Protecting the North Coast: Federal Options (September 1, 2009)

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  • Protecting the North Coast: Federal Options (September 1, 2009)

    1. 1. Protecting the North Coast: Federal Options <ul><li>Jeb Berman September 1, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Knauss Marine Policy Fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Congressman Mike Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>T: 202.225.3311 | E: jeb.berman@mail.house.gov </li></ul>
    2. 2. Overview Why are we here?
    3. 3. <ul><li>Significant, repeated constituent interest in ocean issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on sustainable use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of the ocean to North Coast economy and identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean-related employment in Mendocino, Humboldt and Del Norte Counties comprised 7.4% of total employment in 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need local input on best way to advance protection for the North Coast </li></ul>Overview Why are we here? North Coast Ocean Economy Growth (1990-2000)
    4. 4. <ul><li>Marine Ecosystems: The Governance Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Current Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Potentially Incompatible Uses </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Federal laws </li></ul>Overview Outline
    5. 5. Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Complexity and Interdependence <ul><li>Biological, chemical and physical processes interact at multiple spatial and temporal scales </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Ecosystem boundaries do not align with political and bureaucratic jurisdictions </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of ecosystem processes does not sync with election or appointment cycles </li></ul>The Governance Challenge Spatial and Temporal Mismatches in Management <ul><li>20 Federal agencies administer over 140 ocean-related laws </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>At all levels of government, fragmentation and poor coordination is a major, overarching problem </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations to identify compatible and incompatible uses </li></ul>The Governance Challenge Coordination and Comprehensive Planning Are Key National Regional State
    8. 8. The Governance Challenge Case Study: Coastal Tourism and Offshore Oil Tourism and Recreation’s Contribution to the North Coast Ocean Economy <ul><li>1999: M/V Stuyvesant spills 2,100 gallons just outside of Humboldt Bay </li></ul><ul><li>9,415 recreational user-days lost </li></ul>77% 78% 87% Percent T&R $164,581,624 $74,372,905 6,674 Tourism and Recreation $214,950,623 $95,569,934 7,691 Ocean Economy Gross State Product Wages Employment
    9. 9. Current Ocean Uses Commercial Fishing Landed Value $27,057,783 Total Ocean Economy $214,950,623 13%
    10. 10. Current Ocean Uses Tourism and Recreation Tourism & Recreation $164,581,624 Total Ocean Economy $214,950,623 77%
    11. 11. Potentially Incompatible Uses Existing, Emerging and Future
    12. 12. Potentially Incompatible Uses Existing, Emerging and Future
    13. 13. Potentially Incompatible Uses Commercial Fishing Fishing? California Current fisheries are predicted to achieve conservation target of less than 10% of stocks collapsed. - Worm, et al, Science , July 2009 Pelagic low-bycatch Demersal destructive Demersal non-destructive low bycatch Low human impact High human impact
    14. 14. Potentially Incompatible Uses Offshore Oil and Gas Development
    15. 15. Potentially Incompatible Uses Offshore Oil and Gas Development <ul><li>As of Saturday 8/29, oil covered an area over 100 miles wide </li></ul><ul><li>Response crews will be unable to stop the leak for 7-8 weeks </li></ul>Friday August 21, 2009: West Australian Oil Spill
    16. 16. Potentially Incompatible Uses Alternative Energy Facilities Wave energy (permit issued) Wave energy (permit pending) Tidal energy (permit pending) Wave energy (permit issued) Wave energy (permit pending) Tidal energy (permit pending)
    17. 17. Potentially Incompatible Uses Existing, Emerging and Future
    18. 18. Federal Law Jurisdiction on the Outer Continental Shelf 3 miles 200 miles Federal Submerged Lands between 3 and 200 nautical miles
    19. 19. <ul><li>Which Federal laws could be used to preserve current uses and avoid incompatible ones? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Environmental Policy Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal Zone Management Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Marine Sanctuaries Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the specific options for action provided by these laws? </li></ul>Federal Law Increasing Protection for the North Coast
    20. 20. <ul><li>Enacted in 1953 with significant amendments in 1978 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established Federal jurisdiction over the OCS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandate to develop OCS oil, gas and mineral resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options under OCSLA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive action can create no-drilling zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential Withdrawal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SecDef National Defense Area designation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial review can block exploration and development plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Proper balance” in leasing program (§18) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reasonable balance” between state and national interests (§19) </li></ul></ul></ul>Federal Law OCSLA | Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act
    21. 21. Federal Law NEPA | National Environmental Policy Act <ul><li>Enacted in 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National Environmental Policy: man and nature “in productive harmony” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural mandate: Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options under NEPA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive action can influence the NEPA process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Council on Environmental Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial review can force agency to re-evaluate arbitrary and capricious analysis of environmental impacts </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Federal Law CZMA | Coastal Zone Management Act <ul><li>Enacted in 1972 with significant amendments in 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided that Federal actions affecting a state’s coastal zone must be consistent with the state’s management policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretarial appeals process in cases where actions are inconsistent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options under CZMA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State policies can proactively identify inconsistent coastal zone uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enforceable policies of the state Coastal Zone Management Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial review can reverse Secretarial overrides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>33% of appeals end with an override </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of energy project-related appeals end with an override </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>42% of all non-withdrawn or settled appeals are dismissed on procedural grounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Federal Law NMSA | National Marine Sanctuaries Act <ul><li>Enacted in 1972 with significant amendments in 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and designate areas of special national significance due to conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, scientific, educational, cultural, archaeological or aesthetic qualities; communities of living marine resources; or resource or human-use values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common sanctuary regulations : no discharges; no construction on or alteration of the seabed; no disturbance of cultural resources; no exploration, development or production of oil, gas or minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Options under NMSA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislative action could designate a sanctuary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Effect on Fishing Activities- Nothing in this Act is intended to alter any existing authorities regarding the conduct and location of fishing activities in the Sanctuaries.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative action could designate a sanctuary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlikely given the current restrictions on new sanctuaries </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Protecting the North Coast: Federal Options <ul><li>Jeb Berman September 1, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Knauss Marine Policy Fellow </li></ul><ul><li>Office of Congressman Mike Thompson </li></ul><ul><li>T: 202.225.3311 | E: jeb.berman@mail.house.gov </li></ul>

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