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Creating supplements that increase spoke interaction

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Creating supplements that increase spoke interaction

  1. 1. CameronRomney Creating Supplements that Increase Opportunities for Spoken Interaction Kyoto Sangyo University Cameron Romney Nara JALT April 2015 Event: Materials and Methods for Spoken Language April 26, 2015 Saturday, May 30, 15
  2. 2. Part one: The Content Part two: The Handout CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  3. 3. CameronRomney Why should you supplement? Saturday, May 30, 15
  4. 4. CameronRomney “Many teachers provide additional material because they feel their students need exposure to a greater range of textual material.” p. 80 Byrd & Schuemann (2014) “No published textbook will perfectly fit a particular teacher and class in a particular setting.” p. 387 McGrath (2002) Saturday, May 30, 15
  5. 5. CameronRomney • Not enough grammar, vocabulary, etc. • Not enough practice • Not enough guidance • Culturally inappropriate • Too easy / too difficult • Too much / too little to cover in the time • Too much / too little variety p. 67-68 McDonough, Shaw & Masuhara (2013) Saturday, May 30, 15
  6. 6. CameronRomney • Not enough grammar, vocabulary, etc. • Not enough practice • Not enough guidance • Culturally inappropriate • Too easy / too difficult • Too much / too little to cover in the time • Too much / too little variety p. 67-68 McDonough, Shaw & Masuhara (2013) Saturday, May 30, 15
  7. 7. Part one: The Content Part two: The Handout CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  8. 8. CameronRomney ACoPE Saturday, May 30, 15
  9. 9. CameronRomney Analyze Consult Produce Evaluate Saturday, May 30, 15
  10. 10. CameronRomney Analyze Saturday, May 30, 15
  11. 11. CameronRomney “Several organizing principles linked together in ... multi-component construction” p. 296 McDonough, Shaw & Masuhara (2013) Byrd & Schuemann (2014) “ESL/EFL textbooks tend to be made up of two strands of content” p. 386 Saturday, May 30, 15
  12. 12. CameronRomney Lesson Saturday, May 30, 15
  13. 13. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  14. 14. CameronRomney Context Linguistic Function Saturday, May 30, 15
  15. 15. CameronRomney Context Linguistic Function Skills Skills SkillsSaturday, May 30, 15
  16. 16. CameronRomney Skills Linguistic Function Context Lesson Saturday, May 30, 15
  17. 17. CameronRomney Reading,Writing, Speaking, Listening Giving & Understanding Directions Places Around Town Prepositions of Location English Firsthand Success Unit 4: How do I get there? Saturday, May 30, 15
  18. 18. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  19. 19. CameronRomney Consult Saturday, May 30, 15
  20. 20. CameronRomney “Don’t re-invent the wheel. Use existing sources for ideas.” p.126 Hutchinson and Waters (1987) “All creative work builds on what came before. Nothing is completely original.” LOC 52 (Kindle) Kleon (2012) “Every new idea is just a mashup or remix of previous ideas.” LOC 64 (Kindle) Saturday, May 30, 15
  21. 21. CameronRomney Context Linguistic Function Skills Skills SkillsSaturday, May 30, 15
  22. 22. CameronRomney Reading, Speaking, Listening Giving & Understanding Directions Places Around the Office Wh- Questions Passport for Work Unit 3:This is where we have lunch Saturday, May 30, 15
  23. 23. CameronRomney Reading, Speaking, Listening Wh- Questions Giving & Understanding Directions Passport for Work Unit 3:This is where we have lunch Places Around the Office Saturday, May 30, 15
  24. 24. CameronRomney Reading, Listening Understanding Directions Places Around Town Sequencing Tactics for Listening Unit 21: Directions (task 4) Saturday, May 30, 15
  25. 25. CameronRomney Reading, Listening Giving & Understanding Directions Places Around Town Tactics for Listening Unit 21: Directions (task 4) Sequencing Saturday, May 30, 15
  26. 26. CameronRomney Reading, Speaking, Listening Ask for Advice Places Around Town Superlative of Adjectives Spectrum 3 Lesson 32:Which one is nicest? Saturday, May 30, 15
  27. 27. CameronRomney Reading, Speaking, Listening Places Around Town Superlative of Adjectives Ask for Advice Spectrum 3 Lesson 32:Which one is nicest? Saturday, May 30, 15
  28. 28. CameronRomney Context Linguistic Function Skills Skills SkillsSaturday, May 30, 15
  29. 29. CameronRomney Produce Saturday, May 30, 15
  30. 30. CameronRomney “the most common form of supplementation is the use of material from another book, most frequently in the form of photocopies.” p. 82 McGrath (2002) Saturday, May 30, 15
  31. 31. CameronRomney Personal Relevant Specific Saturday, May 30, 15
  32. 32. CameronRomney Modify: Change the Specifics Saturday, May 30, 15
  33. 33. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  34. 34. CameronRomney Repeat: Do it again Saturday, May 30, 15
  35. 35. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  36. 36. CameronRomney Real: Use some authentic Saturday, May 30, 15
  37. 37. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  38. 38. CameronRomney Simplify: Make it easier Saturday, May 30, 15
  39. 39. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  40. 40. Simplicity of task Complexity of speaking Saturday, May 30, 15
  41. 41. Info Explain Evaluate Compare Anecdote and/or Story Complex Simple Interesting Boring Saturday, May 30, 15
  42. 42. Is there a supermarket near your house? Yes. Yes there is. Yes.There is a Kansai Super and an Ikari ten minutes by foot from my house. I like Kansai Super best. It is bigger and is cheaper. I go there after school and buy dinner. I usually buy curry or ramen. Simple Complex Saturday, May 30, 15
  43. 43. How to teach it? • Direct instruction • Modeling • Analysis Saturday, May 30, 15
  44. 44. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  45. 45. CameronRomney Evaluate Saturday, May 30, 15
  46. 46. CameronRomney “Don’t set out to write perfect materials on the first draft. Do what you can and try it out.” p.126 Hutchinson and Waters (1987) “As with any materials development, piloting and revision are essential steps.” p. 94 “Keep records about what worked and didn’t work and ... what changes might be needed...” p. 388 McGrath (2002) Byrd & Schuemann (2014) Saturday, May 30, 15
  47. 47. Part one: The Content Part two: The Handout CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  48. 48. “Unfortunately, most of the materials made at home, no matter how good in content, are atrocious in terms of layout. In my experiences with both publishers and students, I have come to the conclusion that layout is just as important as...no, even more important than...content” Curtis Kelly, 1998 CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  49. 49. Visual design effects on readers • Motivation Smiley (2004); Misanchuk (1992); Bell & Sullivan (1981) • Comprehension Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Romney (2004); Smiley (2004);Walker (2001), Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997); Garofalo (1988), Lewis & Walker (1989) • Recall Gasser, Boeke, Haffernan, & Tan (2005); Smiley (2004); Lewis & Walker (1989) • Efficiency/Speed Smiley (2004); Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  50. 50. “...more easily perceiving ... text on a page ... less attentional resources are required for the process of reading. More attentional resources can then be devoted to attending to the message in the text, which results in deeper processing and an easier recall of the information presented.” (p. 185) Gasser, Boek, Haffernan & Tan (2005) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  51. 51. Typeface i.e. font CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  52. 52. Legibility is a Common Problem for L2 Learners CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  53. 53. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  54. 54. LC l and UC I CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  55. 55. LC d, b, q and p CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  56. 56. Lowercase i and j CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  57. 57. Lowercase c and o CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  58. 58. Lowercase f and t CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  59. 59. Double story minuscules Images from Wikipedia CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  60. 60. Use the font students are FAMILIAR with CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  61. 61. “people most easily read material printed in the typefaces with which they are most familiar.” (p. 32) Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  62. 62. Copyright page CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  63. 63. Identifont & WhatTheFont http://new.myfonts.com/WhatTheFont (includes an iPhone app) www.identifont.com CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  64. 64. Use a font with good LEGIBILITY CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  65. 65. Recommended Typefaces Serif • Georgia • (Bembo) Schoolbook Sans Serif • Verdana • Helvetica Textbook CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  66. 66. Georgia Image from Identifont CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  67. 67. Bembo Schoolbook Image from Identifont CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  68. 68. Verdana Image from Identifont CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  69. 69. Helvetica Textbook Image from Identifont CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  70. 70. set the typeface at a LARGER size CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  71. 71. • Less skilled readers benefit from larger text Carter, Day & Meggs (2006); Petterson (1989) • 9-12 pt is standard for adults Carter, Day & Meggs (2006) • 18 pt for 1st grade, 14 pt for 3rd grade, 11 pt for 6th grade Hoener, Salend & Kay (1997) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  72. 72. Don’t forget the PRINTING & COPYNG CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  73. 73. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  74. 74. Use INCREASED white space CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  75. 75. “Space attracts readers by making the page look accessible, unthreatening, and manageable” White (2002) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  76. 76. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  77. 77. Use lines & shapes to ORGANIZE the page CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  78. 78. Theory “...directing the readers eye around the page, drawing attention to specific parts... breaking copy into sections” (p.86) Dabner (2004) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  79. 79. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  80. 80. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  81. 81. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  82. 82. Graphics CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  83. 83. Only use graphics with INSTRUCTIONAL purpose CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  84. 84. Graphics can be a distraction Evans,Watson and Willows (1987); Peeck (1987) Clark & Lyons (2011); Romney & Bell (2011) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  85. 85. “If instructional facilitation is not highly probable, then ... graphics should not be used in instructional material.” (p. 239) Misanchuk (1992) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  86. 86. White (2002) “The fear of ‘wasted space’ drives design novices to fill in any empty space with unnecessary clip art.” (p. 37) CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  87. 87. Three kinds of images Instructional Supportive (strong and weak) Decorative CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  88. 88. Putting it all together A Before and After CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  89. 89. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  90. 90. CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15
  91. 91. romney.cameron@gmail.com CameronRomney CameronRomney.com Thank You! CameronRomney Saturday, May 30, 15

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