Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Electrical Energy Extraction of Brine Treatment
Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)
Group Members:
Endy Nugroho Dwiputra
M...
Introduction
Projected Brine Resource 27.3 Kton
Power Conversion 1 W/m2
Potential Power Output 0.03 GWh
Potential Energy O...
Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)
Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) cont’d
• Pressure generated by the forward osmosis from low concentration
(LC) to high con...
Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)
Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) cont’d
• Using Ionic Exchange Membrane (IEM), which consists of Anionic
(AEM) and Cationic (...
Working Principle
Working Principle cont’d
• Ion separation rises potential differences
• Potential differences attracts electron
• Electron...
Scientific Principle
• This project utilize Fick’s second law of diffusion1, as concentration
gradient (chemical potential...
Second Fick’s Law of Diffusion
The concentration gradient difference comparison
between cross and linear flow
Setup - Cell
Setup - Complete
Materials
Electrode:
• Platinum (Pt) is highly inert metal which has standard reduction
potential of +1.2 V3, just behind ...
Materials cont’d
Electrolyte:
• This system is chosen since we employ salts with very distinct
concentrations.
• Hexacyano...
Materials cont’d
Electrolyte
• 2 CEMs are used as outer membranes to prevent loss of iron used as
redox couple3.
• Low ove...
Formula
• Power output of RED system
Results
• Experimental voltage is similar to theoretical voltage
• Optimisation of experimental current flow
• RED system ...
Applications
• Coupling RED with Desalination Process
• Reduce energy footprint (consumption) of Desalination Process
• Me...
Applications cont’d
• Portable emergency water (ED) or electricity (RED)
supply kit
• Survival kit for lost fishermen or t...
Limitations
• Current Ion Exchange Membrane (IEM) price & cost of scaling up
• Need further research to improve IEM & RED ...
• Reduce resistance from various factors
• Increase concentration difference ratio between HC & LC
• Increase permselectiv...
Further Works
• More vigorous with major advancement in R&D and evaluation of
performance for improved RED system
• Collab...
Technical Specs of IEM
Parameters Membrane
PC SA (AEM) PC SK (CEM)
General use standard desalination standard desalination...
References
• 1. M. Leif, The Complete Solution of Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion
with Time-
dependent Diffusion Coefficien...
Electrical Energy Extraction of Brine Treatment Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Electrical Energy Extraction of Brine Treatment Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)

913 views

Published on

Brine disposal is commonly produced from desalination process. This project is about harvesting energy from brine solution, which is currently treated using energy-consuming process. The novelty of this project lies in the combination of harvesting energy, which is enhanced by utilizing waste heat, and also simultaneously treating brine to acceptable concentration level.

Published in: Engineering
  • Be the first to comment

Electrical Energy Extraction of Brine Treatment Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)

  1. 1. Electrical Energy Extraction of Brine Treatment Using Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) Group Members: Endy Nugroho Dwiputra Martin Mardjuki Victor Julistiono Barlian Project Supervisor: Dr. Narasimalu Srikanth
  2. 2. Introduction Projected Brine Resource 27.3 Kton Power Conversion 1 W/m2 Potential Power Output 0.03 GWh Potential Energy Output 0.11 TW Daily Energy Demand 0.90%
  3. 3. Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)
  4. 4. Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) cont’d • Pressure generated by the forward osmosis from low concentration (LC) to high concentration (HC) • Pressure is used to turn the mechanical turbine which is required to produce electricity • Large space is needed for the turbine, and output is further reduced due to energy conversion loss • With more steps in energy conversion towards the net form, there is higher loss of energy based on thermodynamics, such as waste heat.
  5. 5. Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)
  6. 6. Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) cont’d • Using Ionic Exchange Membrane (IEM), which consists of Anionic (AEM) and Cationic (CEM) • Membrane selectively passes through the ions of salt concentration
  7. 7. Working Principle
  8. 8. Working Principle cont’d • Ion separation rises potential differences • Potential differences attracts electron • Electrons generated from redox couple of electrolyte • Once the circuit is closed, current is generated
  9. 9. Scientific Principle • This project utilize Fick’s second law of diffusion1, as concentration gradient (chemical potential) decreases with time between HC and LC as illustrated in figure next slide. • Diffusion flux continues until equilibrium is achieved. With Fick’s Law, the waste heat from desalination process is used to heat the solution to 55-600 C to further enhance the diffusion and kinetics of the ions. • Furthermore, the alternating stacking of IEM to generate potential using Nernst equation of electrochemical principle2, which measures the overall potential from the Gibbs free energy/potential difference and concentration difference, which RED utilizes mainly.
  10. 10. Second Fick’s Law of Diffusion The concentration gradient difference comparison between cross and linear flow
  11. 11. Setup - Cell
  12. 12. Setup - Complete
  13. 13. Materials Electrode: • Platinum (Pt) is highly inert metal which has standard reduction potential of +1.2 V3, just behind Gold. • Coating of Iridium (Ir), which is the most corrosion resistant metal and has very high melting point further improves lifetime for several years. • Recirculating electrode rinse with opposite electrode reactions is used, so there is low over-potentials, no gas evolution and no net chemical reaction (as shown in figure below) that lead to low loss of this RED system3. • Pt/Ir also has higher mechanical stability for longer operation times and more proper current collecting system.
  14. 14. Materials cont’d Electrolyte: • This system is chosen since we employ salts with very distinct concentrations. • Hexacyanoferrate system is comparatively quite stable as cyanide ions bond very well to the ferrous ions, forming complex ions that are readily dissolvable, resulting in higher pH threshold3. • Acid such as HCl does not need to be added to acidify the system, while preventing the formation of highly poisonous HCN gas.
  15. 15. Materials cont’d Electrolyte • 2 CEMs are used as outer membranes to prevent loss of iron used as redox couple3. • Low overpotentials, no gas evolution and no net chemical reactions that lead to low voltage loss for this system3.
  16. 16. Formula • Power output of RED system
  17. 17. Results • Experimental voltage is similar to theoretical voltage • Optimisation of experimental current flow • RED system has limited efficiency using ED cell THEORETICAL EXPERIMENTAL Voltage 3.6 V 3.5 – 3.8 V
  18. 18. Applications • Coupling RED with Desalination Process • Reduce energy footprint (consumption) of Desalination Process • Meeting points of seawater and river water • More sites to generate electricity, such as at Marina Barrage • Brine treatment alternative solution • Replace energy-consuming diffuser to energy-producing RED
  19. 19. Applications cont’d • Portable emergency water (ED) or electricity (RED) supply kit • Survival kit for lost fishermen or travelers; or soldiers war • Potential future renewable energy system • Complement solar, hydro, wind, biomass, and geothermal power upon mature technology development
  20. 20. Limitations • Current Ion Exchange Membrane (IEM) price & cost of scaling up • Need further research to improve IEM & RED performance, especially when scaled up • Availability of cost effective materials, equipment and technology to get the most optimized performance • High internal resistance of RED system as it is still less developed technology and reversal of highly researched and commercialized ED
  21. 21. • Reduce resistance from various factors • Increase concentration difference ratio between HC & LC • Increase permselectivity of the membranes • Increase temperature of solutions by utilizing waste heat from desalination process to improve diffusion kinetics of the ions • Improve RED cell design (larger cell area, increasing cell dimension, more number of cells, and narrower intermembrane distance) • Scale up system to be integrated with complementary technologies such as RO in desalination plants for better energy efficiency Future Development
  22. 22. Further Works • More vigorous with major advancement in R&D and evaluation of performance for improved RED system • Collaboration with academia, research and industry in this field to commercialize this technology based on technical performance & economic considerations • Funding from Venture Capitalist and Joint Venture with Angel Investor
  23. 23. Technical Specs of IEM Parameters Membrane PC SA (AEM) PC SK (CEM) General use standard desalination standard desalination Membrane type strongly alkaline, ammonium strongly acidic, sulfonic acid Transferance number > 0.95 > 0.95 Resistance / W cm2 ~ 1.8 ~ 2.5 Water Content (wt%) ~ 14 ~ 9 Ion exchange capacity n/a n/a Temperature stability (max / oC) 60 50 Chemical stability (pH range) 0-9 0-9 Burst strength / kg.cm-2 4 to 5 4 to 5 Thickness / mm 180-220 160-200 Reinforcement Polyester Polyester Permselectivity (0.1 M / 0.5 M KCl) > 0.93 > 0.95 Ionic form as shipped Cl- Na+
  24. 24. References • 1. M. Leif, The Complete Solution of Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion with Time- dependent Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Concentration, Durability of Concrete in Saline Environement, 1993, pg 127. • 2. P. O. Ryan, Full Cell Fundamentals, chapter 2.4.3: Reversible Voltage Variation with Concentration: Nernst Equation, Wiley. • 3. Veerman, J., et al.. (2010). Reverse electrodialysis: evaluation of suitable electrode systems. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 40(8), 1461-1474. doi: 10.1007/s10800-010-0124-8

×