Built for Training - Sustainability Workshop


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Built for Training's Sustainability workshop in Manchester on Thursday 12th May 2011 in partnership with GreenBuild News. For training opportunities at your offices call 01622 623786, email contact@builtfortraining.co.uk or visit www.builtfortraining.co.uk/training.

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Built for Training - Sustainability Workshop

  1. 2. Practical Sustainability Kirsten Henson
  2. 3. Welcome and Introductions builtfortraining.co.uk
  3. 4. builtfortraining.co.uk <ul><li>What we said we’d cover: </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative drivers and business opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation and delivery of a comprehensive sustainability strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Design, specification and procurement to maximise innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the broader value of sustainable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>And what we said you would know after today: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a sound understanding of the key principles of sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the key steps in defining, evaluating and delivering sustainable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate when, who and how to engage for maximum impact </li></ul><ul><li>Be inspired by the challenge and opportunity that sustainable development offers! </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Day Ahead 9:45 What is Sustainability and Why Care? 10:30 Group Discussion: Too Late to Try or Massive Opportunity? 10:45 Setting Out on the Sustainable Path 11:15 Group Exercise: Problem Definition BREAK (20mins) 12:00 Olympic Examples: Process for Delivering Sustainability 12:40 Group Exercise – KPIs LUNCH (30mins) 13:30 Olympic Examples: Design, Procurement and Specification 14:30 Group Discussion: Methods of Engagement and Communication BREAK (15mins) 15:00 Selling Sustainable Solutions (including worked example) 15:40 Closing Remarks and Session Review
  5. 6. Health & Safety Attendance register Fire Exits Rest Breaks Smoking Area Mobile phones switched off Personal Property
  6. 7. What is Sustainability? The Definition <ul><li>The ‘Brundtland’ Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” </li></ul><ul><li>WCED (1987:43) Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Brundtland Commission’s conception of sustainable development brought together </li></ul></ul><ul><li>equity between generations </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>equity within generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Bringing these two ideas together was a political masterstroke.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dresner, S. (2002:2) The Principles of Sustainability, Earthscan, London </li></ul>
  7. 8. What is Sustainability? The Principals <ul><li>Four common principles have been identified as underlying the generic concept: </li></ul><ul><li>futurity (concern for future generations) </li></ul><ul><li>equity (concern for today’s poor and disadvantaged) </li></ul><ul><li>public participation (concern that individuals should have an opportunity to participate in decisions that effect them) </li></ul><ul><li>environment (concern for the protection of the integrity of eco-systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell, G., May, A. and McDonald, A. (1995:107) Picabue: A Methodical Framework for the Development of Indicators for Sustainable Development International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, 2 pp.104-123 </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Ecological Footprint tool has been used to demonstrate that if current developed-world levels of consumption and production were replicated world-wide we would need three planets’ worth of resources DEFRA (2005:43) Securing the Future: The UK Government Sustainable Development Strategy, HMSO, London What is Sustainability? The Principals
  9. 10. What is Sustainability? The Models The Triple Bottom Line <ul><li>commonly conceptualised using a Venn diagram </li></ul><ul><li>suggests a balance needs to be found between the three elements </li></ul><ul><li>can lead to the tackling of issues in a compartmentalised manner </li></ul><ul><li>Venn diagram has been modified so the three areas are nested </li></ul>after Parkin et al. (2003:19) after Giddings et al. (2002:192) Environment Economy Society = Triple bottom line Environment Economy Society
  10. 11. Why Care? Global Warming and Climate Change Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  11. 13. Why Care? The Energy Gap The problem with nuclear? builtfortraining.co.uk The problem with oil?
  12. 14. <ul><li>Geochemically scarce metals like copper, zinc, lead will be depleted in a matter of decades </li></ul><ul><li>Iron, aluminium and steel are more plentiful but… </li></ul><ul><li>EPA places poor indoor air quality fourth on the list of high cancer risks </li></ul><ul><li>UK landfill space will run out in 8 years time </li></ul>Assuming rates of consumption remain unchanged: Why Care? Material scarcity and human health impacts
  13. 15. <ul><li>Water scarcity in England and Wales, abstraction licenses will become increasingly difficult to come by </li></ul><ul><li>Global picture for water scarcity consider (per tonne of product): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60,000l for pulp/paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>283,900l for steel (of which 75,700l freshwater) </li></ul></ul>Why Care? Water scarcity
  14. 16. Why Care? Declining Habitats
  15. 17. Why Care? The ‘Big Society ’ Millions of people are chronically hungry in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia where half the children under age five are malnourished UN (2005) The Millennium Development Goals Report, UN, New York Develop, support and champion new ways of enabling people to give and engage. Make it easier and more rewarding for people to give their time, expertise and money to good cause.
  16. 18. Why Care? It makes business sense <ul><li>Landfill tax to reach £72/tonne in April 2013 </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions Trading Scheme, Carbon Reduction Credits (CRC) </li></ul><ul><li>UK Green Investment Bank </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Green’ investment dollars have increased 10 fold over the past 10years. Third pillar alongside IT and life sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Linking CSR to business competitiveness </li></ul><ul><li>“ The world cannot succeed without business as a committed solution provider to sustainable societies and ecosystems” </li></ul><ul><li>WBCSD President Bjorn Stigson </li></ul>
  17. 19. The population problem?
  18. 20. <ul><li>Securing the Future – the UK Government Sustainable Development Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable consumption and Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable procurement policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening measures to improve environmental performance of products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Confronting the greatest threat” – climate change and energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60% reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Carbon Homes by 2016 – really? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting our natural resources and enhancing the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing the role of the Environment Agency, integration with DEFRA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creating Sustainable Communities and a Fairer World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability at the heart of land use planning </li></ul></ul>Government Policy
  19. 21. Government Policy <ul><li>Policy is all over the place! </li></ul><ul><li>Driven by EU legislation on Climate Change, Waste, Water, Energy and Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>3 key departments </li></ul><ul><li>DECC – Department for Energy and Climate Change   </li></ul><ul><li>http ://www.decc.gov.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>DEFRA – Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>http ://ww2.defra.gov.uk/ </li></ul><ul><li>DCLG - Department for Communities and Local Government </li></ul><ul><li>http ://www.communities.gov.uk/planningandbuilding/planningsystem/planningpolicy/planningpolicystatements / </li></ul>
  20. 22. Group Discussion It’s too late to try I’m too small to make a difference I’m too busy to bother with this We need to take this one step at a time If we can get this right, there’s a massive opportunity out there
  21. 23. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Reframing the problem What needs are being addressed? What are the benefits, and who stands to gain? What are the costs, and who stands to lose? To what spatial and temporal extent should we consider the impacts and benefits?
  22. 24. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Scenario Planning carbon creativity green growth resourceful regions sunshine state Government Office for Science Sustainable Energy Management and the Built Environment
  23. 25. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Barriers to Change <ul><li>Lack of data to inform decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Global nature of issues </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of failure </li></ul><ul><li>Single purpose design focus </li></ul><ul><li>Market failure </li></ul><ul><li>Personal behaviour and expectation </li></ul>
  24. 26. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Overcoming Barriers <ul><li>Broadening the problem definition and evaluation criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Visionary leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Transparent and upfront engagement with stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection and publication </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion of ‘soft-failure’ </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership and responsibility </li></ul>
  25. 27. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Role of Government and Legislation <ul><li>Removal of perverse incentives of regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Direct support for R&D and incentives for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Creation and dissemination of knowledge through experimentation and demonstration projects </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of markets through government purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Training of owners, workers, and educating of consumers </li></ul>
  26. 28. Setting out on the Sustainable Path Why does it not work better? <ul><li>By externalising the internalities in a system, the consequences can be exported to others </li></ul><ul><li>By setting narrow boundaries to a system the true impacts of a proposed project are masked, or ignored </li></ul><ul><li>By failing to incorporate the time dependent consequences of a proposed project, the long term impacts are omitted </li></ul><ul><li>By limiting the responsibility of the individuals in a process the defence of “it wasn’t my job to consider that” can be invoked </li></ul>
  27. 29. Group Exercise The drawing of tight boundaries around systems or projects gives a false impression of impacts and compromises sustainability <ul><li>Select a project: Three Gorges Dam in China, Hydropower from the Severn Estuary, burning of waste tyres as a fuel in cement works , or…. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System / Project boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can needs be defined? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we allow for future generations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much should we leave for them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who should be involved in decision making? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should natural environment be protected? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we decide how to share resources now? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should people accept a reduced standard of living? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Olympic Example <ul><li>Vision and target setting </li></ul><ul><li>Structure, responsibilities, communication </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting and Measurement </li></ul>
  29. 32. builtfortraining.co.uk
  30. 33. The Vision <ul><li>To be the ‘Greenest Games Ever’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ One Planet’ Olympics </li></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk
  31. 34. The Sustainable Development Strategy <ul><li>Published in January 2007. Available on-line at </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.london2012.com/documents/oda-publications/oda-sustainable-development-strategy-full-version.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies a few site-wide measurable targets including: </li></ul><ul><li>Energy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic Village to be 25% more energy efficient than 2006 Building Regs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of all energy demands for the immediate post-Games Legacy to be derived from on-site renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All permanent Venues to reduce water consumption by 40% over current industry standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90%, by weight, of demolition materials to be diverted from landfill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20%, by value, of construction materials to be of a reused or recycled source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport and Mobility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of materials, by weight, to be transported to and from the Olympic Park by rail or water during construction </li></ul></ul>
  32. 35. The Sustainable Development Strategy <ul><li>Identifies numerous non-SMART targets: </li></ul><ul><li>Water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote rainwater harvesting/greywater recycling where feasible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate within the ODA’s waste hierarchy of eliminate, reduce, re-use, recycle, energy recovery, dispose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecology and Biodiversity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing the ecological value of the Park through integration of habitat creation and landscape design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land, Water, Air and Noise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waterways planned to be improved for transport, amenity and biodiversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting Communities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect and enhance ‘sense of place’ and ‘sense of ownership’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health and Well-Being: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ODA will provide welfare facilities for a diverse workforce </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Roles and Responsibilities <ul><li>ODA/CLM Sustainability and Environment Team: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity and Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land, Water, Air and Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other ODA/CLM teams: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport and Mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment and Business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health and Well-Being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion </li></ul></ul>
  34. 37. Monitoring and Supporting Project Teams <ul><li>Project Champions (SPOCs) </li></ul>Technical Champions Energy Water Waste Materials Biodiversity Stadium Velopark SBH Aquatics Public Realm Basketball
  35. 38. Communication and Engagement <ul><li>Design Briefs </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed sustainability objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Guides to Project Teams (IGPTs) </li></ul><ul><li>Targets and assessment tools </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting requirements against RIBA design stages </li></ul><ul><li>Advice and guidance but not ‘The Answer’ </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops </li></ul><ul><li>Theme workshops with Design teams </li></ul><ul><li>Environment and Sustainability workshop prior to contractor start on site </li></ul><ul><li>On going progress meetings and Leadership groups </li></ul>
  36. 39. Communication and Engagement <ul><li>Supply Chain Workshops </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of high level objectives into work package specifics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drive understanding and ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced scorecard approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable option (where identified) stated as the preferred option, or invite innovations to be presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buying power and partnership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contracts </li></ul><ul><li>All contracts contain Olympic Park generic and Project specific sustainability requirements </li></ul>
  37. 40. Balanced Scorecard Approach
  38. 41. Development of KPIs and Reporting <ul><li>Contractors ‘self-assure’ using an on-line system </li></ul><ul><li>Review by Single Point of Contact before going to the Project Board. </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Management Team challenge Project Team on red and amber scores </li></ul><ul><li>Above all ACCOUNTABILITY </li></ul>
  39. 42. Group Exercise <ul><li>In small groups determine a sustainability ‘vision’ for your business </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>What does your client want? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your competitors doing? </li></ul><ul><li>What skills do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the be utilised to deliver extra value? </li></ul><ul><li>What might the team structure look like? </li></ul><ul><li>Develop 2 or 3 clear targets to help measure progress towards your vision </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Are the targets SMART? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you monitor progress towards non-SMART targets? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they address the most significant (and possibly challenging) opportunities and threats? </li></ul>
  40. 44. Olympic Successes
  41. 45. <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul>Areas of Innovation
  42. 46. Demolition Materials Management System <ul><li>1. Reclamation surveys : Identification of reclamation opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-demolition Audits : Quantification of all materials; reclaimed, recycled and disposed (hazardous waste) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Managers Instruction : Instruction to contractors to reclaim or recycle materials </li></ul><ul><li>Demolition Activities : Justification report required if PMI cannot be carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording : Material stockpiles from demolition entered into SMARTWaste </li></ul>
  43. 47. Earthworks and Remediation Over 3,000,000m3 of soil ‘cut’, of which 2,400,000m3 have been placed Soil washing 800,000m3. Useful sands and gravel generated (and not so useful contaminated waste!) Bio-remediation of soils 38,000m3 Chemical stabilisation 50,000m3 Complex sorting 80,000m3
  44. 48. builtfortraining.com Recycled Materials Stockpiles of concrete, mixed masonry, asphalt, blended materials and general fill… Construction Platforms and piling mats 20,000m3 Haul roads and temporary roads 50,000m3 Gabion fill 30,000m3
  45. 49. Recycled Materials <ul><li>Capping under permanent roads </li></ul><ul><li>Structural fill </li></ul><ul><li>Earth retaining walls </li></ul>
  46. 50. Reclaimed Materials are now being installed on site!
  47. 51. Reclamation for Use Off-Site builtfortraining.com Sold for £148,000 290 tonnes of Carbon saved
  48. 52. Embodied Impact of Materials / Recycled Content <ul><ul><li>Concrete – ready mix 347,500m3 poured to date, 375,000m3 expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Park-wide, 22% secondary aggregates used in ready mix concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>38% reduction in embodied energy (56,000 tonnes CO2 saved to date – equivalent to almost 4.5 years of Park operation, or 9 years….) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete – pre cast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging the supply chain sometimes yields great results… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse of steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3000 tonnes – enough to build that massive roof! </li></ul></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk
  49. 53. Embodied Impact / Recycled Content <ul><ul><li>Foam-mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement sub base for temporary roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5000m3 additional site won material used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 tonnes CO2 saved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40% increased recycled content of road construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precast manholes in South Park roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% reduction in carbon footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaching zero waste construction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plastic kerbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed on temporary roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>360,000 plastic bottles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29 tonnes CO2 saved </li></ul></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk
  50. 54. Healthy Materials <ul><li>Zero asbestos, lead, CFCs, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce VOCs, Formaldehydes… </li></ul><ul><li>Key risk areas include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paints, stains and varnishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caulking compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particle board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceiling tiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floor and wall coverings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water based form release agents, curing agents, etc </li></ul>
  51. 55. Responsible Sourcing <ul><li>ISO 14001 </li></ul><ul><li>Timber Supply Panel </li></ul><ul><li>FSC / PEFC </li></ul><ul><li>BCSA Responsible Sourcing of Steel </li></ul><ul><li>BES6001: Responsible Sourcing Certification Scheme </li></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk
  52. 56. Waste (or Material?) Management <ul><li>The most sustainable material is one that is never used! </li></ul><ul><li>A material in a structure with no engineering purpose is ‘waste’ </li></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk <ul><li>All buildings have an ‘end of life’ but some materials maintain performance </li></ul><ul><li>The sustainable option is not always the obvious one </li></ul>
  53. 57. Construction Waste Management <ul><ul><li>Designing out Waste, Design for deconstruction, Reducing Waste through supply chain engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidated on site reduces vehicle movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors financially incentivised to segregate waste (>85% segregation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieved 97% diversion from landfill for demolition waste and over 80% for earthworks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Just over 90% of construction waste has been diverted from landfill to date </li></ul></ul>
  54. 58. <ul><li>Mean - Venues designed to be 15% more energy efficient than Part L </li></ul><ul><li>Lean - Combined Cooling and Heating Plant (CCHP) on site </li></ul><ul><li>Green - Biomass gasification, medium scale wind turbine, PV lighting </li></ul>Energy: 50% carbon reductions builtfortraining.com
  55. 59. <ul><li>Water: 40% reduction in water consumption </li></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk <ul><ul><li>Low flow fixtures and fittings (including waterless urinals in all Venues) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grey water recycling in Aquatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainwater harvesting in Velodrome and Handball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-potable network for long-term irrigation, media centre toilet flushing (and CCHP cooling tower?) </li></ul></ul>
  56. 60. <ul><li>Biodiversity: 45ha of habitat, 0.4ha living roofs/walls, 675 bird/bat boxes integrated in structures and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Bird boxes integrated into structures and buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Completed brown roof and green wall </li></ul><ul><li>Complex habitat such as wetlands and wet woodlands to be developed and integrated with drainage systems </li></ul>
  57. 61. Transport: 50% of bulk materials to be delivered to site by rail <ul><li>Rail deliveries to date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>95% of raw materials for concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 90% of loose aggregates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of kerb stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precast concrete units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiles and plasterboard </li></ul></ul>builtfortraining.co.uk <ul><li>Barge deliveries to date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebar cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>M&E pipe work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste removal </li></ul></ul>8,000 tonnes CO2 50,000 road movements
  58. 62. Repeating Successes <ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Targets </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability and Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting & review </li></ul><ul><li>But what about implementation? </li></ul><ul><li>Team structure </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Technical support and written guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Procurement processes and contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration projects </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate process for driving innovation rather than directly translating innovations </li></ul>
  59. 63. Group Discussion <ul><li>What are the key points in communicating sustainability? </li></ul><ul><li>Instil a positive attitude, inspire rather than dictate </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to let an opportunity go…and know when to keep pushing </li></ul><ul><li>Get in early and keep pushing </li></ul><ul><li>Find the ‘hook’ </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate in simple, understandable terms that are relevant to specific job functions </li></ul><ul><li>Use samples and demonstrations to make your point </li></ul><ul><li>Frame the innovation in terms of the organisations key drivers </li></ul><ul><li>If at first you don’t succeed…consider the bigger picture, and try again! </li></ul>
  60. 65. Evaluating Sustainable Solutions Cost Benefit Analysis <ul><li>Enumerates all possible consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates the probability of consequences occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates the benefit of loss to society should each occur (expressed in monetary terms </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifies choice among alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to foster an open and fair decision-making process </li></ul><ul><li>Total impact can be summarised using a common matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to the same limitations of conventional economic theory </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation of health related benefits and eco system services is not understood in detail (not bought and sold on the open market therefore no clearly defined economic value) </li></ul><ul><li>Discount rates – future benefits retain little value in present terms </li></ul><ul><li>Overlooks equity and ethics bottom line myopia – lack of appreciation of complexities </li></ul><ul><li>Vested interest in the ‘right; outcome can lead to constructed CBAs </li></ul>
  61. 66. <ul><li>Direct Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul></ul>Evaluating Sustainable Solutions Ecosystem Services <ul><li>Functional Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of atmospheric gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation and preservation of soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycling of nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of the water cycle. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 67. <ul><li>Disaggregated decision making process </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps each factor in its natural non-aggregated units </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Framework does not specify a final decision – it is a decision making tool </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids assumptions about how to translate environmental, H&S impacts to monetary value </li></ul>Evaluating Sustainable Solutions Trade Off Analysis
  63. 68. An Example: Olympic Park Concrete
  64. 69. A Worked Example Remember these?
  65. 70. A Worked Example What might be the consideration of plastic vs concrete kerb stones? How can we address these consideration? <ul><li>Visual </li></ul><ul><li>Health & Safety – concrete dust, manual handling, plant & equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Recycled content </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Local manufacture </li></ul><ul><li>Wastage rates/damage </li></ul><ul><li>Laying technique/skills required </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of material </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Programme implications </li></ul>
  66. 71. A Worked Example Estimated Actual Concrete Durakeb Concrete Durakerb Purchase price £2.00 £8.00 £2.19 £8.00 Installation volume/day 100 480 150 200 Installer labour £2.40 £0.50 £4.75 £4.25 Lifter/JCB £1.96 0 Inc Kerb race installation and haunching £12.50 £12.50 £12.50 £12.50 Damage rate 15% 2% 15% 2% Damage costs £2.83 £0.42 £2.83 £0.42 INSTALLED COST Per linear metre £21.69 £21.42 £22.36 £25.25 No of days for installation 35days 7days 12days 9days
  67. 72. How well did we do?