Developing and Assessing Teacher Effectiveness


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  • Value-added models are designed to quantify the amount of achievement “value” teachers add to their students over the course of a school year. There are some old ideas here, but with some new vocabulary and some new statistical twists.
  • In 2009, the NRC’s Board on Testing and Assessment issued a letter report directed to Education Secretary Arne Duncan, commenting on the Department’s proposal on the Race to the Top Fund. That letter included strong cautions concerning value-added models, and strongly urged further research and pilot studies before mandating any operational use of these models. Since then, the evidence has continued to accumulate that these models have serious problems.
  • Bullet 1: One teacher noted: “I’m scared to teach in the 4 th grade. I’m scared I might lose my job if I teach in an [ELL] transition grade level, because I’m scared my scores are going to drop, and I’m going to get fired because there’s probably going to be no growth.” Another teacher noted: “When they say nobody wants to do 4 th grade – nobody wants to do 4 th grade! Nobody.” Bullet 3: A teacher noted: “I found out that I [have been] competing with myself.” Bullet 4: A gifted teacher noted: “Every year I have the highest test scores, I have fellow teachers that come up to me when they get their bonuses…One recently came up to me [and] literally cried - ‘I’m so sorry.’… I’m like, don’t be sorry…It’s not your fault. Here I am…with the highest test scores and I’m getting $0 in bonuses. It makes no sense year to year how this works…. How do I, how do I… you know… I don’t know what to do. I don’t know how to get higher than a 100%.” Another gifted teacher noted, “I have students [in a 5 th grade gifted reading class] who score at the 6 th 7 th 8 th -grade levels in reading. But I’m like please babies, score at the 9 th grade level, cause if you don’t score at the 9 th or 10 th grade or higher in 5 th grade with me, I’m going to show negative growth. Even though you, you’re gifted and you’re talented, and you’re high! I can only push you so much higher when you are already so high. I’m scared.”
  • Developing and Assessing Teacher Effectiveness

    1. 1. Developing and Assessing Teacher Effectiveness © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    2. 2. The Need for More Powerful Teaching © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    3. 3. What Do Effective and Equitable Teachers Know and Do? © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    4. 4. Effective Teachers… Engage students in active learning Create intellectually ambitious tasks Use a variety of teaching strategies Assess student learning continuously and adapt teaching to student needs Create effective scaffolds and supports Provide clear standards, constant feedback, and opportunities for revising work Develop and effectively manage a collaborative classroom in which all students have membership. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    5. 5. Equitable Teachers … Learn to see, hear, and understand the child Find out about children’s strengths, experiences, and prior knowledge Have many tools for scaffolding understanding Continually develop culturally responsive practices Reinforce students’ competence and confidence Reach out to children and families
    6. 6. How Do We Develop,Evaluate, and Ensure Effective Teaching for Every Child? © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    7. 7. Teaching Effectiveness Depends on Many Factors Individual teacher knowledge, skills, and dispositions Hanushek et al. estimate the individual teacher effects component of measured student achievement is about 7-10% of the total. The effectiveness of peers – Teams of experienced teachers collaborating effectively and organizing curriculum across grades Student availability for learning – Prior learning opportunities and developed abilities, attendance, health, supportive home context Resources for learning – Curriculum quality, materials, class sizes, specialist supports, leadership supports, etc. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    8. 8. Education Spending is Unequal and Inadequate California ADA Expenditures18,000 16,58316,00014,000 11,22212,000 9,48010,000 7,863 8,000 6,457 6,360 6,182 5,913 5,741 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 e J) ) A) ills o . . . A ag em em em sc (S (L (L H er i El El El nc y rk on rly Av le a Pa o e as ve in pt Fr id lit A cK lin om Be a ds C in n us Bo M Sa w oo CSa ld lin W Ba ank Fr
    9. 9. Low-Salary Districts Serve Higher Need Students (CA)
    10. 10. Staffing Strongly Influences School Productivity (ELA Productivity* (2003-07) Associated with Teacher and School Characteristics)
    11. 11. Teacher Effectiveness Has Many ComponentsResearch finds that student learning gains are related to: Strong academic background Quality preparation prior to entry Certification in the field taught Experience (> 3 years) National Board CertificationIn combination, these predict more of the difference in student learning gains than race & parent education combined (Clotfelter, Ladd, & Vigdor, 2008).Policies should strengthen & equalize these features. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    12. 12. Policy Context Focusing on teacher effectiveness is seen as a promising path for education policy New teacher evaluation systems, and especially, “Value Added Models” (VAMs) are promoted as tools to accomplish this goal Policy needs to be informed by research about what will actually improve teaching and student outcomes
    13. 13. Professional Consensus  VAM estimates of teacher effectiveness … should not used to make operational decisions because such estimates are far too unstable to be considered fair or reliable. – 2009 Letter Report from the Board on Testing and Assessment, National Research Council
    14. 14. Concerns Raised about Value-Added MeasuresStudies find that teachers’ value-added “effectiveness” is highly variable & influenced by: The statistical model used The measure of achievement used Class size, curriculum, instructional supports, and time spent with students Tutoring and parent supports Student characteristics and attendance
    15. 15. A Teacher’s Measured “Effectiveness” Can Vary Widely YEAR 1 10 YEAR 210  Same high school 8 6  Same course 4 (English I) 2 1  Not a beginning 0 Decile Rank Y1 Decile Rank Y2 teacher80  Model controls for:60 Y1  Prior40 Y2 achievement20  Demographics 0 % ELL % Low- %Hispanic  School fixed income effects
    16. 16. The Unintended Effects of the EVAAS System In Houston Teachers teaching in grades in which English Language Learners (ELLs) are transitioned into mainstreamed classrooms are the least likely to show “added value.” Teachers teaching larger numbers of special education students in mainstreamed classrooms are also found to have lower “value-added” scores. Teachers teaching students in consecutive years report receiving bonuses for the first year and nothing the next, as they “max out” on growth. Teachers teaching gifted students have small gains because their students are near the top. 16
    17. 17. So How Should We Evaluate and Support Teacher Effectiveness?Combine Evidence of Practice, Performance, andOutcomes in an Integrated Evaluation System thatlooks at Teaching practice in relation to standards, curriculum goals, and student needs Contributions to colleagues and the school, and Student learning / growth at the classroom and school level in relation to teaching practices, curriculum goals, and student needs. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    18. 18. Invest in Teacher Performance Assessments (PACT) Subject-Specific Collection of Evidence Completed at end of student teaching or internship Modeled after National Board Certification “Teaching Event” includes -- Plans for a standards-based unit of instruction -- Adapted for special needs students and ELs -- Videotaped instruction with commentaries over 5 days -- Evidence of student learning during unit -- Overall analysis of learning and teaching Scored by trained assessors with strong reliability Influences candidates, assessors, & program quality © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    19. 19. Teacher Candidates LearnI think for me the most valuable thing was the sequencing of the lessons, teaching the lesson, and evaluating what the kids were getting, what the kids weren’t getting, and having that be reflected in my next lesson...the ‘teach-assess-teach-assess- teach-assess’ process. And so you’re constantly changing – you may have a plan or a framework that you have together, but knowing that that’s flexible and that it has to be flexible, based on what the children learn that day. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
    20. 20. Teacher Educators LearnThis [scoring] experience…has forced me to revisit the question of what really matters in the assessment of teachers, which – in turn – means revisiting the question of what really matters in the preparation of teachers. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
    21. 21. Cooperating Teachers Learn[The scoring process] forces you to be clear about “good teaching;” what it looks like, sounds like. It enables you to look at your own practice critically/with new eyes. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
    22. 22. Teacher Education Programs Learn …… And change Courses The learning sequence Clinical practice opportunities Supports for candidates
    23. 23. Predictive Validity of Performance Assessments National Board Certification -- Effect sizes of .04 to .20 (pass/fail) Connecticut BEST portfolio -- Effect size of .46 (4 point scale) California PACT assessment -- Effect size of .15 (44 point scale) 20 percentile point difference in student achievement for the highest - and lowest- scoring teacher Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
    24. 24. After Evaluation, Then What?How Do we Develop Effective Teaching? © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    25. 25. Professional Learning Opportunities in High-Achieving Nations AbroadHigh-achieving nations in Europe and Asia:  Ensure extensive (3-4 year) initial preparation that includes clinical training in model schools  Provide beginners with intensive mentoring.  Offer extensive, sustained learning opportunities embedded in practice:  Teachers have 15-25 hours a week for collaboration plus 100 hours a year for professional learning  Most engage regularly in Lesson Study, Action Research, and Peer Observation and Coaching to evaluate and improve practice. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    26. 26. What Research Tells UsWell-designed professional development canimprove practice and increase studentachievement. A review of high-quality experimental studies found that among programs offering extended PD (49 hours on average over 6 to 12 months), student achievement increased by 21 percentile points. (Yoon et al., 2007)One-shot workshops do not have positiveeffects. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    27. 27. Professional Learning Opportunities that Impact Practice are Generally:  Focused on specific curriculum content  Organized around real problems of practice  Connected to teachers’ work with children  Linked to analysis of teaching and student learning  Intensive, sustained and continuous over time Supported by coaching, modeling, observation, and feedback Connected to teachers’ collaborative work in professional learning communities Integrated into school and classroom planning around curriculum, instruction, and assessment © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    28. 28. Personalization Small Schools and Learning Communities Reduced Pupil Loads Long-term Relationships Advisory Systems Close parental contact
    29. 29. Rigorous & Relevant Instruction  College Prep coursework made relevant, interdisciplinary, and problem- oriented  Internships  Project-Based Learning  Performance Assessment & Portfolios  A Culture of Revision and Redemption
    30. 30. Professional Collaboration & Learning Intensive retreats Shared planning time Teaching teams Regular professional development Inquiry about student learning Leadership focused on instruction
    31. 31. If We Took Teaching Effectiveness Seriously, We Would Ensure… Community supports for child success High-quality preparation and mentoring for all beginners Teacher performance assessments to improve preparation, licensure, and accreditation + induction Well-designed schools with thoughtful curriculum and adequate resources Sustained, practice-based collegial learning opportunities for teachers Equal access to teachers who are prepared, certified, and supported based on these stronger measures. © Linda Darling-Hammond 2010
    32. 32. Insisting on Quality Education as a Civil Right "On some positions, Cowardice asks the question, Is it safe? Expediency asks the question, Is it politic? And Vanity comes along and asks the question, Is it popular? But Conscience asks the question Is it right?And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, But he must do it because Conscience tells him it is right." -Martin Luther King, Jr., "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution", March 31, 1968