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Qt vs. Web – Total Cost of Ownership
Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
Burkhard Stubert – Solopreneur & Chief Engineer, Em...
SoC Costs: Web Much Higher Than Qt
2
QML
Qt/C++
Linux
1-core Cortex-A8
AngularJS
Blink/C++
Linux
4-core Cortex-A9
€ 21.15
...
Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
• Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs
• For good UX: Web requires at least qu...
Recap of ARM SoCs – Example Devices
Architecture Example Devices
Cortex-A57/53 IVI in premium cars (2015), Samsung GS6, Ra...
Recap of ARM SoCs – Unit Costs in €
SoC Architecture Cores 1 100 10K 1M
R-CAR M3 Cortex-
A57/53
4/4 202.50 135.00 90.00 60...
Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
• Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs
• For good UX: Web requires at least qu...
Few Embedded Web Applications
• No surprise: JavaScript frameworks
target mobile and desktop
8
Angular JS:
One framework. ...
Facebook: Abandoning Web for Native
• iPhone 4S not good enough
• Dual-core Cortex-A9, 512MB RAM,
800 MHz, GPU
• Issues
• ...
Netflix: Going All In with Web
10
Huge Fragmentation problem:
Wide-range of SoCs for TVs, STBs,
DB/DVD players, smartphone...
Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
• Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs
• For good UX: Web requires at least qu...
Many Embedded Qt Applications
12
1 of Top-3
ROPA
More...
Krone
2 of Top-3 OEMs incl.
Panasonic
Electrolux
eGym
e-bikes
CCI...
Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
• Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs
• For good UX: Web requires at least qu...
No Changes Soon: RAM, Flash, Power, Startup
• Size of Qt5WebEngineCore: 103MB
• Size of Chromium browser: 42 MB
• Startup ...
No Changes Soon: Compilation
• Web
• Just-in-time compilation saw huge
speed-ups over last years
• Qt Commercial
• QML com...
No Changes Soon: Rendering Flows
16
Style Rules
HTML CSS
DOM Tree
Render Tree
Layout Tree
Display
QML
QML Scene Graph
Disp...
Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt
• Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs
• For good UX: Web requires at least qu...
SoC Costs: Web Much Higher Than Qt
18
QML
Qt/C++
Linux
1-core Cortex-A8
AngularJS
Blink/C++
Linux
4-core Cortex-A9
€ 21.15...
Soon to come: Whitepaper on qt.io
Thank you 
Mail: burkhard.stubert@embeddeduse.com
Web: http://www.embeddeduse.com
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Qt World Summit 2017: Qt vs. Web - Total Cost of Ownership

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In my talk at Qt World Summit 2017, I explained why a Web solution for the HMI of an embedded system is significantly more expensive than a Qt solution. The short answer is: The Web solution requires a more powerful and more expensive system-on-chip (SoC) than the Qt solution. The SoC for Qt is 11 euros cheaper at a volume of one million units than the SoC for Web. The cost difference for the SoCs is a multiple of the cost of Qt Commercial. This makes your decision easy whether to use Qt or Web in your next project. Of course, it's Qt.

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Qt World Summit 2017: Qt vs. Web - Total Cost of Ownership

  1. 1. Qt vs. Web – Total Cost of Ownership Why Web is More Expensive than Qt Burkhard Stubert – Solopreneur & Chief Engineer, Embedded Use
  2. 2. SoC Costs: Web Much Higher Than Qt 2 QML Qt/C++ Linux 1-core Cortex-A8 AngularJS Blink/C++ Linux 4-core Cortex-A9 € 21.15 € 9.80 + qt Δ: € 11.35 - qt Same Application (e.g., appliance, printer, STB, TV, IFE, terminals) Estimated prices per unit at volume of 1 million qt = 0 € for Qt LGPLv3 qt > 0 € for Qt Commercial
  3. 3. Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt • Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs • For good UX: Web requires at least quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 • Qt achieves same or better UX on single-core ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM11 • Nothing will change any time soon • Conclusion 4
  4. 4. Recap of ARM SoCs – Example Devices Architecture Example Devices Cortex-A57/53 IVI in premium cars (2015), Samsung GS6, Raspberry Pi 3 Cortex-A15 IVI in middle-class cars (2017), Samsung GS4 Cortex-A9 iPhone 4S, IVI in middle-class cars (2013), agricultural terminals (2017) Cortex-A8 Premium ovens (2013), Nest thermostat, iPhone 4, In-flight entertainment (2014), agricultural terminals (2013), Nokia N9 ARM11 Raspberry Pi 1, iPhone 3G, Nokia N8 ARM9 Nintendo DSi, Lego Mindstorm EV3, VoIP phones (2007) 5
  5. 5. Recap of ARM SoCs – Unit Costs in € SoC Architecture Cores 1 100 10K 1M R-CAR M3 Cortex- A57/53 4/4 202.50 135.00 90.00 60.00 TI AM5728 Cortex-A15 2 124.00 82.65 55.10 36.75 NXP i.MX6 Cortex-A9 4 71.35 45.55 31.70 21.15 NXP i.MX53 Cortex-A8 1 33.05 22.05 14.70 9.80 NXP i.MX35 ARM11 1 16.00 10.65 7.10 4.75 NXP i.MX25 ARM9 1 11.30 7.55 5.05 3.35 6
  6. 6. Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt • Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs • For good UX: Web requires at least quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 • Few high-profile Web applications on embedded systems • Two cautionary stories: Facebook and Netflix • Qt achieves same or better UX on single-core ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM11 • Nothing will change any time soon • Conclusion 7
  7. 7. Few Embedded Web Applications • No surprise: JavaScript frameworks target mobile and desktop 8 Angular JS: One framework. Mobile & desktop. React Native: Learn once, write anywhere: Build mobile apps with React Porsche 918 Spyder 3rd-party apps Netflix Orange Livebox 3rd-party apps
  8. 8. Facebook: Abandoning Web for Native • iPhone 4S not good enough • Dual-core Cortex-A9, 512MB RAM, 800 MHz, GPU • Issues • High memory consumption • Inconsistent framerates: stuttering during scrolling and animations • Sluggish touch tracking • Hard to find reasons because debuggers and profilers missing or wanting 9 The biggest mistake that we made as a company is betting too much on HTML5 as opposed to native. We burned two years. The mobile user experience is so good that good enough is not good enough. The only way we are going to get to the highest quality level is by going native. September 2012
  9. 9. Netflix: Going All In with Web 10 Huge Fragmentation problem: Wide-range of SoCs for TVs, STBs, DB/DVD players, smartphones, tablets, PCs 2009 – 2014: Mediocre UX with hybrid QtWebkit approach From 2014 – Proprietary solution: • Gibbon rendering engine in JS • HMI in JS similar to ReactNative (highly optimised for domain) Results on SoCs >= Cortex-A8: • 30fps refresh rate • 110ms response time • Not quite a good UX! Netflix spent millions of dollars! With Qt: Better UX for less dollars!
  10. 10. Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt • Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs • For good UX: Web requires at least quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 • Qt achieves same or better UX on single-core ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM11 • Many high-profile Qt applications on embedded systems • Nothing will change any time soon • Conclusion 11
  11. 11. Many Embedded Qt Applications 12 1 of Top-3 ROPA More... Krone 2 of Top-3 OEMs incl. Panasonic Electrolux eGym e-bikes CCI HAM 7 of Top-15 OEMs 2 EV OEMs More... 12+ tier1 suppliers Precor
  12. 12. Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt • Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs • For good UX: Web requires at least quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 • Qt achieves same or better UX on single-core ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM11 • Nothing will change any time soon • Web requires more RAM, flash memory and power • Web's JIT compilation no match for QML's native compilation • Web rendering flow badly suited for graphics acceleration • Conclusion 13
  13. 13. No Changes Soon: RAM, Flash, Power, Startup • Size of Qt5WebEngineCore: 103MB • Size of Chromium browser: 42 MB • Startup time of Chromium browser on Raspberry Pi 3: 6 seconds • Power consumption on Macbook Pro. Time battery lasts when reading Web pages: • Safari: 5:30h • Chrome: 3:40h • Size of Q5Quick and Qt5Qml: 8MB • Startup time of Linux and QML application on iMX6: 1.25s 14
  14. 14. No Changes Soon: Compilation • Web • Just-in-time compilation saw huge speed-ups over last years • Qt Commercial • QML compiled into C++ and then into machine code • For example: 30% faster startup times of QML application • Qt LGPLv3 • Cache compilation of QML/JS in one run and use in next run 15
  15. 15. No Changes Soon: Rendering Flows 16 Style Rules HTML CSS DOM Tree Render Tree Layout Tree Display QML QML Scene Graph Display OpenGL Scene Graph
  16. 16. Outline – Why Web is More Expensive than Qt • Recap of ARM SoCs: Devices and Costs • For good UX: Web requires at least quad-core ARM Cortex-A9 • Qt achieves same or better UX on single-core ARM Cortex-A8 and ARM11 • Nothing will change any time soon • Conclusion 17
  17. 17. SoC Costs: Web Much Higher Than Qt 18 QML Qt/C++ Linux 1-core Cortex-A8 AngularJS Blink/C++ Linux 4-core Cortex-A9 € 21.15 € 9.80 + qt Δ: € 11.35 - qt Same Application (e.g., appliance, printer, STB, TV, IFE, terminals) Estimated prices per unit at volume of 1 million qt = 0 € for Qt LGPLv3 qt > 0 € for Qt Commercial
  18. 18. Soon to come: Whitepaper on qt.io Thank you  Mail: burkhard.stubert@embeddeduse.com Web: http://www.embeddeduse.com

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