38:2 (2002)
  34. 34. • Active listening• Rogerian approach (warmth, empathy, and genuineness)• Shared respect
  35. 35. A New PerspectiveThe court system as • an interdisciplinary • problem-solving • community institution Dr. Alvan Barach, quoted by Bill Moyers in Healing and the Mind, 1993
  36. 36. Twenty years of P-S Courts 1989-2009 • “We’re moving out of adolescence into a point of maturity.” • Dan Becker, Utah’s state court administrator
  37. 37. NADCP Key Component #7 and United NationsOffice on Drugs and Crime Key Component #7:Ongoing judicial interaction with each drug courtparticipant is essential Tribal Healing-to-Wellness Courts Key Component #7: Ongoing judicial interaction with each participant and judicial involvement in team staffing is essential
  38. 38. Judges matterTherapeutic jurisprudence posits:• Does what a Judge says, and how he or she says it, impact legal outcomes? • Such as compliance, sentence completion, recidivismProcedural justice suggests:• Defendants’ perceived fairness of the Judge can make a difference in whether they complete their sentences, and ultimately, whether they reoffend EMT Associates, Inc. 06-12-2008 41
  39. 39. Judicial Communication Scale • People feeling like they have been treated fairly was the strongest predictor in court attitudes • Ethnicity of the observer (but not ethnic match to judge & not for all judges) • Professional discipline of the observer (law vs. social work but not for all judges) • Need for complex thinking (2 out of 4 judges) • Authoritarianism (2 out of 4 judges)Petrucci, Carrie, Ph.D., “Measuring Judicial Communication: A TherapeuticJurisprudence Perspective” 2008
  40. 40. Judge is most important factor• 80% of participants say they wouldnt have stayed in drug court if they did not appear before a judgeDrug Court Clearinghouse, American U.• Interaction and delivery of response has most impact
  41. 41. Drug Court Participant:• “It’s a learning experience for me. You just learn what to do. When you see somebody doin’ right and they get patted on the back, you think, ‘I want to be like that next time I come.’ Or when you see someone get the cuffs slapped on them, you thinking like, ‘Oh, I ain’t going to do that. I don’t want to be that person’.”San Bernardino Drug Court participant focus group
  42. 42. Judicial Interaction• One of the most important factors for DTC• Judges’ interpersonal skills and ability to resolve legal problems expeditiously and provide ready access to services• A single DTC judge increases compliance over multiple judges presiding• Drug Courts: The Second Decade NIJ Special Report OJP, USDOJ (June 2006)
  43. 43. Incentives & Sanctions• After input from the whole team, the judge should decide on incentives, sanctions and treatment responses.• The judge must stay abreast of research on motivational interviewing and behavioral change literature.• The judge delivers a coordinated response to participants in the courtroom.
  44. 44. Incentives and Sanctions• Timely• Consistent• Certain• Appropriate to hold litigant accountable, move litigant toward desired outcome, protect public
  45. 45. Why sanctions?• Purpose of sanctions is to keep them engaged in treatment• Use sanctions to promote sustained change
  46. 46. 5 Steps to Deliver the response1. Explain the decision and the factors considered by the team2. Review severity of the participant’s substance dependence3. Note the behavior being responded to4. How the behavior is important to their recovery5. Why the particular sanction and magnitude were selectedNational Drug Court Institute, Incentives and Sanctions: Rethinking Court Responses to Client Behavior
  47. 47. Practice with a partnerDanny has been in DTC for 9 weeks. He once was clean for 2 weeks. In staffing, you find out he had a positive test this week. Your court requires a participant disclose use before testing. Danny didn’t. How do you deliver the consequence to Danny?
  48. 48. What do you say to Danny?• Is Danny’s abstinence a proximal or distal goal?• Is there a different response to the “dirty” test and the lying?• What sanctions are available and how do you choose?
  49. 49. There are two very different types ofBehavior Changes • Imposed Behavior Change • Making you do something that you do not want to do (work, prison, losses, divorce, sanctions) • The primary reason for that change is extrinsic not intrinsic • Chosen Behavior Change • Intentional and intrinsically motivated • Taking ownership of the change and integrating it into your lifestyle • DiClemente, “Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Sustained Change, “ 2011
  50. 50. How do we…• Develop a system that gives offenders access tohelp to engage the intentional process• Do not simply rely on extrinsic motivation to create sustained change• Parental Accountability Court GA
  51. 51. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
  52. 52. Adversarial System Restorative Justice Crime is defined as a Crime is seen as a harmviolation of rules, and a done to victims andharm to the state communities Victim is inhibited from Victim is central to thespeaking about his/her process of defining thereal losses and needs harm and how it might be repaired Offender, victim and Offender, victim andcommunity remain community are activepassive and have little and participate in theresponsibility for a resolution resulting fromresolution the restorative forum
  53. 53. Adversarial System Restorative Justice Offender is blamed, Offender is reintegratedstigmatized and into the community,punished dignity is preserved, and the community’s long term safety is protected Repentance and Repentance andforgiveness are rarely forgiveness areconsidered encouraged Assumes win-loss Makes possible win-winoutcome outcome
  54. 54. Adversarial System Restorative Justice Community’s role is Community is activelylimited involved in holding offenders accountable, supporting victims, and ensuring opportunities for offenders to make amendsRestitution is rare Restitution is normal Controlled and operated Overseen by the state,by the state and but usually driven byprofessionals who seem communitiesremote
  55. 55. California Community Justice Project:Building Restorative Justice Principles in the Community• Enhance awareness/understanding of community justice principles/practices• Facilitate information sharing between existing community justice programs and start-up programs• Facilitate the development of local practices consistent with community justice principles www.courtinfo.ca.gov/programs/ccjp
  56. 56. A judge must believe that peoplecan change with support and likeinteraction with participants Source: Applying Drug Court Concepts in the Juvenile and Family Court Environments American University, State Justice Institute, June 1998
  57. 57. Judge as Change Agent• Visible to & respected by multiple systems/stakeholders• Able to function as a “boundary spanner”• Strong communicator• Skilled facilitator• Consensus builder• Good political “nose”
  58. 58. “I am not a social worker” Jane Addams, founder of Hull House, the consummate “social worker.”
  59. 59. Arguments Against• “*Working therapeutically] cheapens the judicial office, placing the judge at the level of a ringmaster in a judicial circus.”• Bean, Philip, “Drug Courts, the Judge, and the Rehabilitative Ideal,” DRUG COURTS in Theory and in Practice, James L. Nolan, Jr., Ed., Aldine de Gruyter (2002)
  60. 60. Dr. Bean now • “It has been said we should expect only one good idea in criminal justice per decade; that being so, drug courts make up for two.” • Bean, Philip, “Drugs and crime,” Willian Publishing, UK (2002)
  61. 61. • “*Being a problem-solving judge] has made me look at everybody on the other side of the bench—both defendants and lawyers—not as adversaries but as people who bring their own life experiences to the table.”• Hon. Rosalyn Richter, an acting Supreme Court justice and a former judge of the Midtown Community Court
  62. 62. Working Therapeutically• It’s good for the judge• In a series of surveys comparing judges working therapeutically and those working traditionally, 100% of DTC judges reported being positively affected by their assignment• Hora, Peggy Fulton and Deborah Chase, “The Best Seat in the House: The Court Assignment and Judicial Satisfaction,” 47:2 Family Court Review 209-238 March, 2009.
  63. 63. Working Therapeutically• Effectuates the court’s orders• If conditions of probation contemplate change in the defendant, we should enhance the likelihood of achieving that change
  64. 64. Correlation of Questions• Three answers most highly correlated to the feeling that the “judicial assignment was beneficial”1. Litigants were grateful for the help they received2. Judges witnessed litigant improvement3. Judges felt hope for litigant improvementHora, Peggy Fulton and Deborah J. Chase, J.D., Ph.D, "Judicial Satisfaction When Judging in a Therapeutic Key,"Contemporary Issues in Law 7:I (2003/2004).
  65. 65. Correlation• The most common predictor of positive emotional effect was the perception by the judicial officer that “litigants are grateful for the help they are given by the court.”• Chase & Hora, “The Implications of Therapeutic Jurisprudence for Judicial Satisfaction.” 37:1 Court Review (Spring 2000)
  66. 66. Judicial Satisfaction is Nonsense• “Ought we to be thinking more about the impact of the team approach on notions of justice, rather than concern ourselves with the well-being of judges, an occupational group quite capable of protecting its own interests?”
  67. 67. Needn’t change YOUR style
  68. 68. Back to the Future1. Drug treatment courts will go to scale and serve every individual who needs court-supervised treatment in the justice system2. Current promising practices of other problem- solving courts will continue to evolve and be evaluated for efficacy
  69. 69. 3. Evidence-based sentencing will be employed by every judge in every court and mandatory sentencing will become obsolete4. Drug courts will be peer accredited and employ “industry” standards5. Wide acceptance of problem-solving courts in the government and in the community will continue to be the normHora, Peggy Fulton Hon., “THROUGH A GLASS GAVEL: PREDICTING THE FUTURE OF DRUG TREATMENT COURTS,” Nat’l Ctr for State Courts (In Press)
  70. 70. New publication • Download a pdf version at: http://www.ndci.org/p ublications/more- publications/-drug- court-judicial- benchbook
  71. 71. New website• National Drug Court Resource Center• www.NDCRC.org
  72. 72. System level approach• The California courts are already acting on this idea with a Procedural fairness initiative. • Based upon their own independent research confirming these ideas. • Responding to diversity, increases in pro se representation, public distrust of the courts. • Every experience with the courts – litigant, juror, etc. should build legitimacy. • This should occur at all stages: arresting officers; jail staff; court help-desk; bailiff; judge.

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