Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in            Korean History     2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 2                   ...
Outline•   Introduction•   Buddhism Comes to Korean Peninsula•   Buddhist Influence on the Silla Dynasty•   Buddhism Flouri...
Introduction      Religion and governance are intertwined     Buddhism one of most influential religions State policies hav...
Introduction into KoreaShamanismDual Leadership                           4
Introduction into KoreaEntered via China in 372 CE“Three Kingdoms” period• Goguryeo• Bakeje• SillaMulti-TribalNo National ...
Introduction into KoreaMonk Shundao (順道)Texts/StatuesRudimentary BuddhismEasy to Adopt/Assimilate                         ...
Buddhist Influence on SillaSilla Dynasty 57 BCE - 935 CECommoners attracted firstResistance among aristocrats527 CEKing Poph...
Buddhist Influence on SillaKing Pophung’s 4 Motivations• Personal Faith• Edification of the People• Protection of the State•...
Buddhist Influence on SillaKing Chinhung24th Ruler540 - 576 CELater Becomes MonkGrowth of Buddhism EncouragedHwarang “Flowe...
Buddhist Influence on SillaHwarang “Flower Boy” System  - Elite Male Youth  - Steeped in Buddhism  - Spiritual/Physical Tra...
Buddhist Influence on SillaCakravartin Ideal  - Universal Ruler  - Emperor Ashoka as model  - Secular counterpart to Buddha...
Buddhist Influence on SillaQueen Seondeok27th Ruler of Silla632 - 647 CEPromulgated Buddhism                              12
Hoguk PulgyoPromote Buddhism Protect the StateTemple ConstructionForeign Monks InvitedReligious/Political AppointmentsRoya...
Buddhist Influence on SillaInadequacy of ShamanismBuddhism helped justify andlegitimize powerBuddhist doctrine used tocentr...
Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo918 - 1392 CEBuddhism ascends to highestprominence and state patronageBuddhism used as pol...
Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoT’aejo WanggonRuled 918 - 943 CE“10 Rules of Exhortation”Series of edicts that laidfoundat...
Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoSamguk Yusa13th CenturyHistoriographic collectionComplied by monk Il YeonInspiration for K...
Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo“Two Wheels of Dharma”Hoguk Pulgyo further justifiedKing is incorporated into aBuddhist wor...
Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoMonk Examination SystemBureaucratic DepartmentParallel to Civil ServantsServe government t...
Suppression under ChosonSocial/Economic ChangesMongol EmpireKoyro DisintegratesKing Taejo1392 - 1910 CEIdeology Shift     ...
Suppression under ChosonNeo-ConfucianismCritical of Buddhism on anumber of levelsBuddhist teachings notappropriate for sta...
Suppression under ChosonState implements new policiesMonk License SystemConfiscates Buddhist PropertyTemple ConversionExile...
Japanese Colonial Rule1910 - 1945Buddhism vulnerable fromChoson suppressionTreaty of Amity 1876Japanese subordinate Buddhi...
Japanese Colonial RuleNationalist MovementAnti-Religious MovementBuddhism is Japanese Tool forexploitationFurther fueled b...
Buddhism and WesternizationPost World War IIRepublic of KoreaSungman Lee‘Purification Reforms’1954 - “Japanized Buddhists”M...
Buddhism and Westernization1970sBuddhism is BackwardsMonks drafted into ArmyAccused of violating PreceptsForced Allegiance...
Buddhism and Westernization1980s - 1990sPurged of ‘undesirable elements’Temple RaidingBrutalized MonksVandalizationTemple ...
Buddhism and WesternizationLee Myung BakPresident Since 2008Devout Christian (Presbyterian)12:1Accused of blind eyeTempleS...
Learn More!              29
Next Lecture...           Returning to Buddha:History of Buddhism and Abortion in Japan              August 2012          ...
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2012 Lecture Series - "State and Sangha: Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History"

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2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 2
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2012 Lecture Series - "State and Sangha: Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History"

  1. 1. Buddhist Culture and Political Thought in Korean History 2012 Lecture Series - Lecture 2 1
  2. 2. Outline• Introduction• Buddhism Comes to Korean Peninsula• Buddhist Influence on the Silla Dynasty• Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo Dynasty• Suppression Under Choson• Japanese Colonial Rule• Buddhism and Westernization 2
  3. 3. Introduction Religion and governance are intertwined Buddhism one of most influential religions State policies have both encouraged and restricted BuddhismBuddhism has influenced the state both culturally and politically 3
  4. 4. Introduction into KoreaShamanismDual Leadership 4
  5. 5. Introduction into KoreaEntered via China in 372 CE“Three Kingdoms” period• Goguryeo• Bakeje• SillaMulti-TribalNo National Identity 5
  6. 6. Introduction into KoreaMonk Shundao (順道)Texts/StatuesRudimentary BuddhismEasy to Adopt/Assimilate 6
  7. 7. Buddhist Influence on SillaSilla Dynasty 57 BCE - 935 CECommoners attracted firstResistance among aristocrats527 CEKing Pophung and The Miracleof Ichadon 7
  8. 8. Buddhist Influence on SillaKing Pophung’s 4 Motivations• Personal Faith• Edification of the People• Protection of the State• Absorption of Buddhism 8
  9. 9. Buddhist Influence on SillaKing Chinhung24th Ruler540 - 576 CELater Becomes MonkGrowth of Buddhism EncouragedHwarang “Flower Boy” System 9
  10. 10. Buddhist Influence on SillaHwarang “Flower Boy” System - Elite Male Youth - Steeped in Buddhism - Spiritual/Physical Training - 5 Secular “Precepts” - Major role in unification Ideologically, belief and hope that the youth were incarnations of Maitreya 10
  11. 11. Buddhist Influence on SillaCakravartin Ideal - Universal Ruler - Emperor Ashoka as model - Secular counterpart to Buddha - Doctrine of Karma - Power is legitimized Ruler or king administers benevolently and ethically, in Silla context, according to Buddhist ideology 11
  12. 12. Buddhist Influence on SillaQueen Seondeok27th Ruler of Silla632 - 647 CEPromulgated Buddhism 12
  13. 13. Hoguk PulgyoPromote Buddhism Protect the StateTemple ConstructionForeign Monks InvitedReligious/Political AppointmentsRoyalty Adopt Buddhist NamesUnity of Buddhism and StateContinuation of Dual Leadership 13
  14. 14. Buddhist Influence on SillaInadequacy of ShamanismBuddhism helped justify andlegitimize powerBuddhist doctrine used tocentralize power, expandterritorially, and unify landAccommodated indigenousdeities by reinterpretation ofexisting legendsObserved outsidedevelopment 14
  15. 15. Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo918 - 1392 CEBuddhism ascends to highestprominence and state patronageBuddhism used as political toolOfficial state ideology andreligion Tripitaka Koreana, Haein-sa 1251 15
  16. 16. Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoT’aejo WanggonRuled 918 - 943 CE“10 Rules of Exhortation”Series of edicts that laidfoundation for strong relationshipwith BuddhismFirst dictate was to protectBuddhism by buildingmonasteries, sponsoring festivals,and dispatching abbots 16
  17. 17. Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoSamguk Yusa13th CenturyHistoriographic collectionComplied by monk Il YeonInspiration for Koyro RulersBuddhist Folktales pointed todirect correlation betweenBuddhism and the welfare ofthe state 17
  18. 18. Buddhism Flourishes During Koryo“Two Wheels of Dharma”Hoguk Pulgyo further justifiedKing is incorporated into aBuddhist world vision andgiven the role of promotor ofthe DharmaOne wheel wielded by King,other by the BuddhaTwo wheels operate togetherNot separate butinterdependent 18
  19. 19. Buddhism Flourishes During KoryoMonk Examination SystemBureaucratic DepartmentParallel to Civil ServantsServe government throughspiritual advice, ceremonies,prayers for nationTax ExemptionGradual transformation intoelite aristocratic organization 19
  20. 20. Suppression under ChosonSocial/Economic ChangesMongol EmpireKoyro DisintegratesKing Taejo1392 - 1910 CEIdeology Shift 20
  21. 21. Suppression under ChosonNeo-ConfucianismCritical of Buddhism on anumber of levelsBuddhist teachings notappropriate for stategovernanceBuddhism is anti-productiveRefuge for impoverished 21
  22. 22. Suppression under ChosonState implements new policiesMonk License SystemConfiscates Buddhist PropertyTemple ConversionExile from CitiesBuddhism loses social respectHoguk Pulgyo diminishes 22
  23. 23. Japanese Colonial Rule1910 - 1945Buddhism vulnerable fromChoson suppressionTreaty of Amity 1876Japanese subordinate BuddhismCity Ban is repealedIncreased Secularization1926 - Married Abbots 23
  24. 24. Japanese Colonial RuleNationalist MovementAnti-Religious MovementBuddhism is Japanese Tool forexploitationFurther fueled by thosesympathetic to Japanese 24
  25. 25. Buddhism and WesternizationPost World War IIRepublic of KoreaSungman Lee‘Purification Reforms’1954 - “Japanized Buddhists”Marginalized non-celibate monks1961 - Law for the Control ofBuddhist PropertiesPolice occupy temples 25
  26. 26. Buddhism and Westernization1970sBuddhism is BackwardsMonks drafted into ArmyAccused of violating PreceptsForced Allegiance to GovernmentDissidents and Protestors Grow 26
  27. 27. Buddhism and Westernization1980s - 1990sPurged of ‘undesirable elements’Temple RaidingBrutalized MonksVandalizationTemple Burnings 27
  28. 28. Buddhism and WesternizationLee Myung BakPresident Since 2008Devout Christian (Presbyterian)12:1Accused of blind eyeTempleStay Budget CutsJogye Order Severs Communication‘Pray for Collapse’ 28
  29. 29. Learn More! 29
  30. 30. Next Lecture... Returning to Buddha:History of Buddhism and Abortion in Japan August 2012 30

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