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Women and Inclusivity of Growth, Pakistan @100

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Ayesha Khan's presentation on "Policies and Affirmative Action for Achieving Gender Equity," at the World Bank workshop Pakistan@100 Initiative at Lahore University of Management Sciences.

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Women and Inclusivity of Growth, Pakistan @100

  1. 1. Women and Inclusivity of Growth Pakistan @100 Ayesha Khan Collective for Social Science Research
  2. 2. Challenges facing Pakistan • How will increased female labour force participation help to redress gender inequality? • Benefits of affirmative action – can the state lead in opening doors for women, and does it work? • How best to tackle entrenched patriarchal order – systematically and consistently.
  3. 3. Empowerment and Paid Work • Purdah norms limit women’s access to work opportunities outside the home. • Paid work outside the home associated with better health and education outcomes for children, but double burden with domestic work may have neg impact on daughters. • Is women’s unpaid work within the home of too valuable to economy to change these norms?
  4. 4. What is the role of public policy and can it work? • Protection and rights for home-based women workers • Recognition for agricultural women workers • Rights and protections for women in the workplace
  5. 5. Lady Health Workers • Cadre of 100,000 working women in underserved areas across Pakistan. • Improved health outcomes • Leaders in their communities • Led to successful collective action by LHWs
  6. 6. Affirmative action: Reserved seats for women in elected bodies • Raised standard of parliamentary debate proved track record of women • Worked across party lines for progressive legislation • Linkages forged btw civil society, NCSW & provincial CSWs, pol parties, HR bodies
  7. 7. Affirmative Action • Finding: public policy needed for implementation • Quotas needed at all levels of public service (bureaucracy, police, judiciary) - matched with quotas in political parties (seat allocation, decision- making positions, etc)
  8. 8. Today’s girls @100 • Parents’ and daughters’ own aspirations for education, work and age at marriage are gendered & restricted. • Gendered norms are shaped by age, ethnicity, location, and the real/perceived threat of violence on roads, at schools/colleges & workplace.
  9. 9. Public policy and adolescents Being Adolescent in Karachi (2015) found: 1. Transition to adulthood happening with limited support from public policy, heavily mediated by family alone. They need: 1. School system to be a potential enabling platform eg [Life Skills Education curriculum] 2. A road to socialisation outside of family 3. Proactive health system, better security, and support for working adolescents.
  10. 10. Patriarchy in Pakistan @100 • Breaking the public / private divide. • Bringing women into public spaces at the same time as confronting VAW. • Reframing learned acceptance of male dominance to stop its inter-generational transmission.

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