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Introduction to Gagne's conditions of learning

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  1. 1. Gagne’s conditions of Learning Alexander Burt Lisa Corrado Anila Raxhimi
  2. 2. Schedule: <ul><li>Opening Activity: 10 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Background on Gagne and theories: 20 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Heirarchy activity: 45 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Break: 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure activity: 40 minutes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Think – Pair - Share <ul><li>Talk to your neighbor about parallel parking: </li></ul><ul><li>How do you do it? (pretend you’re teaching driver’s ed) </li></ul><ul><li>Is there anything you should know before you start? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you feel about parallel parking? Do you avoid it? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biography and Background <ul><li>Born 1916 in North Andover, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>After high school, Gagn é received a scholarship to attend Yale University </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é received a B.A. from Yale in 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>After completing his undergraduate degree, Gagn é went on to Brown University to begin his graduate study </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é receive his Ph.D. in Psychology from Brown University in 1940 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Biography and Background <ul><li>Taught at Connecticut College for Women from 1940-1949 and Penn State University from 1945 to 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>During this time he made initial preparations to study the learning of humans instead of rats </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é drafted into the United States Army during WWII </li></ul>
  6. 6. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é was ordered to report for duty to the Psychological Research Unit No. 1 at Maxwell Field, Alabama. </li></ul><ul><li>Administered and scored aptitude tests to assist with selection and classification of aviation cadets for the crews of combat aircrafts </li></ul><ul><li>Following this duty station, Gagn é attended Officer Candidate School at Miami Beach. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é received a commission as a second lieutenant </li></ul>
  7. 7. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é assigned to School of Aviation Medicine where he participated in the development, inspection, and technical description of psychomotor tests </li></ul><ul><li>Later assigned to the Perceptual Film Research Unit and engaged in developing film tests of perceptual abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Last assignment was to the Psychology Branch of the Aero Medical Laboratory where the study of human engineering was initiated </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biography and Background <ul><li>Gagn é returned to Connecticut College and began studies of learning and transfer of training in multi-discrimination motor tasks with grant from the Navy Special Devices Center </li></ul><ul><li>In 1949, Gagn é joined the Human Resources Research Center of the U.S. Air Force in the position of research director of the Perceptual and Motor Skills Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>Later became technical director of the Maintenance Laboratory at Lowry Air Force Base in Colorado </li></ul>
  9. 9. Biography and Background <ul><li>1958 Gagn é becomes a professor of psychology at Princeton University </li></ul><ul><li>Research included studies of problem solving and the learning of mathematics skills then shifted toward the learning of school subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in the development of the elementary science program “Science-A Process Approach” </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é conducted studies of intellectual skills and their prerequisites which led to the notion of “Learning Hierarchy” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Biography and Background <ul><li>1962, Gagn é joined the American Institutes for Research </li></ul><ul><li>Engaged in research on training, assessment of human performance, education program evaluation, and other related questions </li></ul><ul><li>The Conditions of Learning was written during this time </li></ul><ul><li>Gagn é accepted an appointment in educational psychology at the University of California, Berkeley where duties included educational research and studies of learning hierarchies and rule learning </li></ul>
  11. 11. Biography and Background <ul><li>1969, joined the Department of Education Research at Florida State University </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborated with L.J. Briggs in writing the Principles of Instructional Design as well as seeing two additional editions of The Conditions of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Participated in a visiting professorship at the Faculty of Education at Monash University where he collaborated in studies of rule learning and memory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life Influences <ul><li>Gagn é served as director of the Air Force perceptual and motor skills laboratory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This position helped Gagn é study and understand motor skills through pilot testing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led to advances in American education, military training, and industrial training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gagn é was also influenced by positions he held such as consultant to the Department of Defense and to The United States Office of Education. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Impact on the study of human learning <ul><li>Major Contributions to Instructional Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>co-developer of &quot;Instructional Systems Design&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrote The Conditions of Learning, 1965 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>co-wrote Principles of Instructional Design, 1992 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-wrote The conditions of learning: Training applications, 1996 </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Summary of Gagne’s Motivation <ul><li>World War II required the rapid training of a large number of people, and the instructional theories of the day – Pavlov, Skinner, etc. – proved inadequate. </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne developed the field we now call “instructional design” (currently used in business / industry) in response. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Gagne’s definition of learning <ul><li>Capabilities – “retained dispositions” that are reflected in different kinds of behaviors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental component – “retained disposition” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral component – the performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capabilities come from environment plus cognitive processing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gagne’s Information Processing Theory (Gagn é, 1974, p.16) & (Gagné, Briggs, & Wager, 1992, p. 9)
  17. 17. Categories of learning: <ul><li>Verbal: Declarative knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual skills: patterns and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive strategies: metacognition </li></ul><ul><li>Motor Skills: “muscle memory” </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes: feelings </li></ul>
  18. 18. Verbal Information <ul><li>Declarative: labels, facts, bodies of text. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the capital of Peru? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A rectangle has four sides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other categories of learning may have verbal “product” but are not principally verbal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a > b > c, is a > c? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incontrovertible is to specious as true is to ____. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Intellectual Skills <ul><li>Recognizing patterns, applying rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject – verb agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task analysis – breaking down into steps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule hierarchies, problem solving. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responding to conceptualizations of the environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“if the building is square it will have four sides” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“if I step on the brake firmly, the car will skid” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Cognitive Strategies <ul><li>Now called “metacognition” – thinking about thinking, learning, strategies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking out key information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checking understanding through self questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental map of the elements of the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Glaser and Basok </li></ul>
  21. 21. Motor Skills <ul><li>Physical Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetition, automatization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of skills, just as in other areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musical instruments </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Attitudes <ul><li>Cognitive: “recycling is good” </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: “I have never been good at…” or “I’m a dumb kid” of “I’m good at science” </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral: since I’m bad at science, I’ll do my English homework instead. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior is the outcome of the attitude. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note also that – according to Gagne – attitudes are learned . Consider the implications. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Nine phases of learning in 3 groups <ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer </li></ul>
  24. 24. Preparation for Learning <ul><li>Attending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being ready for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the classroom, this can be as simple as “get out your notebooks” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets up learning goals and schema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called an “advance organizer” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calling to mind relevant background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing “hooks” to hang new knowledge on. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Acquisition and Performance <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s relevant, what’s background? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encoding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferring to memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recalling current and prior knowledge in order to respong </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the classroom may be as simple as doing an example problem and getting the correct answer. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Transfer of Learning <ul><li>Cueing retrieval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional cues for later retrieval of knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, recognize triangles on paper, then learn to recognize a triangular window. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this apply in other situations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: learning quadratic equations in math class, then learning projectile motion in physics class. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Complex learning <ul><li>Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchies </li></ul>
  28. 28. Procedures <ul><li>Complex task broken into smaller steps </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laundry – sort clothes, treat stains, select temperature, dry some things, not others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other examples? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many procedures involve conditional steps – look for “if” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Hierarchies <ul><li>For an advanced skill, consider all the component skills </li></ul><ul><li>How do the component skills fit together? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which ones are sequential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which ones are parallel? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading – phonics, then vocabulary </li></ul></ul>