Cambodia insight issue 2(28 05-10)

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  • The Fashionable Grace Collection

    According to construction in Cambodia www.ufocambodia.com construction materials reported the Grace collection will make everyone surprise and unbelievable.
    In this way it is such a classic, sober style, albeit reinterpreted with a touch of originality and it standout with its discreet, sophisticated charm and fashion.
    Moreover this collection will decorate your house be the modern like a fashionable creation, improving the shifting, moving with smooth twist elegance of marble.
    One more thing, this Grace is available in modern version and carefully selected colors and it changes this material into a fashion element for the world of design.
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Cambodia insight issue 2(28 05-10)

  1. 1. Digital Magazine April - June, 2010 rkSasiTi§RKb;y:ag¡ APRIL - JUNE , 2010 1
  2. 2. Cambodia’s Premier 5 Star Luxury Spa Resort Angkor Palace Resort & Spa in Siem Reap-Angkor Legends...history...romance...embrace them in Siem villas. Savour the hallmark Royal Khmer cuisine. Chill Reap, home of the magnificent Angkor Wat temples. out by the swimming pool or work out at the tennis courts Just over 20 minutes from the UNESCO World Heritage and the gym, practise your swing at the 16-bay driving Site, the five-star Angkor Palace Resort & Spa evokes range. After a day of temple touring, get pampered at the lush serenity of a secluded retreat. Experience fine Kainnora Spa with its choice of traditional Khmer and Khmer artistry in the 259 spacious rooms, suites and modern therapies. You will be totally charmed. ASEAN Hotel Standard 2008-2009 No. 555, Phum Kruos, Khum Svay Dangkum, Siem Reap, Kingdom of Cambodia Tel:(855) 63 760 511 Fax:(855) 63 760 590 / 63 966 335 info@angkorpalaceresort.com www.angkorpalaceresort.com
  3. 3. EDITOR’S NOTE A recent professionally conducted and internationally audited Digital Magazine & Newspaper Survey received 30,000 responses from a cross section (2/3 trade-professional and 1/3 consumer) of digital edition readers of 160 publications Dear Readers, representing 50 publishers. Beginning April 1, 2010, you will find Cambodia The survey message was delivered to 375,000 current Insight online at www.CambodiaInsight.com. digital subscribers and received an 8.8% response rate. The sampling error was < + 0.5% at a 95% confidence Thanks to the support of our readers and level. The survey findings confirmed our optimism advertisers, and a knowledgeable support that readers prefer electronic sources for many team, the January launch and distribution of reasons. Cambodia Insight went quite well. Our team distributed the issue over a three month period. However, we soon learned that with the global Here are some examples of On-Line economy being what it is, a quarterly digital E-Zine advantages on-line (E zine) magazine is more appropriate than print in • Viral marketing through Web 2.0 websites serving the cost versus benefit needs of our all-important (social community sites) readers and advertisers. • Numerous links within the text to other sources as well as a set of related links at other sites. This is particularly evident in our home town of Siem Reap, • Links to related archival articles and/or searchable where due to last year’s severe drop in tourist arrivals, many archives businesses were forced to cut back on advertising and marketing • In-depth Q & A with source or subject expenses. This was necessary in order to keep highly trained • E-mail for feedback to the editor or writer staff and maintain property until the tourism based economy • Chat rooms for readers who are interested in improves, hopefully to pre 2008 levels. (When it seemed as similar topics though it was raining dollars and Riel in Cambodia). • Audio and/or video clips • Additional photographs or graphics Unlike print, cyberspace is not limited to a set number of • Opportunity to pose a question to an expert pages. Fortunately, Evans Marketing, which is the publisher of • Survey to complete at the end of the article Cambodia Insight, has been in the fore front of developing digital • Option to arrange for e-mail notification of new issues media since the public internet emerged in the early 1990’s. A few of the key findings and results: High overall satisfaction, 92% of digital readers are engaged, reading their issue within a VOICES week and over 52% read it immediately or the same day. Digital Readers Take Action. Over 91% take one or more actions when reading advertisements or articles. As frequent readers, 61% have read 3 or 4 of the last four digital issues, similar to the rate for an “average” print reader. The “Big 3” reasons for reading digital include: 1. Environmental friendliness 2. Ease of saving 3. Convenience of searching. Surveys across age group, gender and occupation show similar satisfaction and preferences. My thanks to our knowledgeable Evans Marketing support team and especially, to all of you that have sent in letters of support for Cambodia Insight. Also, my thanks to all that have invested their time to comment on the articles, photographs, graphic design and overall quality. We have been fortunate in receiving many constructive suggestions for the improvement and distribution of Cambodia Insight magazine and believe we have incorporated much of this into our forty four page second quarter digital edition of Cambodia Insight. I look forward to hearing from you and hope you will become a subscriber to and an advertiser in, our Free Cambodia Insight Digital E-Zine. (You may subscribe and download at www.CambodiaInsight.com) Sincerely, Charles R. Evans, Publisher Cambodia Insight Managing Director, Evans Marketing Business Adviser Co., Ltd., Office at Ta Phrom Hotel on Pokambor Ave. Mondul 1, Sangkat Svay Dangkum, Siem Reap-Angkor Kingdom of Cambodia Charles@CambodiaInsight.com Tel: +855 (0) 63.969.201 Fax: 63.969.201 H/P: 017.906.721 2 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  4. 4. APRIL - JUNE , 2010 3
  5. 5. The King and the Wat Damnak Library Not everything in Siem Reap is about tourism. Now it’s possible to find a well established library at the Damnak Pagoda. This is the Center for Khmer Studies that was opened on the 15th of January by King Norodom Sihamoni, in a moving blessing ceremony. The time of war for Cambodia meant the destruction of books and thinkers. The recovery from this disaster is in the process of rescuing the most selective cultural identity of the survivors of the ancient Angkor civilization. To do so, we need to proceed to resurrect the history, art, traditions and society of Cambodians. At the same time, Cambodia has established its place in the South East Asian region. When the King came to the Damnak Pagoda, his presence emphasized the mission that was established by the national and international consortium of founders of the King Norodom Sihamoni, Wat Damnak Library library. The mission was to promote research, teaching and public service in the social sciences, arts and humanities in relation with the Cambodian culture and history. It is also the largest Cambodian library outside Phnom Penh and will program training courses in research, translation, publishing, conferences and events. Liam MacKenzie & his camera were privileged to follow the King during the afternoon of the blessing ceremony which was assisted by children of the schools, the members of the Angkor Association for the Disabled and a gracious group of dancer girls of the Conservatoire Preah Ream Bopha Devi from Banteay Srey. King Norodom Sihamoni, in a moving blessing ceremony. Siem p Pokambor A Siem Reap Pok W S Wat Preah A Prohm Rath U-Care Pharmacy e .8 ) Str (St ee ld Pu bS treet t-P ass ag eW ay tN o. 2T hn ou es rket yW Alle No .9 t Str eet r ke S d Ma ea Blossom Str ee tN o. Ol 11 m Hotel Wat Damnak or Av. s kamb r Rive Ea Po Reap Wat Damnak Library Siem Wat Damnak Map 4 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  6. 6. CONTENTS 04 The King and the Library... A Quarterly Magazine on Business, Economy, Tourism, Culture and Society in English for Cambodia. Founded Not everything in Siem Reap is about tourism in Siem Reap City in January, 2010 by Evans Marketing 06 Angkor Wat... Charles R. Evans Publisher and Managing Director An Approach to the Wonders of the Temple Albeiro Rodas Editor - in - Chief Don Finck Senior Creative Director 12 Finances from Cambodia Kanyapat Evans Creative Director 2010 Economical Perspectives Savuth Sao Manager, Graphic Design & Print Production 14 Banking in Siem Reap Atchariya Priabnan Graphic & Web Design Seriya Chan Sr. Webmaster & Programmer Bunleab Hong Jr. Webmaster & Programmer 15 Angkor National Museum Eric Larbouillat Sales Executive The Legend Revealed Peter Richards Thailand Bureau Chief Tower City Pattaya Co.,Ltd. Thailand Distribution 16 The Discovery of Indradevi and Jayarajadevi... “ Queens of the 12th Century Khmer Kingdom ” Evans Marketing Business Adviser Co., Ltd., Ta Phrom Hotel, Pokamor Avenue, Mondul 1, Sangkat Svay 23 A Question of Arrangement Dangkum, Siem Reap–Angkor, Kingdom of Cambodia People & Cultural awareness Tel: +855 (0) 63.969.200/201 Fax: +855 (0) 63.969.201. 24 Khmer MARKET Advertising & Subscriptions Living the Experience! E-Mail: Advertising@CambodiaInsight.com E-Mail: Subscription@CambodiaInsight.com 27 Boutique Villas in Siem Reap For Original Tourism @Copyright Evans Marketing Business Adviser Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. The name Cambodia Insight.com, in 28 A Sea Change Late In Life either English or Khmer languages, its associated logos Exodus to Cambodia or devices and the contents of this publication and website may not be reproduced in whole or in part, in 30 There is a Black Cat around.. print or electronically, broadcast, rewritten or Abstract photography for an Abstract country... redistributed without written permission of Evans Marketing Business Adviser Co., Ltd. Cambodia Insight.com is a wholly owned publication and website of Evans Marketing Business Adviser Co., Ltd. Licensed by the Ministry of Information. GLOBAL MELTDOWN Although every care has been taken in the production of Tourism is down! Money is tight! What to do? this magazine and website, no responsibility for errors Let staff go? Save money? Stop advertising or liability is assumed through the use of the information Marketing is often the first thing that businesses cut back on contained herein. in a recession. But stop and think a moment… What effect would that have on your business ? Do you want even fewer Cambodia Insight.com is an independent publication customers, or do you want to buck the trend and keep your business thriving ? Think about it ? if people don’t know dedicated to providing our readers with informative where you are or what you have to offer, why would they content presented in a positive light helping to boost become your customers? Be sensible and choose your business investment, tourism, Cultural awareness and business investments wisely. A few extra dollars spent on advertising in Cambodia Insight might be the best investment the image of the country. you could make… APRIL - JUNE , 2010 5
  7. 7. ANGKOR WAT... At the Center of the World An Approach to the Wonders of the Temple A NGKOR WAT was built under the reign of SURYAVARMAN II (1113 - 1150) and it is the biggest temple of the Angkor civilization. It can be translated as City Temple and became a national emblem of Cambodia (the national flag represents three of its central towers). The complex is located six kilometers (3.72 miles) at the north of Siem Riep downtown and one kilometer (0.62 miles) at the south of Angkor Thom. This is a place that has inspired visitors thru the centuries. The City of the Temples, the City of the Pagodas, the Sacred City, the National Drawing of Louis Delaporte (1880) in his work in French Temple and many other places have “Voyage au Cambodge” (A Travel to Cambodia) tried to describe the impressions of those who get in contact with it for the first time. Angkor Wat is a square of 210 hectares The Governor of Siamrap having provided oriented to the West, unlike the other us with three elephants, on the 13th inst. we temples. Its whole structure represents started for the ruins of Angkor, three and a Mount Meru in the Hindu traditions, half miles distant, to the north. We took but the Sacred Mountain that is considered the center of the universe and the home little baggage with us, being rather impatient of Lord Brahma and the Devas. The now that we were nearing the main object central tower is 65 meters (213 feet) of the expedition – the ultima Thule of our high. It was built to honor Vishnu, one desires and hopes – and so we passed quickly of the five primary forms of God and silently along a narrow but good road according to the Bhagavad Gita. The cut through the dense, riant forest, until, in galleries are especially meaningful because they represent scenes of the about an hour’s time, on suddenly emerging Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana. from the woods, we saw a little way off to the There are also inscriptions from the right, across a pond filled with lotus plants, a Hindu and Buddhist time of the long row of columned galleries, and beyond temple. The name of the designer of – high above the beautiful cocoa and areca the temple is obscure. Dawn Rooney palms – three or four immense pagodas, built (Angkor, 2004, p. 125) says that some scholars believe that it was the of a dark-grey stone. And my heart almost Brahman Divakarapandita, minister of bounded into my mouth as the Cambodian King Suryavarman II, who designed it, driver, turning towards the howdah, said, according to inscriptions. The with a bright flash of the eye and a proud Cambodian legends attribute the turn of the lip, ‘Naghon Wat;’ for we were then construction to Visvakarman, the at the very portals of the famous old ‘City of divine architect of the universe of the Lord of Creation in Hinduism. Monasteries,’ and not far distant was Angkor- thom – Angkor the Great. A History of Glory, decadency and Glory... Frank VINCENT, Jr. in his book “The Land of the White Elephant” (1871 – 1872) Today it is known as “Angkor Wat”, but it has had some other names over 6 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  8. 8. The Cambodian flag represents three of the most emblematic towers of Angkor Thom. Voyage au Cambodge the centuries. When French explorer Delaporte saw it in 1880, Cambodians called the temple as “Nokor”. One evidence is Nokoreach, the Cambodian National Anthem based in a tune of Chuon Nath (1883 - 1969). The anthem finished saying ... “ Thus heaven will lavish its bounty Towards the ancient Khmer country, the Moha Nokor. ” Nokor is a Khmer word derived from the Sanskrit Nagara that is Capital. Angkor Wat or Nokor is also known by Cambodians as Preah Pisnulok, referring to King Suryavarman II, the founder of the Sacred City-Temple. But its original name is unknown, since no inscriptions have been found. As it was dedicated to Vishnu, it is possible to conclude that the Hindu god was its name like Wat Preah Vishnu (the Vishnu Temple) or Preah Visnulok. We know that the whole construction took about 40 years under the governance of the god-King Paramavishnuloka (Suryavarman II), one of the greatest and mysterious kings of Eastern Asia. Thanks to him, the Khmer Empire expands its boundaries to most of the South East Asian region and he established good diplomatic relations with China. There is evidence that some decorations are unfinished, coming to the conclusion that the death of the king that occurs in between 1145 and 1150, also stopped the works. In 1177 - about 30 years after the death of king Suryavarman II, his mortal enemies, the Chams, sacked the city temple. It was the first decadency of Angkor. It was only after the upcoming of king Jayavarman VII in 1181, that the Empire would retake control and he restored Angkor. But Jayavarman wanted his own capital and built it few miles APRIL - JUNE , 2010 7
  9. 9. encroaching of the forest. Its historical location was reported in Europe and Asia since the 16th century by several explorers. Here began the list of the first persons who saw the ruins of the great temple since 1585 according to Dawn F. Rooney in his work “Angkor, An Introduction to the Temples” (Odyssey, Hong Kong, ISBN 962-217-683-6; pp. 32 - 34). 1570: It is possible that in this year the Cambodians themselves reported the Temple according to records by Gabriel Quiroga and Christoval de Jaque, but the events reporting it are unknown. A visit of the king to Nokor? It is possible. A Tower of the Central Sanctuary The galleries representing the stories of of Angkor Wat. the Sacred Books of Vishnu in Angkor Wat. 1585: The Portuguese writer Diego do Couto, north of Nokor: Angkor Thom, the today venerated in Cambodia, who never had been in Cambodia, other wonder. including Angkor Wat. described a Cambodian king visiting the temple by elephants. It is possible Unlike his Hindu predecessors, Temples are asleep in the forest... that do Couto knew about it through Jayavarman VII was Buddhist and he (From the National Anthem) the reports of the Portuguese Catholic decided to convert the Kingdom to the missionary Antonio de Magdalena, new religion. The Hindu Nokor, In 1431 the Thais lead a great siege on who came to the Kingdom in that year. venerating Vishnu, was made a Angkor. The second decadency of Buddhist temple under his reign. Nokor began and the complete 1601: Marcelo de Ribadeneira abandonment of the Angkorian temples reported the temples as an ancient city The conversion of Hindu Cambodia to was effective after the 16th century and he wrote that some say they were Buddhism was rather specific as many when the Khmer people founded new constructed by the Romans or scholars pointed out. It is possible that capitals in the southern regions of the Alexander the Great. the idea that Buddha was born as a Mekong. However, Nokor, unlike Hindu, plays its part. Hinduism many temples, were not totally 1603: Spaniard Missionary Gabriel continues its way among Cambodians abandoned as many think. Its good Quiroga de San Antonio reported that until present time in a syncretic form preservation is due to its wide moat in 1570 an unknown city was seen by of Buddhism. Images of Vishnu are that protected the area from the the local natives. Angkor Wat is an irreplaceable treasure. The number of tourists visiting each year is dramatically increasing. The phenomenon is quite recent and so are its destructive impacts. Your behavior can make a difference to the preservation of Cambodia’s heritage. - Accept the restrictions placed on the temple complex ( e.g. do not touch, do not photograph, do not enter) - Avoid touching – every small touch becomes harmful when reseated by 1,000 people every day. - Wear appropriate footwear – avoid high heels and studded soles. - Mind your backpack- you could brush up against the walls and damage the carvings and bas- reliefs. - Avoid climbing unnecessarily on the statues and monuments. If you must take a photo on top of a monument, be selective and choose to climb only one. - Stop graffiti- resist the temptation to scribble your name or draw on the monuments. - Admire from afar- If every visitor to Angkor Wat took home a piece of temple as a souvenir, the temples would quickly disappear forever. - Shop responsibly- Beware of buying objects of unknown origin. The looting of archaeological sites results in the loss of significant social and cultural treasures, and robs the Cambodian people of their history. - Don’t litter- take your rubbish with you. - Respect silence and other people. The temple complex brings different experiences to different people. Allow other visitors to experience the peace and beauty. ** Courtesy of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property. 8 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  10. 10. 1606: Christoval de Jaque mentioned in his chronicle that in 1570 there were visitors to Anjog. 1632: The Japanese interpreter Kenryo Shimano - said to be in the temples between 1632 and 1636 -, made a diagram of Angkor and called it Jetavana, the famous Buddhist monastery of the Savatthi city in India where Buddha gave many teachings and discourses. He omitted the word “Angkor” from his drawings. His son, Morimoto Ukondayu, visited the temple to pay tribute to the memory of his father and left a Japanese inscription that can be seen today. 1641: Dutch trader Gerard van Wusthoff described it as Anckoor and said that the king used to visit it. 1672: A French missionary named Pere Chevruel reported the temple as Onco and said that it was as Saint Peter’s in Rome for the natives. 1850: Another French missionary, Charles-Emile Bouilleaux, published his chronicles of 8 years travels and described Nokor. 1855: The American missionary Dr. A. House, published his own description of Angkor. 1857: Englishman Do King wrote his own report of what he saw for the Royal Geographic Society that was published in 1859. “ Towards the ancient Khmer country, the Moha Nokor... (From the National Anthem) ” Then, what was fire, is able to become fire once more. The ancient temple of APRIL - JUNE , 2010 9
  11. 11. the past Glory of the Khmer people, was built to show the meaning of a Nation and the admiration of everybody who sees it. The upcoming of the French Protectorate at the middle of the 19th century would also mean the full discovery of the Angkorian ruins. Well organized expeditions to the temples for studies and works of protection and reconstruction, began in the 1860s. Among others, Francis Garnier and Louis Delaporte wrote the most well elaborated reports about Angkor with their Voyage au Cambodge: L’Architecture Khmer (Travel to Cambodia: The Khmer Architecture, 1880.) In 1898 the Ecole Française d’Extreme Orient was established (The French School of Far East) in Cambodia and it is the first responsible for the restoration for the temples and its new time of Glory. Image of Vishnu that still venerated inside Angkor Wat, in the First Level. The temple was built under the Hindu religion. The French archaeologists worked with Cambodians in the studies and protection of the ancient sites and Angkor soon became a symbol of unity and national identity for modern Cambodia. The works were suspended for short periods, for example, during World War II. But the most gloomy period was the Indochina wars, especially after 1970. Fortunately, Nokor, the City of the Temples of the Between military king Suryavarman II, the same one who conquered neighboring kingdoms and built a great Empire, was never attacked by the modern wars of the 20th century. During the Khmer Rouge era (1975 - 1979), foreign archaeologists were expelled and the natives were executed. But a small group was allowed to continue even in that time, according with the reports of D. F. Rooney. India signed an agreement with Cambodia in 1980 to TASTE OF INDIA 10 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  12. 12. continue the restorations. Although some scholars and journalists criticized the works of the Indian archaeologists of that time, D. F. Rooney points out that they were working under very difficult conditions and the fear of Khmer Rouge attacks. After 1990s, the United Nations began to give its own contribution to the development of reconstruction and protection with the new Royal Government. One of the new measures was to stop looting by creating the mobile cultural heritage police unit. Many international organizations have been supporting projects that the Cambodian government is doing to preserver the archaeological site. The The Three Towers from the yard between the first and second level. administration was given to a non- They inspired the Cambodian flag. governmental organization, APSARA, and the world is getting to know Angkor through several documentaries in many languages around the world. The increased international tourism to Cambodia, especially after 2004, made Angkor a center of great interest and admiration, recovering its ancient glory. In 2008 the prestigious American travel guide Frommer’s, pointed out Angkor as an endangered site: But Angkor’s tourist infrastructure is growing faster than the site itself can support. Travelers must be mindful of the impact they are having on the site. (for more, see Frommer’s new book 500 places to See Before they Disappear). Research and pictures by A. Rodas Khmer Apsara Ladies Welcome to the Kingdom of Cambdodia Hello my name is Vibol. I welcome you to the country of my birth and to the beautiful land that we Khmer people love. I will be happy to be your local driver, guide and assistant while you are in Siem Reap. Your business will be greatly appreciated! Telephone : (+855) 012.53.93.48 / (+855) 092.19.44.22 E-mail : veboloung@yahoo.com www : Face Book : Vebol oun I have a lot of experience, I speak very good English. I am friendly, honest, helpful, reliable, and very knowledgeable about local culture. I can provide you with transport in my Tuk Tuk or if you prefer an air-conditioned vehicle. I charge very reasonable rates! My years of experience allow me to provide excellent itineraries. I look forward to making your stay in Siem Reap a most memorable adventure ! APRIL - JUNE , 2010 11
  13. 13. (17 %), business is doing poor (13 %), gasoline and energy is too high (12 %), not enough jobs (12 %), threats to take land from people (11 %) and poor infrastructure (10 %). Are you and your family richer, the same or poorer than one year ago? Do you think that you and your family will be richer in one year more? 25 % said that their incomes rose in the last year, 36 % said that it remains the same and 39 % concluded that they are poorer this year then before. 40 % think that they will be richer in one more year, 32 % the same, 20 % poorer and 8 % did not answer. Cambodia 2010: Recovery or Recession ? The first decade of the century Cambodian Young Leaders Summit Leadership for a New Generation was a great challenge in economy for Cambodia. It was not only the Finances from Cambodia reconstruction of a devastated nation, but it showed a lot of potential, not only in natural and even technological resources, but in human potentiality. 2010 Economical Perspectives The 2009 global crisis was a test to previous economical growing. But it will be this year where Cambodia will Young Cambodians are optimistic demonstrate how real the previous economic growth was. about their countries’ development 1999 - 2008 was a period of great transformations in the economy as the Young Cambodians are rather optimistic about their own country and they increase in population, rural migration think it is going in the right direction in the area of development. This was to cities, more infrastructures and the integration of the country in the conclusion of the US International Republican Institute (IRI) in its July global markets. Even today 1/3 of its 31 - August 26, 2009 Public Opinion Survey on Cambodia that was released population is still under the poverty this month. line. But during that period there was a considerable reduction. The survey (it can be found at http:// (29 %), more pagodas (21 %), more Is it time for investment in www.iri.org) gathered a sample of bridges (17 %), less poverty (17 %), Cambodia ? 1,600 Cambodians older than 18 years more irrigation built (16 %), better from the 24 provinces and a separate water and electricity supply (11 %), Investment has been affected by the group of 400 Muslim Cambodians. good business environment (11 %) and 2009 global crisis. Although there is Officials and their families were more peace (11 %). 21 % say that the optimism, it is not possible to forget excluded from the survey. 79 % of country is going in the wrong direction that 2010 is the year of recovery. inquired people believe that Cambodia because there is more corruption (38%), Investment is still a good idea in a is going to the right direction because still poverty (29 %), prices of goods country that appears promissory it has now more roads (76 %), more are too high (29 %), nepotism (29 %), and welcoming. Cambodia is in the schools (61 %), more health clinics prices of crops are low for farmers 60th position of investment freedom in the scale of the 2010 Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation (http://www.heritage.org/ Index/country/Cambodia) - the study contemplates 179 countries, therefore, the position is quite positive. According to the study of the Heritage Foundation, foreign and domestic capital are treated equally in most sectors in Cambodia only a few sectors subject foreign investment with 12 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  14. 14. tourism has been especially important in the main tourist spots, but in certain cases it seems that there is the idea of copying tourist models of neighboring countries, while forgetting what makes Cambodia especially attractive to foreigners is its natural environments. It is also a cheap destination for most international visitors. Norms to control the inflation of prices to foreigners were reinforced in the last year, making that especially attractive as an economical place to visit. A tourist backpacker finds guest houses from three to 15 American Dollars. Cambodia is well regarded as a safe place in most of its provinces. Criminality can be considered at a tolerable level and foreigners who Graduation Time are victims of violence are minimal. In 2009 the number of homicides per conditions, local equity participation to official numbers. There is some 1,000 people in Cambodia was two, or prior authorization from authorities. good news for the rural areas if according to the Global Peace Index, Foreign investment is promoted policies to improve the standard of that is a very low level of violence. nowadays by the government that sees life of farmers will be implemented. it as a way of development. Companies National projects are planned to In January 2009 a number of 218,691 are allowed 100 % foreign ownership develop rural infrastructures and foreign visitors entered the Kingdom to trade as long as they are registered locate new international markets. and 105,701 of them arrived in the at the Ministry of Commerce. Cambodians are already talking in Siem Reap International Airport, as terms of competitiveness and the 48.3 % of the total. However, a non-transparent court diversification of agriculture. system could be one of the main obstacles for investment, according How was tourism in 2009 ? to Heritage Foundation. Foreigners do not have restrictions in foreign International tourism saw a global exchange accounts. They can lease, reduction due to the financial crisis. It but not own land and the government was particularly felt in a country that may expropriate property only in began a growing process of the tourist By A. Rodas the public interest and with advance industry development since 2004. But compensation. we can consider that the effects of the global recession were not so terrible By sectors in Cambodian tourism, as it was in nearby countries with a longer tourist The more depressed sectors in 2009 tradition. As Cambodia is a relatively were construction firms and garment new international destination, the factories. While construction is country is still adapting to reductions. expected to expand, certain signs The development of infrastructures for of hope exist for garment factories. Tourism and agriculture, will be the stars of the year in Cambodia due to best prices of rice and the evident improvement in the tourism infrastructure around the country. Another good sign for investment is the growing optimism of Cambodians and their will to reduce poverty. The country is looking for new markets around the world, regional integrations, a sustainable management of natural resources and investments in agriculture, infrastructures, education and higher savings. It is almost sure that agriculture will be the strongest sector in 2010 in Cambodia, a sector that makes up 31.8 % of the GDP, according Royal Palace of Kingdom of Cambodia APRIL - JUNE , 2010 13
  15. 15. Travelers can be sure that Cambodia offers good banking services around the country. As for cities like Phnom Banking in Siem Reap Penh, Siem Reap, Sihanoukville and Battambang, it has all the banking options of any modern country. Main banks in Siem Riep : Siem Reap is a special city with a complete infrastructure for the needs of any kind of visitor. ATMs can be found along the most central streets and markets. Several foreign currencies are available in a good number of money exchange offices and banks. In a general sense, security is good, taking tof course the normal preventions as in any other country. Visa, Visa Plus, MasterCard, Maestro and Cirrus are accepted, among many others. SBC Bank ANZ Royal Bank SBC stands for Singapore Banking Corporation. It traced its The main office of the bank in Siem Riep is located in the presence in the Kingdom since 1993 and it’s present in most Tep Vong Street (between the Pokambor Av. and the Sivatha of the Cambodian provinces. In Siem Riep you can find it in street.) There are offices in the Old Market, National Road the Sivatha Street. (near the Caltex Station) and in the airport. This bank was created in 2005 by the Royal Group Company. It was the first to introduce the ATM system in Cambodia. Vattanac Bank ACLEDA Bank The bank was founded in 2002 in Phnom Penh and has A private bank stablished in Phnom Penh in 1993 as an NGO brances also in Siem Riep. It has services like Western Union for the development of micro and small enterprises. Today and it is located in the Sivatha street. it has an extensive net of branches in most Cambodian provinces (160 brances.) Canadia Bank It was founded in 1991 and it was privatized in 1998 with 25 branches in the country, 3 of them in Siem Reap. The main office is in the Sivutha street, there are other offfices in the Old Market and in Leu Market, on the National Road. Even if you can do any commercial transation in Dollars in Cambodia (double currency Riel/ US Dollar) we recommend you to use Riel for popular transations (public transportation, market, etc) if you want to keep cents. It is usual that any transation becomes more expensive in US Dollars. By A. Rodas Data as for the first week of March 2010 14 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  16. 16. Angkor National Museum The Legend Revealed The Angkor National Museum is the most important Lintel museum dedicated to the Angkor civilization in Cambodia and Asia. It is located in Siem Riep City, in the exclusive Style: Banteay Srei Charles de Gaulle Avenue, at the north of the National Road. Date : 10th Century Display in Gallery C Its collection, exhibited in eight galleries (the Exclusive Gallery and the other ones identified from A to G), numbers several masterpieces of theAngkor temples and it is the most complete representation of the culture, history and archeology of the Golden Age of Cambodia. The Charles de Gaulle Avenue is not far from the temples itself (about two kilometers from downtown). The facade keeps the harmony of the Angkorian unique architecture. Comparable to any modern museum in the world, it has a fast ticketing service system (and it is possible to book online), a Guide Map and Audio Tour Set (personal translation device) with eight languages (Khmer, English, German, Korean, Japanese, French, Chinese and Thai.) It is a highly recommended place to complete visits to the temples. The combination of modern technologies with its multimedia presentations is ready to introduce the visitor into the magic of the Angkor world. Wooden desk : The Museum Mall The Museum is placed in 20 thousand square meters (65,616 sq. feet) surrounded with the Cambodian traditional gardens and the exclusivity of the northern area of Siem Riep City. The Museum is the product of a joint effort of the Royal Ministry of Culture and Fine Art, the APSARA Authority and the Museum Co., Ltd. on a 30 year concession period. No doubt, it is a world class museum dedicated to the preservation of the Khmer artifacts, collections and restorations of the fascinating Angkor Civilization. The Angkor National Museum is unique in Cambodia. It has its own style and its full inspiration in the ancient glorious time of the Khmer Empire, just at the doors of the temples. by A. Rodas Gallery 6 : Ancient Costume APRIL - JUNE , 2010 15
  17. 17. The Resurrection of Indradevi and Jayarajadevi, “Queens of the 12th Century Khmer Kingdom” It is said that all those beautiful women on the walls of the Angkorian temples are Apsaras, the female spirits of clouds and waters... but...What would happen if we discover that some Apsaras of Angkor were a real person...or that maybe our ancestors were depicted on the walls for the centuries to come? I proudly present to you the 12th century Khmer royals, Queen Indradevi and Queen Jayarajadevi. These sisters were the spouses, professors, and advisers of the beloved and most respected King Jayavarman VII, the prolific builders of temples, hospitals, and training centers for the people of Cambodia. While these queens are revered and worshipped by the locals, they have been grossly overlooked by both Khmer and foreign historians, who have dismissed them as a common garden variety of celestial dancers known as apsaras. So everybody followed and so did I until I noted the “braided” eyebrows, my French friend made me notice, to which I replied to him. “I don’t think they were braided, Here’s the proposal of Phalika, a Khmer-American but gemstones were removed and left photographer who proposes that two of the these knitted like little holes.” The unique feature on the eyebrows with traditional Apsaras of Preah Khan, Bayon and other gemstones hacked off, sparked Bantey Kdei are actually the Queen sisters my interest to discover who they really were: dancing apsaras, or dancing Indradevi and Jayarajadevi, wives of King queens or local goddesses ? Jayavarman VII (1125 - 1215). If the hypothesis of On the following days, in a different Phalika comes to be true, it would mean an temple, Bayon, I re-photographed my archaeological revolution in the studies of Angkor, two favorites sculptures to complete my portfolio of the ”Sacred Treasures”. because it is possible that all the supposed-to-be- While editing the photos, I noticed mythical characters on the walls, maybe were compelling resemblances of my last 2 sculptures to the queens. The historical people, the ancestors of the modern confirmations of their lives and status as Cambodian people. queens in Bayon temple were the necessary, irrefutable proofs I needed. An ordinary day of temple exploration has led to an extraordinary discovery. As my curiosity grew about the queens’ Hidden in a narrow labyrinth of galleries, amid dark and moss-covered stone walls mysterious lives, I fashioned a theory and ceilings in precarious danger of collapse; there stood before me two queens of that there was a strong possibility that I the 12th century Khmer kingdom. It was unknown to the eyes of the world and the might find other renderings of the Cambodians, who fondly remembered the queens through oral history with no queens in additional temples built under pictures and rare written notes; nevertheless, ever present, these stately queens had the same reign. I feel extremely fortunate endured the ravages of time, invading jungle, and human pillage. to have discovered not just one set, but 16 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  18. 18. Queen Indradevi in Preah Khan is compared to her images in Bayon: Queen Jayarajadevi in Preah Khan is compared to her images in Bayon: ten plus sets of sculpted images of these Indradevi and Jayarajadevi, both advisers court dancers, princesses, devatas, saints, prominent, surprising, and kindhearted and wives of King Jayavarman VII. goddesses, or queens. It’s unconscionable queens in Khmer history. Queen Indradevi’s unique features to categorize and label all Khmer women France has “Mona Lisa.” Egypt has exemplify the ideal Khmer beauty, with of the royal kingdom as apsaras. Clearly, “Cleopatra.” And now Cambodia and her oval face accentuated by a long nose these are sculpted portraits of powerful, the whole world will be inspired by two and cleft in her chin. The queens were influential, beautiful, and compassionate influential, beautiful, and compassionate attired like saints/deities. Their sculpted Queen Jayarajadevi and Queen Indradevi queens, Indradevi and Jayarajadevi. images can be found in three temples, of the 12th century Khmer Kingdom, This is an exciting story and discovery Preah Khan, Bayon, and Bantey Kdei, who made major contributions to culture about people of the past by people of the which were built during their reign as a and governance. present for people of the future. testimony to their historical influence on that era. When viewed in the context of The reverberations of their tremendous The Discovery of Indradevi the royal life depicted in the bas-reliefs influence still resonate in the nowadays and Jayarajadevi, Queens located in the 2nd inner gallery of Bayon body of research. These royals left behind of the 12th Century Khmer temple, these sculptures provide proof- a legacy of wealth and cultural heritage Kingdom positive evidence that these women that propelled Cambodia on the existed and corroborate with the oral international stage and made tourism its This discovery was made possible legends handed down about them. first and main economic drive. through the focus on two particular Obviously, not all apsaras are celestial sculptures: the sisters and queens dancers; some apsaras might be royal APRIL - JUNE , 2010 17
  19. 19. Summary of recognized historical like status. King Jayavarman considered Fact 3. In Preah Khan, Queen fact and cultural context: himself a god-king. Therefore, his queens Indradevi’s sculpture originally had would also be considered goddess- precious gemstones encrusted in her Fact 1. They are the known sisters, queens. In historical records we found eyebrows and crown. Gold hoops once queens, and royal spouses of King the sculpted images and statues of King dangled from her earlobes and still Jayavarman VII. In Bayon, the inner 2nd Jayavarman VII by the thousands, but we more gemstones had been woven into gallery bas-relief illustrated the hierarchy only found 3 presumed statues of Queen her body belt, all treasures long-ago and the activities of the King and his two Jayarajadevi and zero, none of Queen stolen. The fact that she was adorned Queens. Please see the notes in the two Indradevi’s statues or sculptures. It was in precious gemstones and gold is a bas-reliefs depicting the differences of not surprising that at the present, I found revealing feature of her true royal types and classes of all the figures. more than dozens of paired sculptures of identity. No other apsara sculptures the sisters-queens in their temples built have ever been encrusted in gold and Fact 2. The word “preah ang” means during their reign, once I differentiated precious stones in Khmer history. sacred, divinity or saint, and is a formal them from the common apsaras. manner of addressing royalty. In Khmer Fact 4. In Preah Khan, Bayon, Bantey history, it is common to give kings god- Kdei Temples were built under the Are you getting your message out? If you have something to sell then you need to tell We offer a full range of graphic design e advertising & marketing services For more information print and website design. Contact Charles Evans H/P : +855 (0) 17.906.721 Tel : +855 (0) 63.969.200 Let us help you get your marketing planned T/F : +855 (0) 63.969.201 your messages out and your sales moving. E-mail : Advertising@CambodiaInsight.com 18 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  20. 20. same reign only a few years apart. (their King representations, some are performed on these sculptures, the Temple building averaged 20+ years left, most are desecrated), were results could confirm the queens’ status before completion. In their era (and in blessing them reasserting again their as royalty rather than as mere celestial nowadays) only the few elites and status of goddess-queens. On the other dancers. Additional variables could be: religious high order could read side of the main entrance, initially talent of sculptor, quality of stone, age, Sanskrit. However, all the people, thought as the many wives of the King, fashion, condition, and change of men, women and children of past and upon closer examination, was status. If four out of five facial traits of in the present can tell the narratives Indradevi’s look-alike. the two sculptures match, this should looking at the bas-reliefs. be considered compelling evidence as Fact 8. Queen Indradevi’s image to the sculptures identities, along with Fact 5. In Bayon and Preah Khan their represents the perfect, idealized other distinguishing features, such as facial features are unique and features of a Khmer woman. To this tiaras, earrings, hand-arm positions, recognizable, despite the wear and tear day, Cambodian women and men are garlands, lotus, etc. and minor damages occurring over the desirous of having a cleft chin! This centuries. The western, Indian-like traits feature is usually considered a Fact 12. The Khmer Apsara Authority, of Queen Indradevi’s clef chin, oval face, masculine and authoritative trait in the which oversees the work and upkeep slight squarish jaw lines, long nose, western world. of the Angkor grounds, may be too slightly slanted eyes, elegant eyebrows, overwhelmed to take appropriate and unmistakable smiles are more Fact 9. In Preah Khan and Bayon, action, as the AA allocates each temple similar on both sculptures than different. Queen Indradevi’s body posture from to a different country to be maintained Striking Chinese/Asian looking facial hand to foot was the same. Her dress and studied. Therefore, as experts, features on Queen Jayarajadevi are a with a fishtail also folded in the same they are limited to the gates of their rounder face, cute little nose, slanted direction. individual temples and overstepping eyes, and elegant, curling lips either this boundary would be considered an smiling mischievously in life or Fact 10. Sculptures of kings, queens, international faux pas. This means the gracefully in death. and common people have been found discovery process can be painfully throughout world history. Why are we slow, if it moves at all. Fact 6. Queen Indradevi was probably (Westerners lead the discussion and named due to her Indian looks. Indra the Khmer people follow) assuming Fact 13. The only three statues that is derived from India, Inde. Indra is that all apsaras are alike and dismissing experts still question as being the image also referred to as a god in Hindu. them as mere concubines? “They of Queen Jayarajadevi, resemble, in my existed to respond to the passion of the opinion, the mother of King Jayavarman Fact 7. At the main entrance in Bayon, males” so wrote Vittorio Roveda in VII or a deity other than the queen. This their most sacred temple, Queen 1997 in Khmer Mythology. Other than is the reason for naming her Jayarajadevi was represented in a celestial dancers there is a good “Prajnaparamita” rather than calling dwelling structure fit for a queen. It probability that these standing apsaras her Queen Jayarajadevi. Her facial traits had curtains, maids, musicians, and were actually portraits of princesses, closely resemble those of Jayavarman apsara dancers with two other queens, or other women of the court. VII’s, with the exception of the queen’s sculptures on her left side, one of them angular eyebrows. which is Indradevi. At Bayon, on the Fact 11. No two hand-carved stone second floor, the main tower walls sculptures are alike. However, all four Consistently, I have found the two sister- were covered by the sculptures of sculpted images of the queens have queens in saint-like poses, attired regally these paired queens, recognized by more similarities than differences. They in gold necklaces, tiaras, earrings, and their hallmark attire and standing have been subjected to the harsh, rings denote their goddess-queen status. position of a divinity. In addition, tropical weather for over 800 years. If Why does one find only three statues of above their alcoves, the little Buddhas more investigative forensic work were these celebrated queens, while King APRIL - JUNE , 2010 19
  21. 21. not called the queens apsaras and left them hidden in Preah Khan, “ I believe that as Khmers with our rich heritage endangered by collapsing stone walls. and due respect to our good kings and queens if In conclusion, the queens’ sculptures we had known of the portraits of the Queen display exquisite workmanship. They Indradevi and Queen Jayarajadevi instead of are the most impressive sculptures found in all the Angkor grounds. calling them apsaras, hidden in Preah Kahn in Queen Indradevi and Queen danger of collapsing stone walls, we would have saved their Jayarajadevi deserve to be protected and placed in a museum for the entire precious sculptures and placed them next to King Jayavarman world and the Khmer people to VII in a museum.” cherish. By Phalika Ngin Khmer-US, photographer Notes on the attributes, postures, and symbols of the royals: Jayavarman’s Buddha-like representations these two sisters-queens in order to can be found in hundreds of various understand their undeniable mystique, King Jayavarman VII’s god-like forms? It is not surprising that I have intelligence, and influence during the image and attributes: found that the goddess-queens were King’s inspiring reign. sculpted in pairs adorning virtually Statues and sculptures of all sizes every main entryway in Bayon, Preah I believe that as Khmers with a rich resemble a sitting, meditating Buddha. Khan, and Bantey Kdei! They have been heritage and due respect for our good He favored several positions in two called apsaras, and sometimes, referred kings and queens, had we known different forms: to as devatas, but never as queens. The about the existence of Queen Indradevi bas-reliefs and stone sculptures are and Queen Jayarajadevi we would a. Meditating with crossed knees and carved pictorials that can be understood have removed their precious sculptures hands open resting on the lap; eyes in any language in any time. They have and placed them next to King closed with a peaceful smile and hair always existed as goddesses-queens Jayavarman VII in a museum where pulled into a chignon and the absence among us. This is a revealing exposé of they rightly belong. We would have of a cloth across his chest. 20 APRIL - JUNE , 2010
  22. 22. b. Meditating in the same sitting position, but on a coiled 7 head naga (cobra) that covered his entire back. His brilliantly simple traits and symbolic signs were intended to influence the population, but all symbols, sculptures, and statues of him became easy targets of mass destruction by his enemies over the centuries. Queen Indradevi and Queen Jayarajadevi’s goddess-images and attributes: 1. Thus far, the two have always been found together in a pair. Where Indradevi was found, Queen Jayarajadevi was the dress looked the same, with the above Queen Indradevi, who is to the nearby. fishtail to the left or to the right. right of the King. All royals are sitting above a platform; next to each are 2. They usually wore a peacock-like 8. Added bonuses: Standing in a servants fanning with long handle fans. tiara or crown, with 8 + flowerets. dwelling structure with musicians, the king, maids, dancing apsaras, and or a On the 2nd floor, on the right side, the 3. Their favored earrings were small servant at the pedestal and a bird, or court ladies and noblemen sit on the bunched rings or earrings fashioned like standing on the lotus flower or pod, or floor watching the dancing apsaras the body belts. a praying Buddha on top on the alcove. perform to the tune of an all-women 4. Most of time they wore several orchestra of musicians. necklaces adorning the chest from the Notes on the Royal Bas-Reliefs of neckline to the breast line with body the Inner 2nd Gallery of Bayon: On the 1st floor, the commoners lace or belts across the torso encircling congregate. In the seemingly anecdotal to the waist line. A day in the Royal Life of King bas-relief of their royal history, the Jayavarman VII, Queen Jayarajadevi, queens have also defined for us the 5. They wore jasmine-like garlands that and Queen Indradevi , as illustrated in a two categories of the “apsara”, celestial serpentine from one side to the next, like bas-relief at Bayon, 2nd floor inner and dancing. a shawl. gallery on the North side, 17 March 2010 In the same inner gallery on the NE 6. They posed with specific arms and From top to bottom, the hierarchy of the side, there is a horizontal bas-relief hands position. An arm is up at social classes and etiquettes is observed. depicting the royal court as well. shoulder level and the hand in the Top level above the roofing, celestial form of a karana mutra, a gesture for apsaras give blessings to the King and In this bas-relief, the royal hierarchy of banishing an enemy or warding off Queens. For each royal, note the the court is clearly depicted (from right evil. The other arm elegantly hanging elaborate roofing of their palace. to left) as the King with his TWO at the side of the body with the hand in Top level below the roofing (3rd floor), Queens, the dancing apsaras, and a a form of varada mudra, the palm of the King’s image is larger and his head musician, respectively, and the the hand facing forward, symbolizing is elevated above the others. The next noblemen facing the king. charity, and compassion. largest image is of Queen Jayarajadevi, to the left of King Jayavarman VII, the Also, there exists a distinct representation 7. In the three temples, the fashion of 1st recognized wife. Her head is elevated in the attire and posture of the dancing APRIL - JUNE , 2010 21
  23. 23. apsaras in King Jayavarman VII’s era versus the standing, dancing apsaras of Angkor Wat’s era. Clearly depicted these 2 bas-reliefs are the distinctions and differences, as well as the importance, of women figures during the reign of King Jayavarman VII -- from the celestial apsaras giving blessings, to the two queens sitting with their King, to the dancing apsaras and ladies of the royal court. This is an amazing lesson from the past that ends the confusion surrounding of the word “apsara” – which the Queens are NOT (as we have incorrectly labeled them). The truth has now prevailed. Personal notes: However, their time is running out. We must act before all antiques, artifacts, statues, sculptures, and traces of them are lost forever. I believe there is an urgency to remove the queens from further vandalism and collapsing ceilings, and rightfully place them in a museum, where they belong, to inspire Khmers and free the whole world’s imagination. They have already survived 800 years with extreme environmental hardship and will not be there for the next ten if we don’t act now to safeguard them for Khmer history sake and as world heritage treasures. This is a discovery story as well as an appeal to save the queens! Phalika Ngin www.phalikan.com March 26, 2010 Are you getting your message out? If you have something to sell then you need to tell We offer a full range of graphic design e advertising & marketing services For more information print and website design. Contact Charles Evans H/P : +855 (0) 17.906.721 Tel : +855 (0) 63.969.200 Let us help you get your marketing planned T/F : +855 (0) 63.969.201 your messages out and your sales moving. E-mail : Advertising@CambodiaInsight.com 22 APRIL - JUNE , 2010

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